Alta Wind Energy Center

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Alta Wind Energy Center
Alta Wind Energy Center from Oak Creek Road.jpg
CountryUnited States
LocationTehachapi Pass, Kern County, California
Coordinates35°1′16″N 118°19′14″W / 35.02111°N 118.32056°W / 35.02111; -118.32056Coordinates: 35°1′16″N 118°19′14″W / 35.02111°N 118.32056°W / 35.02111; -118.32056
StatusOperational
Commission date2010
Construction cost$ 2.875 billion (units I-IX)
Wind farm
TypeOnshore
Site area3,200 acres
Power generation
Units operational600
Make and modelVestas
Nameplate capacity1,547 MW
Capacity factor23.5% (average 2014-2017)
Annual net output3,179 GW·h
External links
CommonsRelated media on Commons

Alta Wind Energy Center (AWEC), also known as Mojave Wind Farm, is the third largest onshore wind energy project in the world. The Alta Wind Energy Center is a wind farm located in Tehachapi Pass of the Tehachapi Mountains, in Kern County, California. As of 2013, it is the largest wind farm in the United States,[1] with a combined installed capacity of 1,547 MW (2,075,000 hp). The project, being developed near Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm— site of the first large-scale wind farms installed in the U.S. in the 1970s and 1980s—is "a powerful illustration of the growing size and scope of modern wind projects".[2][3]

Southern California Edison has agreed to a 25-year power purchase agreement for the power produced as part of the power purchase agreements for up to 1,500 MW (2,000,000 hp) or more of power generated from new projects to be built in the Tehachapi area. The project will "reduce carbon dioxide emissions by more than 5.2 million metric tons, which is equivalent to taking 446,000 cars off the road".[2] A total of 3,000 MW (4,000,000 hp) is planned.[4]

The wind farm was developed by Terra-Gen Power which closed a US$1.2 billion financing deal in July 2010 with partners that included Citibank, Barclays Capital, and Credit Suisse. After many delays, the first phase began construction in 2010. Financing for additional phases of $650 million was secured in April 2012. Construction of the Alta Wind Energy Center is expected to create more than 3,000 domestic manufacturing, construction, and maintenance jobs, and contribute more than one billion dollars to the local economy.[2] [needs update]

History[edit]

Alta Wind Energy Center and Tehachapi Pass wind farm from space, 2019

The original "Alta-Oak Creek Mojave Project" plan consisted of up to 320 wind turbines occupying a 9,000-acre (36 km2) area while producing 800 MW (1,100,000 hp) of power. That project was originally developed by Oak Creek Energy Systems under the contract with Terra-Gen, but the project development was later transferred to Terra-Gen. The project then became the first development under the umbrella of Alta Wind Energy Center.[5]

The Alta-Oak Creek Mojave Project is generally located at the south side of the Oak Creek Road, starting a few miles west of the state route 14 in Mojave and continuing westward along the Oak Creek Road to the west side of the Tehachapi-Willow Springs Road.[6]

According to the American Wind Energy Association, two initial projects were completed in fall 2010, the 150 MW (200,000 hp) Alta II (Vestas) project using 50 3 MW (4,000 hp) generators and the 150 MW Alta I project using 100 1.5 MW generators.[7] Three subsequent projects 150 MW Alta III, 102 MW (137,000 hp) Alta IV, and 168 MW Alta V projects were completed in the 2nd quarter of 2011 using 50, 34, and 56 3 MW Vestas V-90 wind turbines. Alta VIII and Alta VI projects, comprising 300 MW (400,000 hp), were completed in late 2011/early 2012, but they were renamed Brookfield Tehachapi 2 and Mustang Hills respectively. Alta VII and IX projects comprising 300 MW (400,000 hp), were completed in December 2012 (bringing the total to 1,320 MW (1,770,000 hp)), but they were renamed to Pinyon Pines Wind I and Pinyon Pines Wind II.[8]

138 MW (185,000 hp) Alta X and 90 MW (120,000 hp) Alta XI are under development with scheduled completion in late 2013, 180 MW (240,000 hp) Alta XIII in 2019.[9]

Overview[edit]

[10]

Plant Operator Capacity
(MW)
Commissioned Cost, $
Alta Wind Energy Center I Terra-Gen Operating Co 150 Jan 2011 394 million [11]
Alta Wind Energy Center II Terra-Gen Operating Co 150 Jan 2011 1200 million (units II-V)
Alta Wind Energy Center III Terra-Gen Operating Co 150 Feb 2011
Alta Wind Energy Center IV Terra-Gen Operating Co 102 Apr 2011
Alta Wind Energy Center V Terra-Gen Operating Co 168 Apr 2011
Everpower Wind Holdings Mustang Hills (Alta Wind VI)[12] 150 May 2012 631 million (with unit VIII)
Pinyon Pines Wind I Pinyon Pine I (Alta Wind VII)[13] 168 Nov 2012 650 million (with unit IX)
Alta Wind VIII Brookfield Energy Marketing 150 Jan 2012
Pinyon Pines Wind II Pinyon Pine II (Alta Wind IX)[13] 132 Nov 2012
Alta Wind X Terra-Gen Operating Co 138 Jan 2014
Alta Wind XI Terra-Gen Operating Co 90 Jan 2014

Electricity production[edit]

Alta Wind Farm Generation (MW·h)
Year Alta I
150 MW [14]
Alta II
150 MW [15]
Alta III
150 MW [16]
Alta IV
102 MW [17]
Alta V
168 MW [18]
Alta VI
150 MW [19]
Alta VII
168 MW [20]
Alta VIII
150 MW [21]
Alta IX
132 MW [22]
Alta X
138 MW [23]
Alta XI
90 MW [24]
Total Annual
MW·h
2011 395,703 336,193 364,270 149,373 239,021 - - - - - - 1,484,560
2012 353,793 296,135 318,407 150,322 243,738 181,718 18,115 - 12,689 - - 1,574,917
2013 398,985 348,908 361,051 178,777 283,238 302,869 363,653 285,358 258,485 - - 2,781,324
2014 403,255 328,958 349,245 168,320 269,901 304,728 365,507 282,719 255,597 328,080 249,985 3,306,295
2015 341,120 279,829 300,282 134,744 220,012 252,832 288,517 231,524 202,586 309,408 222,142 2,782,996
2016 413,363 360,216 380,465 183,393 293,378 314,587 346,699 294,789 250,438 364,926 276,368 3,478,622
2017 366,518 325,932 350,502 162,752 263,466 289,326 319,578 251,380 230,440 340,379 248,865 3,149,138
Average Annual Production (years 2014-2017) 3,179,263

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "7 Most Impressive Wind Farms (and Turbines) in the World". Care2 Causes. Archived from the original on July 29, 2019. Retrieved Jul 29, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Terra-Gen bags $631m for more phases at California's Alta Wind Archived 2014-12-24 at the Wayback Machine Renewable Energy World, 29 July 2010.
  3. ^ World's Largest Wind Project is Underway Archived 2011-08-29 at the Wayback Machine Recharge, June 3, 2011
  4. ^ "GE Acquires California Wind Farm, UK Energy Management Firm". Archived from the original on 2013-10-21. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
  5. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Alta Wind Energy Center. 2010. Archived from the original on July 25, 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  6. ^ "Notice of Preparation of a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (Alta Infill II)" (PDF). Kern County, California. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  7. ^ California U.S. Wind Energy Projects - California Archived 2010-10-07 at the Wayback Machine, AWEA, Oct 22, 2010
  8. ^ "CNBC: MidAmerican Wind Announces Completion of 300-Megawatt Pinyon Pines Wind I and II Projects". Retrieved Jul 29, 2019.[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ "California Renewables Portfolio Standard: RPS Project Status Table 2013 July". Archived from the original on Feb 22, 2014. Retrieved Jul 29, 2019.
  10. ^ "Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory: Inventory of Operating Generators as of February 2017". Archived from the original on 2017-05-01. Retrieved 2017-05-14.
  11. ^ "Alta Wind Energy Center (AWEC), California". www.power-technology.com. Retrieved Aug 27, 2019.
  12. ^ "About innogy". iam.innogy.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2019. Retrieved Jul 29, 2019.
  13. ^ a b "BHE Renewables". www.bherenewables.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2019. Retrieved Jul 29, 2019.
  14. ^ "Alta I, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  15. ^ "Alta II, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  16. ^ "Alta III, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  17. ^ "Alta IV, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  18. ^ "Alta V, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  19. ^ "Mustang Hills, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  20. ^ "Pinyon Pine I, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  21. ^ "Alta VIII, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  22. ^ "Pinyon Pine II, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  23. ^ "Alta X, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  24. ^ "Alta XI, Annual". Electricity Data Browser. Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2019.

External links[edit]