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Autogenic training is a desensitation-relaxation technique developed by the German psychiatrist Johannes Heinrich Schultz and first published in 1932. Studying the self-reports of people immersed in a hypnotic state, J.H. Schultz noted that physiological changes are accompanied by certain feelings. Abbé Faria and Émile Coué are the forerunners of Schultz. The technique involves repetitions of a set of visualisations that induce a state of relaxation. The technique is used to alleviate many stress-induced psychosomatic disorders.
Biofeedback practitioners integrates basic elements of autogenic imagery and have simplified versions of parallel techniques that is used in combination with biofeedback. This was done at the Menninger Foundation by Elmer Green, Steve Fahrio, Patricia Norris, Joe Sargent, Dale Walters and others, they incorporated the hand warming imagery of autogenic training and used it as an aid to develop thermal biofeedback.
Autogenic training was popularized in North America and the English-speaking world by Wolfgang Luthe, who co-authored, with Schultz, a multi-volume tome on autogenic training. In 1963 Luthe discovered the significance of "autogenic discharges", paroxysmic phenomena of motor, sensorial, visual and emotional nature related to the traumatic history of the patient, and developed the method of "autogenic abreaction". His disciple Luis de Rivera, a McGill University-trained psychiatrist, introduced psychodynamic concepts into Luthe's approach, developing "autogenic analysis" as a new method for uncovering the unconscious.
Practice and Effects
Autogenic training restores the balance between the activity of the sympathetic (flight or fight) and the parasympathetic (rest and digest) branches of the autonomic nervous system. This has important health benefits, as the parasympathetic activity promotes digestion and bowel movements, lowers the blood pressure, slows the heart rate, and promotes the functions of the immune system. Each session can be practiced in a position chosen amongst a set of recommended postures (for example, lying down, sitting meditation, sitting like a rag doll).
Autogenic training has been subject to clinical evaluation from its early days in Germany, and from the early 1980s worldwide. In 2002, a meta-analysis of 60 studies was published in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, finding significant positive effects of treatment when compared to normals over a number of diagnoses; finding these effects to be similar to best recommended rival therapies; and finding positive additional effects by patients, such as their perceived quality of life.
In Japan, four researchers from the Tokyo Psychology and Counseling Service Center have formulated a measure for reporting clinical effectiveness of autogenic training.
- Yoga nidra
- The Relaxation Response
- Moral aspect of Autogenic Training.
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- Rivera, José Luis González de (2001). Autogenic analysis: the tool Freud was looking for (PDF). International Journal of Psychotherapy. 6. pp. 67–76. doi:10.1080/13569080120042216.
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- Ikezuki, M; Miyauchi, Y; Yamaguchi, H; Koshikawa, F (February 2002). "自律訓練法の臨床効果測定用尺度 (ATCES) の開発 [Development of Autogenic Training Clinical Effectiveness Scale (ATCES)]". 心理学研究 (Shinrigaku Kenkyu) (in Japanese). 72 (6): 475–481. doi:10.4992/jjpsy.72.475. PMID 11977841.
- Bird, Jane; Pinch, Christine (2002). Autogenic therapy: self-help for mind and body. Dublin: Newleaf. ISBN 9780717134229.
- Greenberg. Comprehensive Stress Mgmt 10E. McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Limited. pp. 181–. ISBN 978-0-07-067104-1.
- Luthe, Wolfgang; Schultz, Johannes Heinrich (1969). Autogenic therapy. New York: Grune & Stratton. ISBN 9780808906643. OCLC 47990. Republished in 2001 by The British Autogenic Society. In six volumes.
- Vol. 1 Autogenic Methods
- Vol. 2 Medical Applications
- Vol. 3 Applications in Psychotherapy
- Vol. 4 Research and Theory
- Vol. 5 Dynamics of Autogenic Neutralisation
- Vol. 6 Treatment with Autogenic Neutralisation