The Clans, The Coalition Forces, The Forces Combined
|Other names||The Coalition, The Combined Forces, The Allies, The Confederates, The Joint Forces, The Parties|
|Position||Juzʼ 21 and 22|
|No. of Rukus||9|
|No. of verses||73|
Al-Aḥzāb (Arabic: الأحزاب, "The Clans, The Coalition, The Combined Forces") is the 33rd chapter (sūrah) of the Quran (Q33) with 73 verses (āyāt). The sūrah takes its name from the mention of the parties (al-aḥzāb), or confederates (an alliance among the Quraysh and other tribes), who fought the Muslims at the Battle of the Trench (5/627), also known as the Battle of the Parties and as the Siege of Madinah.The battle is also known as Battle of trench in English.
Regarding the timing and contextual background of the believed revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), Q33 is a later period "Medinan surah". It contains instructions regarding treatment of the Prophet and his wives and warns the hypocrites of their bad behavior. According to some scholars, Medinan verses are concerned with the legal matters in Islamic society. These suras generally contain rules and regulations for the believers to follow.
Verses 33:5-6 are concerned with the differences between adopted and blood-related persons. Verse 33:5 refers to adoption in Islam and verse 33:6 contains a reference to the term Mother of Believers, who were Prophet's wives. This perhaps suggests their elevated standing with the community and in the later verses, these women are described as "unlike any other."
Q33:7-8 God will test the sincerity of the prophets
Verses 33:7-8 show that God will test even the sincerity of the prophets. The beginning of the sura seems to be concerned with truthfulness. The sura reinforces that "God is enough to trust...All this is written in the Scripture...God will question [even] the truthful about their sincerity, and for those who reject the truth He has prepared a painful torment...speak in a direct fashion." Truthfulness and trust seem to be emphasized for believers and Muhammad since he was dealing with hypocrites and betrayers[according to whom?] in Medina, who spread lies, deserted the army during the battle, or supported the attackers.
Q33:9-27 reactions to the Battle of the Trench.
Verses 33:9-27 are concerned with the believers and hypocrites' reactions to the Battle of the Trench. The believers are those who remain steadfast in their belief and courage whereas the hypocrites try to run for safety, abandon the Muslim army, and doubt God and Prophet Muhammad.
Ye have indeed in the Apostle of God a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in God and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of God. Translation Yusuf Ali (Orig. 1938)
Q33:28-34 Muhammad's wives
Verses 33:28-34 contain a reference to Muhammad's wives and tell the believers the proper conduct with Muhammad and his household. The prophet's wives are called the Mothers of the Believers and thus have to follow certain rules and regulations as women who are "unlike other women." As such, some scholars have suggested that these rules apply exclusively to only Prophet's wives.
Q33:35-36 forgiveness and reward
Verses 33:35-36 show the characteristics of people who will be forgiven and rewarded by God. Some scholars take these verses to mean equal worth of women and men and thus reject claims that women are inferior to men.
Q33:37-47 God needs to be trusted, obeyed, and glorified
Q33:49-52 Who the prophet can marry
Q33:53-58 House rules
Verses 33:53-58 tell the believers how they should interact with Muhammad when visiting him and his household.
Q33:59 Islam and gender segregation
Q33:60-73 punishment for hypocrites and idolaters
Quran 33:60-73 tell the actions that God will take with the disbelievers and believers and will direct Muhammad to take against the hypocrites. The last verse ends with the proclamation that God will punish both hypocrites and idolaters, whether they are men and women, and reward the believers of both genders. Both genders are presented as equal since they are both punished or redeemed without any differences when judged by God.
- Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Al Ahzab". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
- Joseph E. B. Lumbard, "Introduction to Sūrat al-Aḥzāb in The Study Quran, ed. S. H. Nasr, Caner Dagli, Maria Dakake, and Mohammed Rustom (HarperOne, 2015).
- Haleem 2004, p. 266–271.
- Donner, Fred. Muhammad and the Believers. p. 81.
- Haleem 2004, p. 268.
- "Quran 33:21 Translation Yusuf Ali (Orig. 1938)". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- Saed Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad. "The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur'an (Vol 7)". MSA Publication Limited. p. 180. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- Fitzpatrick, Coeli. "Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of Islam". ABC-CLIO. p. 416. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- Morgan, Diane. "Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice". ABC-CLIO. p. 97. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
- Wadud 1999, p. 34.
- Wadud 1999, p. 99.
- al-Jalalayn. "The Tasfirs". altafsir.com. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Barlas, Asma (2006). The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'an: Women's readings of the Qur'an. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–268.
- Haleem, M.A.S. Abdel (2004). The Qur'an. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Wadud, Amina (1999). Qur'an and Woman. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Explanation at Quran.com