British Columbia Highway 99

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Highway 99 shield

Highway 99
Vancouver-Blaine Freeway
Fraser Delta Thruway
Sea to Sky Highway
Duffey Lake Road
Route information
Length: 377 km[1] (234 mi)
Existed: 1942 – present
Major junctions
South end: I‑5 at Canada–United States border in Surrey
  BC 91 in Delta
BC 17 in Delta
BC 17A in Delta
BC 91 in Richmond
BC 7 in Vancouver
BC 1 in West Vancouver
BC 12 in Lillooet
North end: BC 97 near Cache Creek
Location
Districts: Delta, North Vancouver, West Vancouver, Squamish, Whistler, Lillooet
Major cities: Surrey, Richmond, Vancouver
Villages: Lions Bay, Pemberton
Highway system

British Columbia provincial highways

BC 97D BC 101

Highway 99, also known as the Fraser Delta Thruway south of Vancouver, and the Sea to Sky Highway, the Squamish Highway, or Whistler Highway north of Vancouver, is the major north–south artery running through the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia from the U.S. border, up Howe Sound through the Sea to Sky Country to Lillooet, and connecting to Highway 97 just north of Cache Creek. The number of this highway is derived from the old U.S. Route 99, with which the highway originally connected. The highway currently connects with Interstate 5 at the international border.

This highway received the "99" designation in 1942 after completion of the King George VI Highway (1940) to the U.S. border, and it originally shared an alignment with Highway 1 from Surrey to Vancouver via the Pattullo Bridge and Kingsway.[citation needed] The current freeway alignment of Highway 99 between 8th Avenue in South Surrey and the North Arm of the Fraser River opened in 1962 as Hwy. 99 and was called the Deas (Island) Throughway. Between 1964 and 1973, the freeway alignment of Highway 99 was designated Highway 499. The Oak Street Bridge was built in 1957 to cross the North Arm Fraser River, and the Deas Island Tunnel was built 1957–59 (renamed the George Massey Tunnel in 1967) to cross the Fraser River. Tolls were collected at the crossings until April 1 1963.[2]

In 1957, the northern end of Highway 99 was moved from downtown Vancouver, across the Lions Gate Bridge and west to the village of Horseshoe Bay, following Marine Drive through West Vancouver. Highway 99 was re-aligned via Taylor Way, just east of the Park Royal Shopping Centre, to the Upper Levels Highway and extended to Britannia Beach one year later, extending to Squamish in 1959, and to Pemberton in 1966. Finally, in 1992, the just-paved Duffey Lake Road between Pemberton and Lillooet was made part of Highway 99, and the section of Highway 12 between Lillooet and Highway 97 was re-numbered 99. The portion of the highway between Lillooet and Pavilion was part of the route of the Old Cariboo Road.[citation needed]

The total length of Highway 99 from the U.S. border to the Highway 97 junction is 409 kilometres (254 mi). In 2006 the UK's The Guardian newspaper listed the Sea to Sky as the fifth best road trip worldwide.[3]

Route details[edit]

South Surrey to Richmond[edit]

Highway 99 in Metro Vancouver, highlighted in red.

In the south, Highway 99 begins at the British Columbia – Washington State border crossing at Douglas, on the Canadian side of Peace Arch Park, as a continuation of Interstate 5. The highway begins with a four-lane freeway configuration. Highway 99 travels through Surrey 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) due northwest from the border, through four interchanges, and then turns west for 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) before reaching the junction with Highway 91, marking the highway's entry into the Corporation of Delta. Four km (2½ mi) west, Highway 99 reaches its junction with Ladner Trunk Road (formerly Highway 10). Eight km (5 mi) north, Highway 99 reaches a junction with Highway 17A. Another 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) northwest, Highway 99 crosses into Richmond through the George Massey Tunnel, also known as the Deas Tunnel or Deas Island Tunnel. From Surrey to Vancouver, the speed limit is 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph).

Through Richmond, Highway 99 travels 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) north from the Steveston Highway interchange, at the north mouth of the tunnel, to a junction which connects to the Westminster Highway, Knight Street, and western end of Highway 91. Another 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) northwest, the southern freeway section of Highway 99 ends as the highway crosses the North Arm of the Fraser River, over the Oak Street Bridge, into Vancouver.

Vancouver[edit]

Highway 99, looking north (towards Vancouver) from the Steveston Highway overpass, just north of the George Massey Tunnel.
The Lions' Gate Bridge carries Highway 99 between Vancouver and North Vancouver

The 30-kilometre (19 mi) long route through Vancouver's city streets starts off going north on Oak Street to the intersection with West 70th Avenue. Highway 99 then goes west on West 70th Avenue,[i] and then north along Granville Street for 7 kilometres (4.3 mi), 41st Avenue is used as an alternate signed connection between Granville and Oak Streets. It crosses over False Creek (via the Granville Street Bridge) into the downtown core. Highway 99 north goes through the downtown area by way of Seymour Street (southbound it uses Howe Street) and Georgia Street, through Stanley Park, and over the Lions Gate Bridge into West Vancouver at Marine Drive.

Trans-Canada Highway/Upper Levels Highway[edit]

In West Vancouver, Highway 99 goes west on Marine Drive and north on Taylor Way, to Highway 1. Highway 99 shares the Upper Levels Highway with Highway 1 for 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) west, diverging from Highway 1 near the BC Ferries terminal at Horseshoe Bay.

Sea to Sky Highway and Duffey Lake Road[edit]

Highway 99 north of Squamish

The "Sea to Sky Highway" is the name given to the section of Highway 99 from Horseshoe Bay to Pemberton. From Horseshoe Bay, the highway travels along the coast of Howe Sound for 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) to Lions Bay, north for another 21 kilometres (13 mi), crossing into the Squamish-Lillooet Regional District en route to Britannia Beach, and north for 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) to Squamish, at the head of Howe Sound. From Squamish, it continues north for another 58 kilometres (36 mi) to Whistler, and then to Pemberton 32 kilometres (20 mi) later, where the Sea-to-Sky Highway ends and Duffey Lake Road begins. After going for almost 100 winding kilometres in very steep mountains where sometimes the speed limit is 30 km/h, (99 km) (62 mi) northeast, Highway 99 reaches the junction with Highway 12 at Lillooet, and then goes northeast for another 75 kilometres (47 mi) to its northern terminus at its junction with Highway 97, just north of Cache Creek and just south of Clinton. The speed limit of the Sea-to-Sky Highway ranges from 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph) to 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) with 60 kilometres per hour (37 mph) sections in Lions Bay, Britannia Beach and parts of Squamish.

The Sea to Sky Highway section of Highway 99 has a checkered history. Built on a steep cliff overlooking Howe Sound, it was a two-lane undivided highway with no outside barrier. Many motorists have lost their lives on it due to inclement weather, poor visibility, speeding, passing slower vehicles, or drunk driving.[citation needed]

As part of the 2010 Winter Olympics bid, the British Columbia provincial government authorized an upgrade of the highway to accommodate greater traffic loads, widening the highway and adding a concrete divider. Starting in 2002 a large section was upgraded between Squamish and Whistler that had already seen major improvements during the 1980s. The Sea to Sky is a freeway from the interchange with Highway 1 to the at-grade intersection with Lawrence Way. After that, there are sporadic interchanges and at-grade intersections. It is mostly a divided highway all the way to Lions Bay and through Squamish.[citation needed]

On-site protests delayed part of the construction. Protesters claimed that a tunnel under Eagleridge Bluffs was a safer and environmentally friendlier alternative. A court injunction and police were used to remove the protestors, one of whom, Harriet Nahanee, a respected Squamish elder, died soon after in the Surrey Pre-Trial Centre from health complications alleged to be related to her arrest and incarceration.[4][5]

Major intersections[edit]

From south to north:

Regional district Location km[6][1] mi Exit[7] Destinations Notes
Continues as I‑5 south – Bellingham, Everett, Seattle
Metro Vancouver Peace Arch Border Crossing 0.00 0.00 Canada – United States border
South end of Vancouver-Blaine Freeway and Fraser-Delta Thruway
Surrey 0.60 0.37 1 Beach Road At-grade intersection
1.60 0.99 2 8th Avenue – To BC 1 / BC 15 – USA Border, White Rock, Hope Signed as exits 2A (8th Avenue east) and 2B (8th Avenue west) southbound; southbound exit 2B is via King George Boulevard
3.41 2.12 4 16th Avenue
7.27 4.52 8A 152nd Street south Southbound exit only
7.66 4.76 8B 32nd Avenue, 152nd Street north Southbound exit and northbound entrance
9.63 5.98 10 King George Boulevard (former BC 99A) – Surrey City Centre No access to BC 99 southbound from King George northbound
Delta 15.56 9.67 16 BC 91 north – North Delta, New Westminster
20.36 12.65 20 Ladner Trunk RoadSouth Delta Northbound access to Boundary Bay Airport
23.61 14.67 23 80th Street Southbound exit only; access to Boundary Bay Airport
25.37 15.76 26 BC 17 (South Fraser Perimeter Road) to BC 1 east – Tsawwassen, Victoria, Nanaimo, Hope BC 17 exit 13; no direct access from BC 99 north to BC 17 east; Victoria and Nanaimo are via BC Ferries
27.86 17.31 28 BC 17A south / River Road – Ladner
28.60 17.77 29 River Road south Southbound exit only
↑ / ↓ 29.55–
30.41
18.36–
18.90
George Massey Tunnel under the South Arm Fraser River
Richmond 31.59 19.63 32 Steveston Highway
35.68 22.17 36 Westminster Highway Northbound exit and southbound entrance
36.71 22.81 37 BC 91 east – North Delta, Surrey No access to Alderbridge Way
37.33 23.20 38 Shell Road Southbound exit and northbound entrance
38.31 23.80 39B No. 4 Road Southbound exit only
38.91 24.18 39A Sea Island Way – Airport (YVR) No northbound exit
39 Bridgeport Road – Airport (YVR) Northbound exit and entrance
↑ / ↓ 38.91–
40.69
24.18–
25.28
Oak Street Bridge over the North Arm Fraser River
Vancouver 40.69 25.28 41 Marine Drive Signed as 41A (Marine Drive east) and 41B (Marine Drive west) northbound; no exit number southbound; southbound exit is via Oak Street
North end of freeway • North end of Vancouver-Blaine Freeway and Fraser-Delta Thruway
40.86 25.39 70th Avenue[i]
Oak Street
BC 99 branches west onto 70th Avenue (officially); left turns prohibited; BC 99 north signed to 41st Avenue
41.6 25.8 Granville Street
Marine Drive
BC 99 branches north onto Granville Street
43.7 27.2 49th Avenue
44.5 27.7 41st Avenue[ii] Signed BC 99 north connection between Oak Street and Granville Street
46.1 28.6 King Edward Avenue
47.4 29.5 12th Avenue
47.7 29.6 Broadway (BC 7 east)
48.2 30.0 4th Avenue, Fir Street south BC 99 turns northeast
Interchange; 4th Avenue is southbound exit and northbound entrance; Fir Street is southbound exit only
48.2–
49.1
30.0–
30.5
Granville Street Bridge over False Creek
49.1 30.5 South end of Downtown Vancouver
Seymour Street, Howe Street
Granville Street
One-way transition; northbound BC 99 follows Seymour Street, southbound BC 99 followes Howe Street; left exit to Granville Street
49.9 31.0 Nelson Street One-way, southeast-bound; provides access to the Cambie Bridge
50.1 31.1 Smithe Street One-way, northwest-bound; provides access from the Cambie Bridge
50.3 31.3 Robson Street
50.4 31.3 Georgia Street (former BC 1A / BC 99A)
Seymour Street, Howe Street
BC 99 branches northwest onto Georgia Street; south end of former BC 1A concurrency
50.8 31.6 Burrard Street Provides access to the Burrard Bridge
52.40 32.56 Chilco Street No access; becomes Stanley Park Causeway
North end of Downtown Vancouver • South end of Stanley Park
52.71 32.75 North Lagoon Drive Interchange; no southbound exit
54.38 33.79 Stanley Park Drive Closed during peak hours; no southbound entrance
54.70 33.99 North end of Stanley Park
↑ / ↓ 54.70–
56.23
33.99–
34.94
Lions Gate Bridge over Burrard Inlet
North Vancouver (district) 56.52 35.12 Marine Drive – To Capilano Road, BC 1 Interchange; BC 99 branches west onto Marine Drive
↑ / ↓ 56.68 35.22 Capilano Bridge over the Capilano River
West Vancouver 56.91 35.36 Taylor Way
Marine Drive
BC 99 branches north onto Taylor Way
58.09 36.10 13 BC 1 east – North Vancouver (city), Vancouver
Taylor Way
Interchange; BC 99 branches west; north end of former BC 1A concurrency; south end of BC 1 concurrency
BC 99 south exits freeway using Exit 13 • South end of freeway
59.72 37.11 11 15th Street, Cross Creek Road
60.63 37.67 10 21st Street, Westhill Drive No southbound exit
61.28 38.08 10 22nd Street Southbound exit only
62.72 38.97 8 Cypress Bowl Road
64.29 39.95 7 Wentworth Avenue, Westmount Road
66.96 41.61 4 Woodgreen Drive, Headland Drive
68.76 42.73 3 BC 1 west to BC 101 – Horseshoe Bay, Nanaimo, Gibsons North end of BC 1 concurrency; BC 101, Nanaimo and Gibsons are via BC Ferries; BC 99 turns north; Northbound exit, southbound entrance
South end of Sea to Sky Highway
69.37 43.10 2 Eagleridge Drive to Marine Drive Northbound exit and southbound entrance
72.57 45.09 Horseshoe Bay Drive to Marine Drive Southbound exit and northbound entrance; former BC 99; serves Horseshoe Bay
73.99 45.98 Seascape Drive, Ansell Place U-turn route
North end of freeway
74.67 46.40 Lawrence Way At-grade intersection; no northbound entrance
76.48 47.52 Strachan Point Road Southbound right-in and right-out
77.63 48.24 Ocean Point Drive to Strachan Point Road Seagull intersection
Lions Bay 80.50 50.02 Kelvin Grove Way Interchange
81.15 50.42 Lions Bay Avenue Interchange
83.07 51.62 Brunswick Road Interchange
Squamish-Lillooet 92.22 57.30 Porteau Road Interchange; U-turn route
94.18 58.52 Porteau Cove Provincial Park Seagull intersection
96.42 59.91 Furry Creek Drive Northbound right-in/right-out
97.95 60.86 Furry Creek Drive Southbound right-in/right-out
Britannia Beach 102.28 63.55 Copper Drive
109.49 68.03 Darrell Bay Road, Shannon Falls Road Darrell Bay Road serves Darrell Bay; Shannon Falls Road serves Shannon Falls Provincial Park
Squamish 112.10 69.66 Valley Drive
113.67 70.63 Cleveland Avenue, Loggers Lane Cleaveland Avenue provides accesss to Downtown Squamish
115.22 71.59 Industrial Way, Finch Drive
115.73 71.91 Commercial Way
116.55 72.42 Centennial Way Interchange
117.54 73.04 Mamquam Road
118.19 73.44 Garibaldi Way
121.00 75.19 Depot Road – Brackendale
123.48 76.73 Squamish Valley Road, Alice Lake Road – Paradise Valley Alice Lake Road serves Alice Lake Provincial Park
150.61 93.58 Retta Lake Road Seagull intersection
154.55 96.03 Brandywine Falls Provincial Park
157.79 98.05 Callaghan Valley Road – Whistler Olympic Park, Callaghan Lake Provincial Park
Whistler 166.46 103.43 Alta Lake Road
167.68 104.19 Lake Placid Road Provides access to Creekside Village
171.73 106.71 Village Gate Road Provides access to Whistler Village
172.36 107.10 Lormier Road Provides access to Upper Village
174.89 108.67 Nicklaus North Boulevard, Cypress Place Nicklaus North Boulevard serves Whistler/Green Lake Water Aerodrome
175.61 109.12 Alpine Way
Pemberton 203.56 126.49 Pemberton Meadows Road, Vine Road
North end of Sea to Sky Highway • South end of Duffey Lake Road
Mount Currie 210.50 130.80 Pemberton Portage Road – D'Arcy BC 99 branches northeast
Lillooet 301.07 187.08 Seton Lake Road (Road 40) – Gold Bridge BC 99 branches east
301.58 187.39 Twenty Three Camels Bridge over the Fraser River
302.31 187.85 BC 12 south – Lytton, Hope BC 99 branches north
North end of Duffey Lake Road
377.04 234.28 BC 97 – Prince George, 100 Mile House, Cache Creek, Kamloops
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b A left turn from Oak Street onto 70th Avenue is not permitted, but a right turn from 70th Avenue onto Oak Street is permitted.
  2. ^ Alternate route of BC 99 (unofficial).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Google (January 3, 2017). "Highway 99 in British Columbia" (Map). Google Maps. Google. 
  2. ^ "The Sun - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  3. ^ "Five Best...Road Trips". The Guardian. London. 1 April 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2016. 
  4. ^ "First Nations elder Harriet Nahanee (1935 - 2007)". Institute for the History of Science. 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  5. ^ Harriet Nahanee Did Not Die in Vain, Rafe Mair, The Tyee, March 5, 2007
  6. ^ Landmark Kilometre Inventory (PDF). British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (Report). Cypher Consulting. July 2016. pp. 12–14, 515–537. 
  7. ^ "Highway Exits & Landmarks". Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. Province of British Columbia. Retrieved January 3, 2017. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Bing / Google

KML is from Wikidata