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Sura 33 of the Quran
The Clans, The Coalition Forces, The Forces Combined
Other namesThe Coalition, The Combined Forces, The Allies, The Confederates, The Joint Forces, The Parties
PositionJuzʼ 21 and 22
No. of Rukus9
No. of verses73
Section from verses 73 of Sura al-Ahzab

Al-Aḥzāb[1] (Arabic: الأحزاب‎, "The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces") is the 33rd chapter (sūrah) of the Quran (Q33) with 73 verses (āyāt). The sūrah takes its name from the mention of the parties (al-aḥzāb), or confederates (an alliance among the Quraysh and other tribes), who fought the Muslims at the Battle of the Trench (5/627), also known as the Battle of the Parties and as the Siege of Madinah.[2]The battle is also known as Battle of trench in English.


This surah mentions what happened at the Battle of the Trench to remind believers the mercy and power of Allah since Allah made the various tribes who attacked Medina leave.

Regarding the timing and contextual background of the believed revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), Q33 is a later period "Medinan surah". It contains instructions regarding treatment of the Prophet and his wives and warns the hypocrites of their bad behavior.[3] According to some scholars, Medinan verses are concerned with the legal matters in Islamic society.[4] These suras generally contain rules and regulations for the believers to follow.

Q33:5-6 differences between adopted and blood-related persons[edit]

Verses 33:5-6 are concerned with the differences between adopted and blood-related persons. Verse 33:5 refers to adoption in Islam and verse 33:6 contains a reference to the term Mother of Believers, who were Prophet's wives. This perhaps suggests their elevated standing with the community and in the later verses, these women are described as "unlike any other."[5]

Q33:7-8 God will test the sincerity of the prophets[edit]

Verses 33:7-8 show that God will test even the sincerity of the prophets. The beginning of the sura seems to be concerned with truthfulness. The sura reinforces that "God is enough to trust...All this is written in the Scripture...God will question [even] the truthful about their sincerity, and for those who reject the truth He has prepared a painful torment...speak in a direct fashion."[5] Truthfulness and trust seem to be emphasized for believers and Muhammad since he was dealing with hypocrites and betrayers[according to whom?] in Medina, who spread lies, deserted the army during the battle, or supported the attackers.[4]

Q33:9-27 reactions to the Battle of the Trench.[edit]

Verses 33:9-27 are concerned with the believers and hypocrites' reactions to the Battle of the Trench. The believers are those who remain steadfast in their belief and courage whereas the hypocrites try to run for safety, abandon the Muslim army, and doubt God and Prophet Muhammad.

Verse 33:21[edit]

Ye have indeed in the Apostle of God a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in God and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of God. Translation Yusuf Ali (Orig. 1938)[6]

Verse 33:21 shows is an important principle, to follow the Messenger of Allah in all his words and deeds.[7][8] A model for all believers.[9]

Verse 33:26[edit]

Verse 33:26 contains a reference to the Siege of the Banu Qurayza and consequent looting of their possessions.

Q33:28-34 Muhammad's wives[edit]

Verses 33:28-34 contain a reference to Muhammad's wives and tell the believers the proper conduct with Muhammad and his household. The prophet's wives are called the Mothers of the Believers and thus have to follow certain rules and regulations as women who are "unlike other women."[5] As such, some scholars have suggested that these rules apply exclusively to only Prophet's wives.[10]

Verse 33:33[edit]

According to Shi'a interpretation, verse 33:33 contains a reference to Ahl al-Bayt (the Event of the Cloak) and Verse of purification.

Q33:35-36 forgiveness and reward[edit]

Verses 33:35-36 show the characteristics of people who will be forgiven and rewarded by God. Some scholars take these verses to mean equal worth of women and men and thus reject claims that women are inferior to men.[11]

Q33:37-47 God needs to be trusted, obeyed, and glorified[edit]

Verses 33:37-47 reaffirm that God needs to be trusted, obeyed, and glorified. Verse 40 contains a reference to Finality of Prophethood.

Q33:49-52 Who the prophet can marry[edit]

Verses 33:49-52 detail who the prophet can marry or not. Verse 50 was revealed pertaining to Maymunah bint al-Harith.

Q33:53-58 House rules[edit]

Verses 33:53-58 tell the believers how they should interact with Muhammad when visiting him and his household.

Q33:59 Islam and gender segregation[edit]

Verse 33:59 uses the phrase adna al-jilbab which is sometimes understood as 'wrap around' and is used to acknowledge women to cover themselves, as an act of modesty.[12].[13]

Q33:60-73 punishment for hypocrites and idolaters[edit]

Quran 33:60-73 tell the actions that God will take with the disbelievers and believers and will direct Muhammad to take against the hypocrites. The last verse ends with the proclamation that God will punish both hypocrites and idolaters, whether they are men and women, and reward the believers of both genders. Both genders are presented as equal since they are both punished or redeemed without any differences when judged by God.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Al Ahzab". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  2. ^ Joseph E. B. Lumbard, "Introduction to Sūrat al-Aḥzāb in The Study Quran, ed. S. H. Nasr, Caner Dagli, Maria Dakake, and Mohammed Rustom (HarperOne, 2015).
  3. ^ Haleem 2004, p. 266–271.
  4. ^ a b Donner, Fred. Muhammad and the Believers. p. 81.
  5. ^ a b c Haleem 2004, p. 268.
  6. ^ "Quran 33:21 Translation Yusuf Ali (Orig. 1938)". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  7. ^ Saed Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad. "The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur'an (Vol 7)". MSA Publication Limited. p. 180. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  8. ^ Fitzpatrick, Coeli. "Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of Islam". ABC-CLIO. p. 416. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  9. ^ Morgan, Diane. "Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice". ABC-CLIO. p. 97. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  10. ^ Wadud 1999, p. 34.
  11. ^ Wadud 1999, p. 99.
  12. ^ al-Jalalayn. "The Tasfirs". Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  13. ^ Barlas, Asma (2006). The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'an: Women's readings of the Qur'an. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–268.


  • Haleem, M.A.S. Abdel (2004). The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Wadud, Amina (1999). Qur'an and Woman. New York: Oxford University Press.

kk:әл-Ахзаб сүресі

External links[edit]

Explanation at [1]