Comboios de Portugal
|Products||Rail Transport (Passenger)|
|Revenue||€ -225.6 million (2013)|
|€ -75.35 million (2013)|
|Owner||Government of Portugal (100%)|
Number of employees
CP — Comboios de Portugal, EPE (CP; English: Trains of Portugal) is a state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains in Portugal. Before June 2009, CP stood for Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses (English: Portuguese Railways) although the company has been using its current designation as a brand name since 2004.
On 28 October 1856 the first railway line was inaugurated in Portugal, between Lisbon and Carregado: the Companhia dos Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses was born. The network was gradually expanded both south of the Tagus and to the north of the country, as well as in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Porto and to Spain. During the second half of the 20th century, much of CP's rolling stock was built in Portugal by Sorefame - notably carriages with stainless steel bodywork.
Gradually, electrification was put in place for a little less than half the network. In 1975, the company was nationalized, and its name was shortened to CP, A plan to finally connect all the district capitals by a fully electrified double line was to be implemented from 2010. Part of this plan is based on the Swiss Rail 2000 model.
As of 2012, the Portuguese rail system is facing the threat of considerable contraction due to spending cuts by the Portuguese government. The Vouga line is now the only narrow gauge line left in operation - it is also slated for closure.
The infrastructure of the Portuguese network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal, EP, usually abbreviated to IP
Portuguese railway network extent:
- Broad gauge (1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in)): 2,603 km (1,617 mi), 1,351 km (839 mi) electrified at 25 kV 50 Hz AC and 25 km (16 mi) at 1.5 kV DC.
- Narrow gauge (metre gauge) 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in): 188 km (117 mi) not electrified.
- The maximum extent of 3,592 km (2,232 mi) was reached in 1949, but in the late 1980s and early 1990s some lines were shortened and some totally closed.
CP is split into four divisions:
- CP Longo Curso, long-distance mainline services (Alfa Pendular, Intercidades and International trains).
- CP Regional, regional services (Interregional and Regional).
- CP Lisboa, Lisbon's suburban network.
- CP Porto, Porto's suburban network.
CP offers the following types of trains:
- International (IN) is the service that connects Portugal and Spain (one reaches France). These are the Sud Express (Lisbon - Irún/ Hendaye), the Lusitânia (Lisbon - Madrid) and the Celta (Porto - Vigo). Both Sud Express and Lusitânia are night trains that run as Trenhotel (Hotel Train).
- Alfa Pendular (AP) is the fastest service, whose speeds can reach 220 km/h. This service runs from Lisbon to either Porto, Braga or Guimarães (passing through Coimbra, Aveiro and Porto) or between Porto and Faro.
- Intercidades (IC) is a fast long-distance service whose speeds can reach 200 km/h. All IC services (apart from the Beja Shuttle) run from Lisbon to either Porto, Braga, Guimarães, Guarda, Covilhã or Évora (with connection at Casa Branca to Beja), serving the majority of the Portuguese regions.
- Inter-Regional (IR) is a medium distance service which stops only at the main stations. Runs mainly on the routes Porto-Viana do Castelo-Valença (Minho Line), Porto-Régua-Pocinho (Douro Line), Lisbon-Caldas da Rainha-Leiria-Coimbra (West Line) and Lisbon-Tomar (North Line). Services are operated by the same trains as Regional service.
- Regional (R) is CP's local service, stopping at all stations, out of the Lisbon and Porto suburban areas.
- Urbano (U) is the CP's suburban service, in the regions of Lisbon and Porto and in the Coimbra-Figueira da Foz Line.
CP's flagship service, introduced in 1999, is the Alfa Pendular which operates between Braga - Porto - Lisbon - Faro, at a top speed of 220 km/h (138 mph) with FIAT/Siemens tilting trains. As of 2006, CP's network reaches most of the country.
CP inaugurated new trains in suburban service in the 1990s.
- Linha do Minho
- Ramal de Braga
- Linha de Guimarães
- Linha de Leixões (freight-only)
- Linha do Douro
- Linha do Norte
- Linha do Vale do Vouga (partially closed; last 1000 mm gauge line)
- Linha da Beira Alta
- Ramal da Lousã (track lifted to allow the construction of the Metro Mondego; construction stoped due to lack of money)
- Ramal de Alfarelos
- Linha do Oeste
- Ramal do Louriçal (freight-only)
- Ramal de Tomar
- Linha da Beira Baixa
- Linha do Leste (freight-only, except a twice a week service to Portalegre from Entroncamento)
- Linha de Vendas Novas (freight-only)
- Linha da Matinha (freight-only)
- Linha de Cintura
- Linha de Sintra
- Linha de Cascais
- Linha do Alentejo (closed between Beja and Ourique; freight-only from Ourique to Funcheira)
- Linha de Évora (only opend between Casa Branca and Évora)
- Ramal Neves Corvo (freight-only)
- Linha do Sul
- Linha de Sines (freight-only)
- Linha do Algarve
- Ramal da Figueira da Foz (closed January 2009)
- Linha de Évora (closed between Évora and Vila Viçosa)
- Ramal de Portalegre-Estação
- Ramal de Mora
- Ramal de Moura
- Ramal do Estádio Nacional
- Linha do Minho (between Valença and Monção)
- Linha da Beira Baixa (between Covilhã and Guarda)
- Linha do Douro (between Pocinho and Barca d'Alva)
- Ramal de Cáceres (closed August 2012)
- Linha da Póvoa (metre gauge line, transformed into Porto Metro between 2001 and 2002)
- Linha de Guimarães (metre gauge line, between Senhora da Hora and Trofa)
- Linha de Famalicão (metre gauge line)
- Linha do Corgo (metre gauge line, closed 2009)
- Linha do Dão (metre gauge line, closed 1988)
- Linha do Sabor (metre gauge line, closed 1988)
- Linha de Sintra (Larmanjat Line, closed 1877)
- Linha do Tâmega (metre gauge line, closed 2009)
- Linha de Torres Vedras (Larmanjat Line, closed 1877)
- Linha do Tua (metre gauge line, closed 2009, apart from the Metro de Mirandela)
- Ramal de Viseu (metre gauge line, closed 1990)
Passenger rolling stock
Comboios de Portugal utilises the following rolling stock and commercial products:
CP's 5600 Series are responsible for most Intercity services. Several sold to Medway for freight use. One is here seen on the Linha do Sul, near Alcácer do Sal.
CP's 2240 Series are responsible for Suburban (Sado Line), Regional, Inter-Regional and Intercity (Lisbon-Covilhã) services. Unit 2295 is here seen on the Linha do Norte, near Entroncamento.
Most of Lisbon's suburban trains, are in the hands of CP's 2300/2400 Series. Two are here seen on the Linha do Norte, near Santa Iria de Azoia.
CP's 3400 are responsible for all Porto suburban services. One is here seen at São Bento station.
- Cais do Sodré - for local trains from Lisbon to Cascais
- Oriente - for trains to the north and to the Algarve
- Rossio - for local trains to Sintra
- Santa Apolónia - for trains to the north and to Spain
- Campanhã - Porto's principal station, including use by Alfa Pendular high speed trains
- São Bento - city centre terminus, for local services, northbound and Douro line trains
- History of rail transport in Portugal
- Iberian gauge
- Narrow gauge railways in Portugal
- National Railway Museum (Portugal)
- Rail transport in Portugal
- High-speed rail in Portugal
- Werner Stohler, "Modernização do sistema da exploração ferroviária da Região de Coimbra"  (Portuguese) Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- CP route map
- CP Official website
- REFER Official website
- OTLIS - The Consortium of Transport Operators in Lisbon Region
- CP official website: timeline of Portuguese railway history
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