Assassination of James A. Garfield

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Assassination of James A. Garfield
Garfield assassination engraving cropped.jpg
President Garfield with James G. Blaine after being shot by Charles J. Guiteau[1][2]
LocationBaltimore and Potomac Railroad Station
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Coordinates38°53′31″N 77°01′13″W / 38.89194°N 77.02028°W / 38.89194; -77.02028Coordinates: 38°53′31″N 77°01′13″W / 38.89194°N 77.02028°W / 38.89194; -77.02028
DateJuly 2, 1881, 138 years ago
9:30 am (Local mean time)
TargetJames A. Garfield
Attack type
Assassination
WeaponsBulldog Revolver
Deaths1 (Garfield; died on September 19, 1881 as a result of injury)
Injuries
None
PerpetratorCharles J. Guiteau
MotiveRetribution for perceived failure to reward campaign support

The assassination of James A. Garfield, the 20th President of the United States, began when he was shot at 9:30 am on July 2, 1881, less than four months into his term as President, and ended in his death 79 days later on September 19, 1881. He was shot by Charles J. Guiteau at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington, D.C., and died in Elberon, New Jersey. Guiteau's motive was revenge against Garfield for an imagined political debt.

Assassination[edit]

Background[edit]

Charles J. Guiteau

Charles Guiteau turned to politics after failing in several ventures, including theology, a law practice, bill collecting, and time in the utopian Oneida Community.[3] Ulysses S. Grant was the early front runner for the Republican presidential nomination in 1880 and was supported by the Stalwart faction.[4] Guiteau decided he was a Stalwart and a Grant supporter, and authored a speech called "Grant against Hancock".[5] Grant lost the nomination to dark horse candidate James Garfield, who was not affiliated with either the Stalwarts or their rivals the Half-Breeds.[6] Guiteau then revised his speech to "Garfield against Hancock", and tried to sign on as a campaigner for the Republican ticket.[7] He never delivered the speech in a public setting, but had it printed (he never paid the bill) and distributed several hundred copies.[8] The speech was ineffective, even in written form; among other problems, Guiteau had made a hurried but incomplete effort to replace references to Grant with references to Garfield. The result was that Guiteau appeared to give Garfield credit for accomplishments that he had originally ascribed to Grant, yet he convinced himself that his speech was largely responsible for Garfield's narrow victory over Democratic nominee Winfield Scott Hancock.[9] Guiteau believed he should be awarded a diplomatic post for his supposedly vital assistance, first asking for a consulship in Vienna, then expressing a willingness to "settle" for one in Paris.[10] He loitered around Republican headquarters in New York City during the winter of 1880–1881, expecting rewards for his speech, but to no avail.[11]

Guiteau arrived in Washington on March 5, 1881, the day after Garfield's inauguration, still believing that he would be rewarded.[12] He obtained entrance to the White House and saw the President on March 8, 1881, dropping off a copy of his speech as a reminder of the campaign work which he had done on Garfield's behalf.[13] He spent the next two months roaming around Washington, staying at rooming houses and sneaking away without paying for his meals and lodging.[14] He passed his days loitering in hotel lobbies to read old newspapers and use hotel stationery to write letters to those who he thought could help him obtain an appointment from Garfield.[15] In addition, he spent time shuffling back and forth between the State Department and the White House and approaching various Cabinet members and prominent Republicans to press his claim, all without success.[9] He was destitute and increasingly slovenly because he was wearing the same clothes every day,[16] and forced to walk through the cold, snowy city without overcoat, hat, gloves, or boots.[17] On May 13, 1881, he was banned from the White House waiting room. On May 14, 1881, he encountered Secretary of State James G. Blaine, who told him, "Never speak to me again of the Paris consulship as long as you live."[18]

Illustration of Guiteau's pistol
British Bulldog revolver used by Guiteau to assassinate President James A. Garfield
1881 political cartoon of Guiteau; the caption for the cartoon read "Model Office Seeker"

Guiteau's family had judged him to be insane in 1875 and attempted to have him committed, but he had escaped.[19] Now his mania took a violent turn, and he decided that he had been commanded by a higher power to kill the President. He later stated, "I leave my justification to God."[20]

Guiteau borrowed $15 (equivalent to $389 in 2018) from George Maynard, a relative by marriage, then went out to purchase a revolver.[21] He knew little about firearms, but he believed that he would need a large caliber gun. O'Meara's store in Washington provided a choice between two versions of the .442 Webley caliber British Bulldog revolver,[21] one with a wooden grip and another with an ivory grip.[22][23] He favored ivory because he thought that it would look better as a museum exhibit after the assassination, but could not afford the extra dollar, so the store owner dropped the price for him.[24] The revolver was recovered and displayed by the Smithsonian in the early 20th century, but it has since been lost.[25] He spent the next few weeks stalking Garfield and in target practice; the kick from the revolver almost knocked him over the first time that he fired it.[26] He wrote a letter to Garfield, saying that he should fire Blaine or "you and the Republican party will come to grief".[27] The letter was ignored,[28] as was all the correspondence that Guiteau sent to the White House.[29]

Guiteau continued to prepare carefully; he wrote a letter to William Tecumseh Sherman, the Commanding General of the Army, asking for protection from the mob that he assumed would gather after he killed the President,[30][31] and he wrote other letters justifying his action as necessary to heal dissension between the factions of the Republican Party.[32] He went to the District of Columbia jail to ask for a tour of the facility where he expected to be incarcerated, but he was told to come back later.[33] He spent the whole month of June following Garfield around Washington. On one occasion, he trailed him to the railway station as the President was seeing his wife off to a beach resort in Long Branch, New Jersey, but he decided not to shoot him then, as Lucretia Garfield was known to be in poor health and he did not want to upset her.[34][35]

Shooting[edit]

President Garfield
Contemporaneous depiction of the Garfield assassination; Secretary of State James G. Blaine stands at right
Contemporaneous depiction of the Garfield assassination; Secretary of State James G. Blaine stands at right
Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station, Washington, DC where President James A. Garfield was assassinated on July 2, 1881
Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station, Washington, DC where President James A. Garfield was shot on July 2, 1881

Garfield was scheduled to leave Washington on July 2, 1881 for his summer vacation, which was reported in the Washington newspapers,[36] and Guiteau lay in wait for him at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station on the southwest corner of Sixth Street and Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C.[37] Garfield came to the Sixth Street Station on his way to his alma mater Williams College, where he was scheduled to deliver a speech before beginning his vacation. He was accompanied by his sons James and Harry, and by Secretary of State James G. Blaine; Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln waited at the station to see him off.[35] Garfield had no bodyguard or security detail; early Presidents did not employ them, with the exception of Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War.[34]

As Garfield entered the station's waiting room, Guiteau stepped forward and shot the president at point-blank range from behind. Garfield cried out, "My God, what is that?", flinging up his arms. Guiteau fired again, and Garfield collapsed.[38] The first bullet grazed the President's shoulder, and the other struck him in the back, passing the first lumbar vertebra but missing the spinal cord before coming to rest behind his pancreas.[39] Guiteau put his pistol back in his pocket and turned to leave via a cab that he had waiting for him outside the station, but he collided with policeman Patrick Kearney who was entering the station after hearing the gunfire.

Kearney apprehended Guiteau and was so excited at having arrested the man who had shot Garfield that he neglected to take his gun from him until after they arrived at the police station.[40] Kearney demanded, "In God's name, what did you shoot the president for?" Guiteau did not respond. The rapidly gathering crowd screamed, "Lynch him", but Kearney and several other police officers took the assassin to the police station a few blocks away.[38] As he surrendered to authorities, Guiteau uttered the exulting words, repeated everywhere: "I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts! I did it and I want to be arrested! Arthur is President now!"[41] This statement briefly led to unfounded suspicions that either Arthur or his supporters had put Guiteau up to the crime.[42]

The Stalwarts were a Republican faction loyal to Senator Roscoe Conkling; they supported Grant for a third term in 1880 and strongly opposed Blaine's Half-Breeds.[43] Garfield was unaffiliated with either faction, but Blaine had given his support to Garfield once it became clear that Blaine could not win the presidential nomination. Chester A. Arthur, a Conkling ally, had been selected as Garfield's running mate to placate the Stalwart faction. As a self-professed Stalwart, Guiteau convinced himself that by removing Garfield, he was striking a blow to unite the two factions of the Republican Party.[44]

Treatment and death[edit]

Notice for a prayer meeting in Ware, Massachusetts, dated September 8, 1881

Garfield was carried to an upstairs floor of the train station, conscious but in shock.[45] One bullet remained lodged in his body, but doctors could not find it.[46] Robert Lincoln was deeply upset; thinking back to the assassination of his father Abraham Lincoln; he said, "How many hours of sorrow I have passed in this town."[46]

Garfield was carried back to the White House, and doctors told him that he would not survive the night; nevertheless, he remained conscious and alert.[47] The next morning, his vital signs were good and doctors began to hope for recovery.[48] A long vigil began, and Garfield's doctors issued regular bulletins that the American public followed closely throughout the summer of 1881.[49][50] His condition fluctuated; fevers came and went, he struggled to keep down solid food, and he spent most of the summer eating only liquids.[51]

Changing Garfield's bedclothes

Navy engineers rigged up an early version of the modern air conditioner in an effort to relieve him from the heat of a Washington summer. Fans blew air over a large box of ice and into the President's sickroom, and the device worked well enough to lower the temperature 20 degrees.[52] Doctors continued to probe Garfield's wound with dirty, unsterilized fingers and instruments, attempting to find the bullet,[53] and Alexander Graham Bell devised a metal detector specifically to find it. He was unsuccessful, partly because Garfield's metal bed frame made the instrument malfunction, and partly because self-appointed chief physician Doctor Willard Bliss allowed Bell to use the device only on Garfield's right side, where Bliss insisted the bullet had lodged.[54] Bell's subsequent tests indicated that his metal detector was in good working order and that he would have found the bullet had he been allowed to use the device on Garfield's left side.[55]

On July 29, Garfield met with his Cabinet for the only time during his illness; the members were under strict instruction from the doctors not to discuss anything upsetting.[56] Garfield became increasingly ill over a period of several weeks due to infection, which caused his heart to weaken. He remained bedridden in the White House with fevers and extreme pains. His weight dropped from 210 pounds (95 kilograms) to 130 pounds (58 kilograms) as his inability to keep down and digest food took its toll.[57] Nutrient enemas were given in an attempt to extend his life because he could not digest food.[58] Sepsis and infection set in, and the president suffered from hallucinations for a time.[59] Pus-filled abscesses spread all over his body as the infections raged.[60]

Doctors discuss Garfield's wounds
Path of the Bullet that wounded President Garfield

Garfield's condition weakened and exacerbated under the oppressive summer weather in Washington.[61] On September 6, Garfield was taken by train to the Jersey Shore to escape the Washington heat and humidity, in the vain hope that the fresh air and quiet might aid his recovery.[59] He was propped up in bed before a window with a view of the beach and ocean.[62] New infections set in, as well as spasms of angina. He died of a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm,[63] following sepsis and bronchial pneumonia at 10:35 pm on Monday, September 19, 1881 in Elberon, New Jersey, two months before his 50th birthday. During the 79 days between his shooting and death, Garfield's only official act was to sign a request for the extradition of a forger who had escaped and was apprehended after he fled to Canada.[64]

Mourners pass Garfield's body. Front L–R, Secretary of State James G. Blaine, President Chester A. Arthur, former Vice President Schuyler Colfax, former President Ulysses S. Grant, and 1880 Democratic presidential nominee Winfield Scott Hancock
President Garfield's casket lying in state at the Capitol Rotunda
The funeral in Lake View Cemetery

Most historians and medical experts now believe that Garfield probably would have survived his wound had the doctors been more capable.[65][66] However, most American doctors of the day did not believe in anti-sepsis measures or the need for cleanliness to prevent infection.[67] Several inserted their unsterilized fingers into the wound to probe for the bullet, and one doctor punctured Garfield's liver in doing so. Also, Bliss had supplanted Garfield's physician Jedediah Hyde Baxter. Bliss and the other doctors who attended Garfield had guessed wrong about the path of the bullet in his body; they had probed rightward into his back instead of leftward, missing the location of the bullet but creating a new channel which filled with pus. The autopsy discovered this error and revealed pneumonia in both lungs and a body that was filled with pus due to uncontrolled sepsis.[68]

Chester Arthur was at his home in New York City when word came the night of September 19 that Garfield had died. He said, "I hope—my God, I do hope it is a mistake", but confirmation by telegram came soon after. Arthur was inaugurated early in the morning on September 20, and he took the presidential oath of office from John R. Brady, a New York Supreme Court judge. Arthur then left for Long Branch to pay his respects to Mrs. Garfield before going on to Washington.[69]

Garfield's body was taken to Washington, where it lay in state for two days in the Capitol Rotunda before being taken to Cleveland, Ohio, where the funeral was held on September 26.[70]

Trial and execution[edit]

Guiteau went on trial in November,[71] represented by his brother-in-law George Scolville. He received ample media attention during his trial for his bizarre behavior, including constantly insulting his defense team, formatting his testimony in epic poems which he recited at length, and soliciting legal advice from random spectators in the audience via passed notes. He claimed that he was not guilty because Garfield's murder was the will of God and he was only an instrument of it.[72] He sang "John Brown's Body" to the court.[73] He dictated an autobiography to the New York Herald, ending it with a personal ad for a nice Christian lady under 30.[74] He was oblivious to the American public's outrage and hatred of him, even after he was almost assassinated twice himself—once while in prison, and again while being transported there. At one point, he argued that Garfield was killed not by him but by medical malpractice: "I deny the killing, if your honor please. We admit the shooting."[75] He was housed at St. Elizabeths Hospital in the southeastern quadrant of Washington, D.C. throughout the trial and up until his execution.

Funeral music written in Garfield's honor

Guiteau's trial was one of the first high-profile cases in the United States where the insanity defense was considered.[76] Guiteau vehemently insisted that he had been legally insane at the time of the shooting, but he was not really medically insane, which caused a major rift with his defense lawyers, and which probably contributed to the jury's impression that Guiteau was merely trying to deny responsibility.

Silk mourning ribbon

Guiteau was actively making plans to start a lecture tour after his release and to run for president himself in 1884; at the same time, he delighted in the media circus surrounding his trial. He was dismayed when the jury was unconvinced of his divine inspiration, convicting him of the murder. He was found guilty on January 25, 1882.[77] He appealed, but his appeal was rejected, and he was hanged on June 30, 1882, in the District of Columbia. Guiteau famously danced his way up to the gallows and waved at the audience from the gallows, shook hands with his executioner and, as a last request, recited a poem that he had written called "I am Going to the Lordy".[78] He requested an orchestra to play as he sang the poem; it was denied.

Aftermath[edit]

The Garfield Monument at the U.S. Capitol
Memorial to President Garfield in the former train station. The gold star on the floor marked his location when he was shot.

Part of Charles Guiteau's preserved brain is on display at the Mütter Museum at the College of Physicians of Philadelphia.[79] Guiteau's bones and more of his brain, along with Garfield's backbone and a few ribs, are kept at the National Museum of Health and Medicine,[80] at the Army's Forest Glen Annex in Silver Spring, Maryland. Garfield's assassination was instrumental to the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act on January 16, 1883. Garfield himself had called for civil service reform in his inaugural address[81] and supported it as President in the belief that it would make government more efficient.[82] It was passed as something of a memorial to the fallen President.[83] Arthur lost the Republican Party nomination in 1884 to Blaine, who went on to lose a close election to Democrat Grover Cleveland.

The Sixth Street rail station was later demolished. The site is now occupied by the West Building of the National Gallery of Art. No plaque or memorial marks the spot where Garfield was shot,[84] but a few blocks away, a Garfield memorial statue stands on the southwest corner of the Capitol grounds.

The question of Presidential disability was not addressed. Article II, section 1, clause 6 of the Constitution says that in case of the "Inability [of the President] to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President", but gives no further instruction on what constitutes inability or how the President's inability should be determined. Garfield had lain on his sickbed for 80 days without performing any of the duties of his office except for the signing of an extradition paper, but this did not prove to be a difficulty because in the 19th century the federal government effectively shut down for the summer regardless. During Garfield's ordeal, the Congress was not in session and there was little for a President to do. Blaine suggested the Cabinet declare Arthur acting President, but this option was rejected by all, including Arthur, who did not wish to be perceived as grasping for power.[57][85]

The Garfield Tea House in October 2007

Congress did not deal with the problem of what to do if a President were alive but incapacitated as Garfield was, nor did the Congress take up the question 38 years later, when Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke that put him in a coma for days and left him partially paralyzed and blind in one eye for the last year and a half of his presidency. It was not until the Twenty-fifth Amendment was ratified in 1967 that there was an official procedure for what to do if the president became incapacitated.

Lincoln's assassination had taken place roughly 16 years before in the closing stages of the Civil War. On the other hand, Garfield's term was marked (for the most part) by peacetime, and a general complacency with respect to presidential security had developed by this time. Garfield, like many other presidents, often preferred to interact directly with the public, and although some form of security was almost certainly in place, a comprehensive security detail had not been seriously considered by either Congress or the president up to that point. Remarkably, it would not be until the assassination of William McKinley some twenty years later that Congress would finally task the United States Secret Service (founded to prevent counterfeiting) with the responsibility of ensuring the president's personal safety.[86]

The Garfield Tea House, built by the citizens of Long Branch, New Jersey, with the railroad ties that had been laid down specifically to give Garfield's train access to their town, still stands today.[87]

In November 2018, the National Park Service erected two exhibit panels in Washington to mark the site of the assassination. They are scheduled to remain in place through June 2021.[88][89]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cheney, Lynne Vincent. "Mrs. Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper" Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. American Heritage Magazine. October 1975. Volume 26, Issue 6. URL retrieved on January 24, 2007.
  2. ^ "The attack on the President's life". Library of Congress. URL retrieved on January 24, 2007.
  3. ^ Addams (2009), pp. 26–27
  4. ^ Faber & Faber (2012), pp. 133
  5. ^ Millard (2011), p. 57
  6. ^ Wang (1997), pp. 184–186
  7. ^ Feldman (2005), p. 86
  8. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 587
  9. ^ a b Millard (2011), pp. 106–107
  10. ^ Peskin (1978), pp. 588–589
  11. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 588
  12. ^ Oliver & Marion (2010), p. 41
  13. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 589
  14. ^ Oliver & Marion (2010), p. 42
  15. ^ Millard (2011), p. 127
  16. ^ Millard (2011), p. 106
  17. ^ Resnick (2015)
  18. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 590
  19. ^ Millard (2011), pp. 80–82
  20. ^ Vowell (2005), p. 170
  21. ^ a b "Trial Transcript: Cross-Examination of Charles Guiteau". Law2.umkc.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-25.
  22. ^ Alexander (1882), pp. 107–108
  23. ^ Reyburn, Robert (March 24, 1894). "History of the Case of President Garfield". Journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association: 412. doi:10.1001/jama.1894.02420910009001a.
  24. ^ June (1999), p. 24
  25. ^ Vowell (2005), p. 165
  26. ^ "Garfield's Assassin". Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Springfield, IL: Illinois State Historical Society. 70: 136. 1977. ISSN 0019-2287. OCLC 1588445.
  27. ^ Vowell (2005), p. 168
  28. ^ Taylor (2007), pp. 77–78
  29. ^ Kittler (1965), p. 114
  30. ^ Vowell (2005), pp. 164–165
  31. ^ Original letter Archived 2008-02-07 at the Wayback Machine in Georgetown Univ. collection
  32. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 592
  33. ^ "A Great Nation in Grief" The New York Times, 3 July 1881.
  34. ^ a b Peskin (1978), p. 593
  35. ^ a b Vowell (2005), p. 160
  36. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 581
  37. ^ Conwell (1881), p. 349
  38. ^ a b Peskin (1978), p. 596
  39. ^ Millard (2011), pp. 189, 312
  40. ^ "Garfield II: A Lengthy Demise". History House. Archived from the original on December 22, 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  41. ^ New York Herald, July 3, 1881
  42. ^ Millard (2011), p. 230
  43. ^ Millard (2011), p. 47
  44. ^ Millard (2011), p. 178
  45. ^ Peskin (1978), pp. 596–597
  46. ^ a b Peskin (1978), p. 597
  47. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 598
  48. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 599
  49. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 600
  50. ^ Vowell (2005), p. 124
  51. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 601
  52. ^ Peskin (1978), pp. 601–602
  53. ^ Millard (2011), p. 194
  54. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 602
  55. ^ Millard (2011)
  56. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 603
  57. ^ a b Peskin (1978), p. 604
  58. ^ Bliss, D. W. "Feeding Per Rectum: As Illustrated in the Case of the Late President Garfield and Others". Washington: N.p., n.d. Rpt. from the Medical Record, July 15, 1882.
  59. ^ a b Peskin (1978), p. 605
  60. ^ Millard (2011), pp. 289–291
  61. ^ "The Death Of President Garfield, 1881". www.eyewitnesstohistory.com. Retrieved 2019-08-03.
  62. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 606
  63. ^ Millard (2011), p. 313
  64. ^ Swaney, Homer H. (1881). Lives of James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur. Washington, DC: Rufus H. Darby, Printer and Publisher. p. 95.
  65. ^ A President Felled by an Assassin and 1880’s Medical Care The New York Times, July 25, 2006.
  66. ^ Millard (2011), p. 208
  67. ^ Millard (2011), pp. 25–26
  68. ^ Millard (2011), pp. 312–313
  69. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 608
  70. ^ Peskin (1978), pp. 608–609
  71. ^ Millard (2011), p. 321
  72. ^ Vowell (2005), p. 173
  73. ^ Vowell (2005), p. 136
  74. ^ Millard (2011), p. 250
  75. ^ Millard (2011), p. 322
  76. ^ Vowell (2005), p. 175
  77. ^ "Guiteau Found Guilty," New York Times. January 26, 1882, p. 1
  78. ^ "Last Words of Assassin Charles Guiteau". University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Law. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2007.
  79. ^ Siera, J.J. "Come see Dead People at the Mutter Museum[permanent dead link]". Venue Magazine. Rowan University. Issue 41. Volume 2. URL retrieved February 19, 2007.
  80. ^ Carlson, Peter. "Rest in Pieces". The Washington Post. January 24, 2006. p. C1.
  81. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 540
  82. ^ Peskin (1978), pp. 551–553
  83. ^ Peskin (1978), p. 610
  84. ^ Vowell (2005), p. 159
  85. ^ Vowell (2005), p. 171
  86. ^ President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy (1992). The Warren Commission Report. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-312-08257-6. The first congressional session after the assassination of McKinley gave more attention to legislation concerning attacks on the President than had any previous Congress but did not pass any measures for the protection of the President. Nevertheless, in 1902 the Secret Service, which was then the only Federal general investigative agency of any consequence, assumed full-time responsibility for the safety of the President.
  87. ^ Vowell (2005), p. 185
  88. ^ Daley, Jason (November 19, 2018). "Why Doesn't Garfield Assassination Site on the National Mall Have a Marker?". Smithsonian. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  89. ^ "Unveiling of President Garfield Assassination Waysides" (Press release). National Park Service. November 7, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2019.

Cited works[edit]

External links[edit]