Category 5 cable
Category 5 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 5, is a twisted pair cable for carrying signals. This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet. The cable standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet), and 2.5GBASE-T. Cat 5 is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video.
This cable is commonly connected using punch-down blocks and modular connectors. Most Category 5 cables are unshielded, relying on the balanced line twisted pair design and differential signaling for noise rejection.
The specification for category 5 cable was defined in ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A, with clarification in TSB-95. These documents specify performance characteristics and test requirements for frequencies up to 100 MHz. Cable types, connector types and cabling topologies are defined by TIA/EIA-568-B. Nearly always, 8P8C modular connectors (often referred to as RJ45 connectors) are used for connecting category 5 cable. The cable is terminated in either the T568A scheme or the T568B scheme. The two schemes work equally well and may be mixed in an installation so long as the same scheme is used on both ends of each cable.
Each of the four pairs in a Cat 5 cable has differing precise number of twists per meter to minimize crosstalk between the pairs. Although cable assemblies containing 4 pairs are common, category 5 is not limited to 4 pairs. Backbone applications involve using up to 100 pairs. This use of balanced lines helps preserve a high signal-to-noise ratio despite interference from both external sources and crosstalk from other pairs.
The cable is available in both stranded and solid conductor forms. The stranded form is more flexible and withstands more bending without breaking. Permanent wiring (for example, the wiring inside the wall that connects a wall socket to a central patch panel) is solid-core, while patch cables (for example, the movable cable that plugs into the wall socket on one end and a computer on the other) are stranded.
The specific category of cable in use can be identified by the printing on the side of the cable.
Maximum cable segment length
The maximum length for a cable segment is 100 m per TIA/EIA 568-5-A. If longer runs are required, the use of active hardware such as a repeater or switch is necessary. The specifications for 10BASE-T networking specify a 100-meter length between active devices. This allows for 90 meters of solid-core permanent wiring, two connectors and two stranded patch cables of 5 meters, one at each end.
Category 5 vs. 5e
The category 5e specification improves upon the category 5 specification by revising and introducing new specifications to further mitigate the amount of crosstalk. The bandwidth (100 MHz) and physical construction are the same between the two, and most Cat 5 cables actually meet Cat 5e specifications, though they are not specifically certified as such.
Category 5e vs. 6
The category 6 specification improves upon the category 5e specification by improving frequency response and further reducing crosstalk. The improved performance of Cat 6 provides 250 MHz bandwidth and supports 10GBASE-T (10-Gigabit Ethernet).
This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet over twisted pair. The cable standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet). 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX Ethernet connections require two wire pairs. 1000BASE-T Ethernet connections require four wire pairs. Through the use of power over Ethernet (PoE), up to 25 watts of power can be carried over the cable in addition to Ethernet data.
In some cases, multiple signals can be carried on a single cable; Cat 5 can carry two conventional telephone lines as well as 100BASE-TX in a single cable. The USOC/RJ-61 wiring standard may be used in multi-line telephone connections.
|Characteristic impedance, 1-100 MHz||100||± 15||Ω|||
|Characteristic impedance @ 100 MHz||100||± 5||Ω|||
|DC loop resistance||≤ 0.188||Ω/m|||
|Delay skew < 100 MHz||< 0.20||ns/m|||
|Capacitance at 800 Hz||52||pF/m|||
|Corner frequency||≤ 57||kHz|| |
|Max tensile load, during installation||100||N|||
|Wire diameter||24 AWG (0.51054 mm ; 0.205 mm2)|||
|Maximum current per conductor||0.577||A|||
|Temperature operating||-55 to +60||°C|||
|Maximum operating voltage
(PoE uses max 57 V DC)
|FEP||Teflon/fluorinated ethylene propylene|
|FFEP||Foamed Teflon/fluorinated ethylene propylene|
|LSZH or LS0H||Low smoke, zero halogen|
|LSFZH or LSF0H||Low smoke and fume, zero halogen|
Since 1995, solid-conductor UTP cables for backbone cabling is required to be no thicker than 22 American Wire Gauge (AWG) and no thinner than 24 AWG, or 26 AWG for shorter-distance cabling. This standard has been retained with the 2009 revision of ANSI TIA/EIA 568.
Individual twist lengths
By altering the length of each twist, crosstalk is reduced, without affecting the characteristic impedance.[dubious ] The distance per twist is commonly referred to as pitch. The pitch of the twisted pairs is not specified in the standard. Measurements on one sample of Cat 5 cable yielded the following results. Since the pitch of the various colors is not specified in the standard, pitch can vary according to manufacturer and should be measured for the batch being used if cable is being used in non-Ethernet situation where pitch might be critical.
|Pair color||[cm] per turn||Turns per [m]|
|LSZH||Communications low-smoke zero halogen||NES-711, NES-713, MIL-C-24643, UL-1685|
|CMP||Communications plenum||CSA FT6 or NFPA 262 (UL 910)|
|CMR||Communications riser||UL 1666|
|CMG||Communications general purpose||CSA FT4|
|CM||Communications||UL 1685 (UL 1581, Sec. 1160) Vertical-Tray|
|CMX||Communications residential||UL 1581, Sec. 1080 (VW-1)|
- Communications riser (CMR) is insulated with high-density polyolefin and jacketed with low-smoke polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
- Communications plenum (CMP) is insulated with fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) and polyethylene (PE) and jacketed with low-smoke polyvinyl chloride (PVC), due to better flame test ratings.
- Communications (CM) is insulated with high-density polyolefin, but not jacketed with PVC and therefore is the lowest of the three in flame resistance.
Shielded cables (FTP or STP) are useful for environments where proximity to RF equipment may introduce electromagnetic interference, and can also be used where eavesdropping likelihood should be minimized.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Category 5 cables.|
- American wire gauge (AWG)
- Audio over Ethernet (AoE)
- Category 6 cable
- Ethernet over twisted pair (10/100/1000BASE-T)
- Power over Ethernet (PoE)
- "Voice and Data Cabling & Wiring Installations". Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- "ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.1-2001 Approved: April 12, 2001 ; Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard Part 1: General Requirements" (PDF). 090917 nag.ru
- "Additional Transmission Performance Guidelines for 4-pair 100 v category 5 Cabling" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- As noted in ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B-2 standard for backbone applications
- "Ethernet Cable Identification and Use". Donutey. Archived from the original on 2011-07-10. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
- "Selecting coax and twisted-pair cable". Electronic Products. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01.
- "Category 5". Archived from the original on 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- "The Evolution of Copper Cabling Systems from Cat 5 to Cat 5e to Cat 6" (PDF). Panduit. 2004-02-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-14. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- "UTP technology" (PDF). Extron Electronics. 2001. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- "CAT 5e Cable Wiring Schemes". B&B Electronics. Archived from the original on 2012-10-05.
- "IEEE Std 802.3-2008". Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 2008. Table 13-1
- "Horizontal Cabling". The Network Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- "UNDERSTANDING CAT - 5 CABLES" (PDF). Satelliete & Cable TV. Retrieved 2013-01-05"."
- "Cat5 Spec, cat6 specs, cat7 spec - Definitions, Comparison, Specifications". TEC Datawire. Retrieved 2013-01-05"."
- "Comparison between CAT 5, CAT 5e, CAT 6, CAT 7 Cables".
- "Transmitting video over CAT 5 cable". EE Times. 2005-06-08. Retrieved 2013-12-07
- "Hack your House: Run Both Ethernet and Phone Over Existing Cat 5 Cable". Retrieved 2016-08-15.
- "LAN and Telephones". ZyTrax.com.
Since 10base-T or 100base-TX wiring uses 2 pairs (4 wires) and each analog phone connection uses a single pair (2 wires) you can, subject to limitations, run 2 telephone connections and LAN traffic on category 5(e) wiring
- "Cable Sharing in Commercial Building Environments: Reducing Cost, Simplifying Cable Management, and Converging Applications onto Twisted-Pair Media". Siemon.com. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
- "RJ45/RJ11 Network Cable Splitters for Ethernet and Phone Line Sharing".
carry one old fashioned analog telephone signal and one 10/100Mbps Ethernet signal by the same single network cable.
- "ATS 10/100 Base T Splitter Adapters". Duxcw.com. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
- "HDBaseT Alliance Shows the Future of Connected Home Entertainment at CES 2013" (PDF). HDBaset.org. January 9, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "SuperCat OUTDOOR CAT 5e U/UTP" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-16.
- "Transmission Line Zo".
- The characteristic impedance of a transmission line is given by . There are two important transition frequencies related this equation: and . Typically we have and the corner frequency (or break frequency) is defined as because at frequencies greater than the familiar "lossless" relation for characteristic impedance holds true to excellent approximation. Unfortunately neither of the terms corner frequency nor break frequency are consistently used in the literature. Most often these frequencies are not given any special name, and the topic itself is glossed over in most modern texts. Refer to Jim Brown. "Transmission Lines at Audio Frequencies, and a Bit of History" (PDF). Audio Systems Group, Inc. and the references given within.
- "Wire Gauge and Current Limits Including Skin Depth and Strength". PowerStream. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- IEEE 802.3at-2009 Table 33-11
- "Copper Data Cables" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-25.
- "UTP-STP Cable" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-18.
- "ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2-2001, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard" (PDF). p. 6 ¶4.3.2.
- "Technical Information" (PDF). Belden. p. 22.20.[dead link]
- "CSA Flame Test Ratings". Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- "What are the differences between PVC, riser and plenum-rated cables?". Archived from the original on 2011-07-13.