Arkansas National Guard
|Arkansas National Guard|
Seal of the Arkansas National Guard
|Garrison/HQ||North Little Rock, Arkansas|
|Maj. Gen. Mark H. Berry (ANG)|
|This article is part of a series on the|
|Arkansas National Guard|
|Arkansas National Guard|
|Arkansas Army National Guard|
|Arkansas Territorial Militia, (1804–1836)|
|Arkansas Militia, 1836–1879|
|Arkansas State Guard, 1879–1907|
|Arkansas State Guard and the Spanish-American War|
|Arkansas National Guard 1907–1949|
|Arkansas Air National Guard (1946–Present)|
|Arkansas Army National Guard (1949–Present)|
The Arkansas National Guard comprises both Army (Arkansas Army National Guard) and Air (Arkansas Air National Guard) components. The Constitution of the United States specifically charges the National Guard with dual federal and state missions. In fact, the National Guard is the only United States military force empowered to function in a state status. Those functions range from limited actions during non-emergency situations to full scale law enforcement of martial law when local law enforcement officials can no longer maintain civil control. The National Guard may be called into federal service in response to a call by the President or Congress.
- 1 Dual missions, state and federal
- 2 Military support to civilian authorities (MSCA)
- 3 State military facilities
- 4 Manpower
- 5 State Military Department
- 6 Youth Programs
- 7 Economic impact
- 8 History
- 9 List of Adjutants General of Arkansas (1819-Present)
- 10 Bibliography
- 10.1 Arkansas Historical Quarterly Articles relating to the Arkansas National Guard
- 10.2 Books relating to the Arkansas National Guard
- 10.3 Collections at the Arkansas Historical Commission
- 10.4 Collections at the University of Arkansas, Mullins Library, Special Collections Department
- 10.5 Publications of the Arkansas National Guard Historical Foundation
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Dual missions, state and federal
National Guard units can be mobilized at any time by presidential order to supplement regular armed forces, and upon declaration of a state of emergency by the governor of the state in which they serve. Unlike Army Reserve members, National Guard members cannot be mobilized individually (except through voluntary transfers and Temporary DutY Assignments TDY), but only as part of their respective units. However, there have been several individual activations to support military operations since 2001.
When National Guard troops are called to federal service, the President serves as Commander-In-Chief. The federal mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide properly trained and equipped units for prompt mobilization for war, National emergency or as otherwise needed." For much of the final decades of the 20th century, National Guard personnel typically served "One weekend a month, two weeks a year", with a portion working for the Guard in a full-time capacity. The current forces formation plans of the US Army call for the typical National Guard unit (or National Guardsman) to serve one year of active duty for every six years of service. More specifically, current Department of Defense policy is that individual Guardsman will be given 24 months between deployments of no more than 12 months each.
The Governor may call individuals or units of the Arkansas National Guard into state service during emergencies or to assist in special situations which lend themselves to use of the National Guard. The state mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide trained and disciplined forces for domestic emergencies or as otherwise provided by state law." When not activated for its Federal mission, the Governor through the State Adjutant General commands Guard forces. The Governor can call the Guard into action during local or statewide emergencies, such as storms, drought, and civil disturbances, to name a few.
Upon the request of either the judge or sheriff of a county or the mayor of a city... ...whenever it is made to appear to the Governor that there is a breach of the peace, riot, resistance to process of this State, or disaster or imminent danger thereof... ...the Governor may order into the active service of the state... ...for such period, and to such extent, and in such manner as he may deem necessary, all or any part of the organized militia.
The intent is that the National Guard is called only when civilian resources have been used first and fully exhausted. While in this status, Guard units report only to military authorities, Guard Authorities do not replace Civilian Authorities. The use of the National Guard is intended as a temporary measure to prevent the loss of life or damage to property.
Examples of MSCA Missions conducted in state active duty status
When Tornados hit Dumas, AR on Saturday, Feb. 24, 2007 the Arkansas National Guard deployed 130 Soldiers to conduct the following missions:
- Security operations
- Prevention of looting
- Curfew enforcement
- Power generation
In 2009 the Arkansas National Guard conducted over 101 MSCA missions including:
- Texas wildfires
- Major Ice Storm – 81 missions
- Mena Tornado
- Water Purification to support the town of Dierks, Arkansas
- H1N1 flu vaccinations
The types of missions that the Arkansas National GuardcConducted in 2009 included:
- Power generation
- Emergency shelter
- Cots and blankets
- County disaster response teams (search and rescue, route clearance, debris removal)
- Water provision
Examples of MSCA provided in a Title 32 Status
The National Guard may also respond to Natural Disasters and other Domestic Operations in a Title 32 status. In this situation, the Guard is still under the direct command and control of the Governor, but the Federal Government provides the funding through Title 32 of the United States Code.
The Governor of Arkansas initially activated troops in a state active duty status in response to an Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) request from the Governor of Louisiana. EMAC provides mutual aid across state lines, provides assets for state’s personnel and equipment shortfalls, places responding assets under operational control of requesting governor and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) recognizes cross-state support as reimbursable.
The Arkansas National Guard provided the first guard units from outside Louisiana to respond to the Louisiana Governor’s request for support when the 77th Theater Aviation Brigade deployed assets to New Orleans. A total of 3000 Arkansas National Guard Soldiers and Airmen were mobilized, with 1500 deployed to Louisiana at the peak of operations. The Arkansas National Guard assisted with processing over 10,000 evacuees through the Chaffee Maneuver Training Center (Fort Chaffee) at Fort Smith Arkansas. Arkansas National Guard units were among the last to leave Louisiana, finally handing off its missions to the Louisiana National Guard in February 2006.
Operation Jump Start
When President Bush ordered National Guard Troops to help secure the border with Mexico, the Arkansas National Guard responded with a Joint Task Force of Soldiers and Airmen, operating in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. At its peak, Arkansas had over 230 Arkansas troops and airmen on orders including:
- Arizona – 23 Airmen from the 188th Fighter Wing and 189th Air Lift Wing
- New Mexico – 137 from 39th Infantry Brigade Combat Team & 87th Troop Command
- Texas – 53 from the 77th Theater Aviation Brigade
- Arkansas – 19 support personnel at the state Joint Operations Center and the Joint Forces Headquarters.
State military facilities
The Arkansas National Guard operates over 70 National Guard Readiness Centers (traditionally referred to as Armories) in 55 Arkansas Counties. The state also maintains two Maneuver Training Centers, Chaffee Maneuver Training Center at Fort Smith, Arkansas and Robinson Maneuver Training Center at North Little Rock, Arkansas.
Chaffee Maneuver Training Center
Chaffee Maneuver Training Center (Fort Chaffee) encompasses over 65,000 acres, large enough to support Brigade size training exercises, or up to approximately 7000 soldiers. Acreage available to support Field Artillery training as well as various small arms training ranges. A recent addition to Fort Chaffee is the convoy live fire range to meet the latest training requirement of the Global War On Terrorism. Fort Chaffee became a center for processing hurricane evacuees, providing shelter and relief to over 10,000 Citizens of Louisiana during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
Robinson Maneuver Training Center
Robinson Maneuver Training Center (Camp Robinson) a 32,000 Acre facility located at North Little Rock, Arkansas, which houses the Joint Forces Headquarters, Arkansas National Guard, the Headquarters, Arkansas Air National Guard, Headquarters, 77th Theater Aviation Brigade, Headquarters, 87th Troop Command, and is home to 3 Premier Training Centers, the National Guard Professional Education Center (PEC), the Guard Marksmanship Training Center (NGMTC) and the 233rd Regional Training Institute.
National Guard Professional Education Center
Camp Robinson is home to the PEC and its 75-acre campus consisting of 25 buildings and a total staff of approximately 420 military, civilian contractor personnel. We annually provide instruction to over 20,000 members of the military force. The Professional Education Center also hosts over 5,000 conferees annually from the National Guard, Army Reserve, Active Army, DOD, State and Federal agencies. These conferences typically provide 3 to 5 day training sessions covering specific subjects and discussions on a wide variety of issues such as: mobilizations and deployments; standards; new tactics, techniques, and procedures; and leadership development. The Army National Guard Senior Commanders' Conference, FORSCOM Command Readiness Program Conference, Winston P. Wilson Marksmanship Competition, Training and Requirements Opportunities Sourcing Conference, Army National Guard Fixed Wing Conference, and the Army National Guard Chief of Staff Advisory Council Conference are just a few of the conferences held at PEC.
National Guard Marksmanship Training Center
The Marksmanship Training Center (MTC) programs and provides institutional training within Marksmanship related activities which will enhance effectiveness of unit level training programs in the Army and Air National Guard and missions based on the collective requirements identified by NGB-ART-I (Individual Training Branch), the Army Program for Individual Training (ARPRINT) for the Army National Guard, the United States Army Reserve (USAR), and the Active Component (AC) in support of the Army's Modular Force. Administer NGB Marksmanship training and competitive programs at all levels, stressing the development of combat skills to improve proficiency above basic marksmanship requirements and increase battlefield survivability. Provides training, training support and validation of mission essential task performance for the Army SNIPER training programs. Conduct mobile training team assistance and/or assessment visits to units. The MTC provides coordinating authority, quality assurance (QA), assessment and accreditation oversight for training responsibilities. The MTC provides for the review and development of associated TATS courseware in response to the Army's training needs and the Contemporary Operating Environment (COE). Additionally, the MTC provides operational, training, administrative, logistical, and resource management support as required to accomplish the mission to train the Army Warrior within each respective State and Territory as specified and approved by The Adjutant General (TAG).
233rd Regional Training Institute
The 233rd Regional Training Institute has a long and proud history. It began in 1957 with the first Officer Candidate Class. For the next 39 years the Arkansas Military Academy built a proud heritage in the Arkansas National Guard setting the standard for some of the best officers in the Army. The RTI provides training to Soldiers from all 54 States and Territories.
In 1984, General Herbert Temple had a vision to develop a two week course that would hone and improve the soldier combat skills needed to win on the modern battlefield. For ten years the Battle Skills School trained soldiers from all over the United States on the basic skills of survival and small unit tactics.
The Total Army School System took shape in Arkansas as the 233d Regiment (Regional Training Institute) in October 1994. The 233d RTI was organized from the Arkansas Military Academy and the Battle Skills School combining their respective TDAs.
The Mission of the RTI is to train infantry and artillery, and communications military occupational specialties, as well as non-commissioned officer education, and officer candidate school. The 233rd operates the second largest infantry school in the Army, only second to Fort Benning. Approximately 1,930 soldiers graduated training at the RTI during Fiscal Year 06.
As of 2009, the Arkansas National Guard Consisted of 10,582 Soldiers and Airmen. 8,750 of these Soldiers and Airmen are considered traditional members, meaning that they are required to drill at least one weekend per month and 2 weeks per year, but often work more. The Arkansas National Guard is supported by 1,836 full-time federal military employees and an additional 545 full-time state civilian employees.
State Military Department
The Arkansas State Military Department supports the Arkansas Guard by providing responsible fiscal, administrative, nursing, security, youth service, family support, natural resource conservation, recycling, waste water, public affairs, legal, museum, fire and police officers and skilled trades as a well trained professional staff that will ensure well-maintained armories, facilities, training, and personnel administration for the National Guard.
The Arkansas National Guard Operates two programs to assist at risk youth.
The Arkansas National Guard Youth Challenge program is a 22 week residential program for at risk youth ages 16–19. In 2009 the program graduated 109 cadets. Of that number 71 earned a GED or a high school diploma. Twelve graduates of the program joined the military and six enrolled in college. The Cadets perform community service at numerous events, such as the Arkansas Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure against breast cancer.
Civilian Student Training Program
Civilian Student Training Program is a state funded program that provides a structured, discipline base and military style, behavior modification environment. the program accepts adjudicated male nonviolent offenders ranging in age from 13–17. The nine week residential multi-phase program stresses value-based learning, physical fitness, academic and life skills education, and community service. The program was proposed by the Arkansas National Guard and established by the state legislature in 1993. All participants are enrolled under court order. The program has graduated over 5,000 since its inception. The academic grade level increased of graduates increases by an average of 2.5 years. Over 25,000 hours of community service has been performed by CSTP graduates.
The Arkansas National Guard's total operating budget for FY 2008 was, $244.8 Million of that the federal government provided $232.4 Million and the State of Arkansas provided $12.3 Million Fiscal 2008. Additionally there were federal military construction projects related to the Arkansas National Guard totaling $83 Million in FY 2008.
|Pulaski||North Little Rock||$103,632,033|
|Pulaski||Little Rock Air Force Base||$26,663,208|
|St Francis||Forrest City||$709,944|
The Arkansas National Guard traces its roots to the creation of the Territorial Militia in 1804. Interest in the Militia in Arkansas generally waxed and waned throughout the 19th century as various national emergencies arose and passed. Arkansas provided troops for the War with Mexico, the American Civil War, and the Spanish–American War during the 19th century. In each case, in answer to the governor's call, local militia companies would turn out and be formed into regiments or battalions for induction into federal service. The militia was also heavily engaged in the violence that characterized the Reconstruction period following the Civil War.
Interest in the militia or Arkansas State Guard as it was know following reconstruction, ebbed and flowed throughout the 19th century, increasing just before or major conflicts, but diminishing in between. Most militia activity was at the local, county and city level, and was often provided for with private funds. It was only late in the 19th century, in the preparations for the Spanish–American War that the State Guard, as it was known then, truly came into existence as a stable organized force.
Following the Spanish-American war, the Arkansas State Guard, along with the militia forces of all other states, was reorganized as the Arkansas National Guard. With the reorganization came the first nationally directed training and increased funding. During World War I, units were stripped of their state designations and were given federal designations upon mustering into federal service. The National Guard saw a massive expansion and increased funding and training following World War I. A similar increase was seen after World War II. Following World War II, the air component was separated into the Arkansas Air National Guard. Both the air and land components of the Arkansas National Guard supplied forces for the Korean War. In 1967 during a nationwide reorganization of National Guard Units, the Arkansas Army National Guard took on most of its current force structure with one Infantry Brigade, One Field Artillery Brigade, Aviation units, and various Separate Companies under the Troop Command. Arkansas units have served in every major conflict since the Seminole War, with the exception of Vietnam. Arkansas Army and Air units remain fully engaged in the ongoing Global War on Terrorism.
Throughout its service to the nation during times of war, the Arkansas National Guard has continued to perform its role of providing service to the citizens of the state during times of disaster. The Guard has responded to numerous tornadoes, floods and fires, in addition to being called upon to provide security and quell violence in times of civil disturbance. The Guard has also provided support to neighboring states, most notably Louisiana during Hurricanes Katrina, Rita and Ike.
The history of the Arkansas National Guard is divided into the following time periods:
- Arkansas Territorial Militia 1804–1836
- Arkansas Militia and the War with Mexico, 1836–1847
- Arkansas Militia in the Civil War, 1848–1865
- Arkansas Militia in Reconstruction, 1865–1879
- Arkansas State Guard and the Spanish-American War, 1879–1900
- Arkansas National Guard during World War I, 1900–1919
- Arkansas National Guard and World War II, 1920–1945
- Arkansas Air National Guard, 1949–present
- Arkansas Army National Guard and the Korean War, 1949–1954
- Arkansas Army National Guard and the Cold War, 1954–1989
- Arkansas National Guard and the Integration of Central High School, 1957
- Arkansas Army National Guard in Operation Desert Storm, 1990–1991
- Arkansas Army National Guard and the Global War on Terrorism, 1992–present
- Arkansas Air National Guard, 1949–present
List of Adjutants General of Arkansas (1819-Present)
BG Earl T. Ricks, 1949–1950
Arkansas Historical Quarterly Articles relating to the Arkansas National Guard
Atkinson, James H., “The Arkansas Gubernatorial Campaign and Election of 1872”, Arkansas Historic Quarterly, I (December 1942)
Bearden, Russell. "Jefferson County's Worst Disaster: The Flood of 1927." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 43 (Winter 1984), pp.
Bearsss, Edwin C., “Marmaduke Attacks Pine Bluff”, Arkansas Historic Quarterly, XXIII (Winter 1964)
Brown, Walter Lee, “The Mexican War Experiences of Albert Pike and the ‘Mounted Devils’ of Arkansas”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XII (Winter 1953)
Cowen, Ruth Caroline, “Reorganization of Federal Arkansas, 1862–1865”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XVIII (Summer 1959)
Davidson, Bertha, “Arkansas in the Spanish-American War, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, V (Autumn 1946)
Coulter, Nate. "The Impact of the Civil War Upon Pulaski County, Arkansas." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 41 (Spring 1982), pp. 67–82.
Demuth, David O. "An Arkansas County Mobilizes: Saline County, Arkansas, 1917–1918." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 36 (Fall 1977), pp. 211–233.
Finley, Randy. "Black Arkansans and World War I." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 49 (Autumn 1990), pp. 249–277.
Huff, Leo E., “The Martial Law Controversy in Arkansas, 1861–1865: A Case history of Internal Confederate Conflict”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XXXVII (Summer 1978)
Huff, Leo E., “Guerrillas, Jayhawkers and Bushwackers in Northern Arkansas During the Civil War”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XXIV (Summer 1965)
Huff, Leo E., “The Military Board in Confederate Arkansas”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XXVI (Spring 1967)
Mahon, Harold E. "The Search for Arkansas Civil War Records, 1892." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 41 (Autumn 1982), pp. 253–256.
Mitchell, James. "Civil War Letters from James Mitchell to His Wife, Sarah Elizabeth Latta Mitchell." Edited by Frances Mitchell Ross. Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 37 (Winter 1978).
Moneyhon, Carl H. "Disloyalty and Class Consciousness in Southwestern Arkansas." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 52 (Autumn 1993), pp. 223–243.
Richter, Wendy. "The Impact of the Civil War on Hot Springs, Arkansas." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 43 (Summer 1984), pp. .
Scott, Kim Allen. "Witness for the Prosecution: The Civil War Letters of Lieutenant George Taylor." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 48 (Autumn 1989), pp. 260–271.
Sherwood, Diana, “The story of Arkansas Militia from 1819 to 1916...”, Arkansas Gazette, June 23, 1940.
Sullivan, David M. "John Albert Pearson, Jr.: Arkansas Soldier and Confederate Marine." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 45 (Autumn 1986), pp. 250–260.
Sutherland, Daniel E. "No Better Officer in the Confederacy: The Wartime Career of Daniel C. Govan." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 54 (Autumn 1995), pp. 269–303.
Williams, Charles G. "The Confederate Home Guard in Southwest Arkansas." Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 49 (Summer 1990), pp. 168–172.
White, Lonnie J., “James Miller: Arkansas’ First Territorial Governor”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XIX (Spring 1960)
White, Lonnie J., “Disturbances on the Arkansas – Texas Border, 1827–1831”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XIX (Summer 1960)
Woodward, Earl F., “The Brooks and Baxter War in Arkansas, 1872–1874”, Arkansas Historic Quarterly, XXX (Winter 1971)
Worley, Ted R., ed., “Documents Relating to the Peace Society of 1861”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XVII (Spring 1958)
Books relating to the Arkansas National Guard
The War Child's Children: The Story of the Third Regiment, Arkansas Cavalry, Confederate States Army. Little Rock: Pioneer Press, 1965.
Abingdon, E. H., Back roads and bicarbonate : the autobiography of an Arkansas country doctor (New York, c1955)
Bauer, K. Jack, The Mexican War: 1846–1848 (New York, 1974)
Bearss, Edwin C., Battle of Wilson’s Creek (Diamond, MO, 1975)
Bearss, Edwin C. and Gibson, A. M., Fort Smith: Little Gibraltar on the Arkansas (Norman, OK, 1969)
Berger, Carl, The Korean Knot – A Military–Political History (Philadelphia, 1957)
Bishop, Albert W., Loyalty on the Frontier (St. Louis, 1863)
Carter, Clarence Edwin, Territorial Papers of the United States XX (New York, 1972 -)
Clayton, Powell, Aftermath of the Civil War, in Arkansas (New York, 1915)
Clendenen, Clarence C., Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars (New York, 1969)
Collier, Calvin L. First In—Last Out: The Capitol Guards, Ark. Brigade. Little Rock: Pioneer Press, 1961.
Dacus, Robert H. Reminiscences of Company "H," First Arkansas Mounted Rifles. Dardanelle: Post-Dispatch Print, 1871.
Dierks, Jack Cameron, A Leap to Arms: The Cuban Campaign of 1898 (Philadelphia,1970
Diggs, Jack F., The 142d Field Artillery, 1889–1976 (Fayetteville, Ark. 1976)
Dougan, Michael B., Confederate Arkansas: The People And Politics Of A Frontier State In Wartime (University, Ala., University of Alabama Press, c1976)
Dupuy, Ernest, The National Guard, a Compact History (New York, 1971), pp. 30 – 31
Eno, Clara B., History of Crawford County, Arkansas (Van Buren, AR, 195?)
Harrell, John M., The Brooks and Baxter war: a history of the reconstruction period in Arkansas (St. Louis, 1893)
Herndon, Dallas T., Annals of Arkansas (Hopkinsville, KY, 1947)
Herndon, Dallas T., Centennial History of Arkansas (Little Rock, 1922)
Hill, Jim Dan, The Minute Men in Peace and War: A History of the National Guard (Harrsiburg, 1964)
Houck, Louis, A History of Missouri: From the Earliest Explorations and Settlements Until the Admission of the State into the Union (Chicago, 1908), III
Janeway, Eliot, The Struggle for Survival (New York, 1961).
Gammage, Washington Lafayette. The Camp, the Bivouac, and the Battlefield: Being a History of the Fourth Arkansas Regiment, from Its First Organization down to the Present Date. Little Rock: Arkansas Southern Press, 1958. [Originally published 1863.]
Lavender, David S., Climax at Buena Vista: the American campaigns in northeastern Mexico, 1846–47 (Philadelphia, 1966)
Lemke, W. J., ed., 50th anniversary of the first Washington County troops to serve overseas : originally Company A (Springdale) and Company B (Fayetteville) of the Arkansas National Guard, but after August 1917 the 142nd Field Artillery; Golden anniversary memories, by Jerome Thompson and Claiborne Mobley, both U. S. Army colonels (retired) (Fayetteville, 1967)
Leeper, Wesley Thurman. Rebels Valiant: Second Arkansas Mounted Rifles (Dismounted). Little Rock: Pioneer Press, 1964.
Little, George. A History of Lumsden's Battery, C.S.A. Tuscaloosa: R. E. Rhodes Chapter, U.D.C., 1905.
McNutt, Walter S., A History of Arkansas (Little Rock, 1932), p. 234.
Mahon, John K., American Militia, Decade of Decision 1789–1800 (Gainesville, 1960)
Mason, Jr., Herbert M., The Great Pursuit (New York, 1970)
Masterson, James R., Tall Tales of Arkansaw (Boston, 1842)
Meeks, Melinda, “The Life of Archibald Yell”, Arkansas Historical Quarterly, XXVI (Winter 1967
Morris, Richard B. and Commager, Henry Steele, eds., Encyclopedia of American History (New York, 1970)
National Cyclopedia of American Biography (New York, 1900), X
Pope, William F., Early Days in Arkansas, Being in Most Part the Personal Recollections of an Old Settler (Little Rock, 1895)
Winkler, Angelina Virginia (Walton). The Confederate Capital and Hood's Texas Brigade. Austin: E. Von Boeckmann, 1894.
Wright, Marcus Joseph. Arkansas in the War, 1861–1865. Batesville: Independence County Historical Society, 1963.
Ross, Margaret Smith, Arkansas Gazette: The Early Years, 1819–1866 (Little Rock, 1969)
Ross, Margaret Smith, ed., Letters of Hiram Abiff Whittington, An Arkansas Pioneer form Massachusetts, 1827–1834 (Little Rock, 1956)
Shinn, Josiah H., Pioneers and Makers of Arkansas (Little Rock, 1908)
Singletary, Otis A., Negro Militia and Reconstruction (Austin, 1957)
Staples, Thomas S., Reconstruction in Arkansas, 1862–1874 (New York, 1923)
Thomas, Daniel Yancy, “Powell Clayton”, Dictionary of American Biography (New York, 1946)
Thomas, David Y., Arkansas and its People: A History, 1541–1930 (New York, 1930)
Thompson, George H., Arkansas and reconstruction: the influence of geography, economics, and personality (Port Washington, NY, 1976)
Thompson, George H., Leadership in Arkansas reconstruction (Columbia University, 1968)
Walthall, Melvin Curtis, We Can’t All Be Heroes: A History of the Separate Infantry Regiments in World War II (Hicksville, NY, 1975)
Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue (Baton Rouge, 1864)
Waskow, Arthur I., From Race Riots to Sit-in, 1919 and the 1960s: A Study in the Connection between conflict and Violence (Garden City, N. Y., 1966)
Weigley, Russell Frank, History of the United States Army (New York, 1967)
Weigley, Russell Frank, Towards an American Army: Military thought from Washington to Marshall (New York, 1962)
White, Lonnie J., Politics on the southwest frontier: Arkansas Territory, 1819–1836 (Memphis, 1964)
Williams, Charlean M., The old town speaks: Washington, Hempstead County, Arkansas, gateway to Texas, 1835, Confederate capital, 1863 (Houston, TX, 1951)
Collections at the Arkansas Historical Commission
Adjutant General’s Office Letters Sent, Arkansas History Commission
Adjutant General’s "Letters, 18?8-1879," P. 19, Arkansas History Commission
“Letters, Adjutant General’s Office, Jan. 1, 1894 to Oct. 6, 1894”, Arkansas History Commission
"Letters of C. R. Wood," Arkansas History Commission
Arkansas Military Records, 1883–1891, Arkansas History Commission.
Gulley Collection, Arkansas History Commission.
Scrapbook titled “Brooks-Baxter War Telegrams”, Arkansas History Commission
Upham papers. Arkansas History Commission.
Ferguson, John L. and Atkinson, J. H., Historic Arkansas (Little Rock, Arkansas History Commission, 1966)
Collections at the University of Arkansas, Mullins Library, Special Collections Department
Arkansas., & Arkansas. (1929). The military code of the state of Arkansas: Approved March 4, 1929 together with related organic statutory laws. Little Rock, Ark: Commander-in-chief of the National Guard of Arkansas.
Arkansas. (1975). 50th anniversary, 1925–1975: 154th Observation Sq. S.l: s.n.
Arkansas. (1971). The Arkansas guardsman. North Little Rock, Ark: Arkansas Military Dept.
Arkansas. (1976). The Arkansas guardsman. North Little Rock, Ark: National Guard of Arkansas.
Arkansas. (1982). Arkansas guard. North Little Rock, Ark: Arkansas National Guard.
Arkansas. (1979). Arkansas guard. North Little Rock, Ark: Arkansas National Guard.
Arkansas. (1900). Arkansas National Guard annual report. North Little Rock, Ark: Military Dept.
Arkansas. (1995). Annual report. Camp Joseph T. Robinson, North Little Rock, Ark: Arkansas National Guard.
Arkansas. (1989). Military Department of Arkansas annual report. Camp Robinson, North Little Rock, Ark: Military Dept. of Arkansas.
Arkansas. (1965). History [of] Arkansas Army National Guard. Little Rock?: s.n.
Arkansas Militia Heritage Preservation Foundation., Arkansas Militia Foundation., & Arkansas National Guard Historical Foundation. (1992). Arkansas military journal: A publication of the Arkansas Militia Heritage Preservation Foundation. North Little Rock, AR: Arkansas Militia Heritage Preservation Foundation.
Beals, M., & Public Affairs Video Archives. (1994). Melba Pattillo Beals, author: Warriors don't cry : book review. S.l.: C-SPAN.
Clarke, C. N. (1870). Clyde Nuell Clarke papers: Scrapbook and photographs.
F.J. McCarthy & Co. (1924). Historical review of Battery "H" 206th Coast Artillery (A-a) regiment Little Rock unit Arkansas National Guard. Little Rock, Ark: F.J. McCarthy & Co.
Goldstein, D. M., & Dillon, K. V. (1992). The Williwaw War: The Arkansas National Guard in the Aleutians in World War II. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.
Lemke, W. J. (1967). 50th anniversary of the first Washington County troops to serve overseas: Originally Company A (Springdale) and Company B (Fayetteville) of the Arkansas National Guard, but after August 1917 the 142nd Field Artillery. Fayetteville, Ark: Washington County Historical Society.
McDaniel, J. L. (2005). William Claude Bradford scrapbook 1885–1926. Farmers Branch, Tex: J. McDaniel.
Miller, J. (2004). The Little Rock Nine: Young champions for school integration. New York: PowerKids Press.
Obsitnik, L. (1918). Larry Obsitnik photo archives.
Renaud, B., & Renaud, C. (2006). Off to war: From rural Arkansas to Iraq. New York, NY: Kino on Video.
Try to stop us: A history and tribute to the men, past and present, who served in Battery C of the Ozark, Arkansas National Guard, 937th Battalion, 142nd Field Artillery. (2005). S.l: s.n.
Schlesing, A., & Breidenthal, S. (2005). The Bowie Brigade: Arkansas National Guard's 39th Infantry Brigade in Iraq. Little Rock, Ark: Arkansas Democrat-Gazette.
United States. (1993). Arkansas Beach: Report (to accompany S.J. Res. 78). Washington, D.C.?: U.S. G.P.O.
Publications of the Arkansas National Guard Historical Foundation
Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, 1836–1860, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 3, Spring 1995, Number 3
Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, 1860–1865, The Civil War, Volume II, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 4, Winter 1995, Number 1
Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, The Arkansas Militia in the Mexican War, 1846–47, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 4, Winter 1995, Number 2
148th Evacuation Hospital, Desert Storm Story, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 4, Spring 1996, Number 3
Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, Post Civil War, Volume I, 1866–1875, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 4, Summer 1996, Number 4
Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, Brooks – Baxter War, Volume II, 1872–1874, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 5, Fall 1996, Number 1
Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas Militia, Pre World War I, 1874–1916, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 5, Winter 1996, Number 2
Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas National Guard in World War I, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 5, Summer 1997
Duncan, MAJ James H., Arkansas National Guard in the Post War Period, 1919–1938, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Fall 1997
Dover, CPT G. Keith, 176th Public Affairs Det. Unit History, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Fall 1997
Rushing, SSG Anthony, Arkansas Military Institute, The West Point of Arkansas, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1997, Number 2
Rushing, SSG Anthony, General Patrick R. Cleburne, The Stonewall Jackson of the West, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1997, Number 2
Wooten, Patty, An American Tragedy, Arkansas Interment Camps, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1997, Number 2
McPherson, 2LT Slade, A.M.A. A History of the Arkansas Military Academy, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1997, Number 2
Love, Brenda, Backing the Attack: Black Arkansas' Fight Against Germany, Japan and Jim Crow, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Spring 1998, Number 3
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First Regiment, Arkansas Volunteer Infantry, Historical and Biographical, Arkansas Military Journal, Volume 6, Winter 1998, Number 4
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