|No. of verses||4|
|No. of words||17|
|No. of letters||73|
Asbāb al-nuzūl (أسباب النزول), meaning occasions or circumstances of revelation, refers to the historical context in which Quranic ayaat were revealed. Regarding the timing and contextual background of the revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), it is an earlier "Meccan surah", which means it is believed to have been revealed in Mecca, instead of later in Medina. Alī ibn Ahmad al-Wāhidī (d. 468/1075), is the earliest scholar of the branch of the Qur'anic sciences known as Asbāb al-Nuzūl. He records that
Umm Hani bint Abi Talib who reported that the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: “Allah has favoured the Quraysh with seven characteristics which he has never given to anyone before them and will never give to anyone after them:
1) The post of the Caliph (al-Khilafah) is given to one among them,
2) the custody of the Sacred House (al-Hijabah) is assumed by someone from amongst them,
3) giving water to the pilgrims (al-Siqayah) during Hajj is undertaken by someone amongst them,
4) prophethood is given to someone amongst them,
5) they were given victory over the [army of] elephants(Al-Fil),
6) they worshipped Allah for seven years during which none worshipped Him,
It urges the Quraysh tribe who dominated Mecca to serve God, who had protected them, for the sake of their own future. It is one of two suras containing 4 ayat; the other is Al-Ikhlas. It forms a pair with the preceding sura, al-Fil, reminding the Quraysh of the favors that Allah had bestowed upon them.
The Kaaba was central to the life of the Quraysh, being a center of pilgrimage which brought much trade and prestige. Sura al-Fil describes how God saved the Kaaba from destruction, while Sura Quraysh describes God as Lord of the Kaaba. It also urges the Quraysh to worship God so that, among other things, he would protect them on their trading journeys.
- Asbāb al-Nuzūl by Alī ibn Ahmad al-Wāhidī translation by Mokrane Guezzou