# Category 5 cable

(Redirected from Category 5e)
Partially stripped cable showing the twisted pairs.

Category 5 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 5, is a twisted pair cable for computer networks. The cable standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for most varieties of Ethernet over twisted pair. Cat 5 is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video.

This cable is commonly connected using punch-down blocks and modular connectors. Most Category 5 cables are unshielded, relying on the balanced line twisted pair design and differential signaling for noise rejection.

The category 5 was deprecated in 2001 and superseded by the Category 5e specification. Category 6 cable offers improved performance compared to category 5 or 5e.[1]

## Cable standard

The specification for category 5 cable was defined in ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A, with clarification in TSB-95.[2] These documents specify performance characteristics and test requirements for frequencies up to 100 MHz.

The cable is available in both stranded and solid conductor forms. The stranded form is more flexible and withstands more bending without breaking. Permanent wiring (for example, the wiring inside the wall that connects a wall socket to a central patch panel) is solid-core, while patch cables (for example, the movable cable that plugs into the wall socket on one end and a computer on the other) are stranded.

The specific category of cable in use can be identified by the printing on the side of the cable.[3]

## Termination

TIA/EIA-568-B.1-2001 T568A Wiring
Pin Pair Wire Color
1 3 1 white/green
2 3 2 green
3 2 1 white/orange
4 1 2 blue
5 1 1 white/blue
6 2 2 orange
7 4 1 white/brown
8 4 2 brown
TIA/EIA-568-B.1-2001 T568B Wiring[4]
Pin Pair Wire Color
1 2 1 white/orange
2 2 2 orange
3 3 1 white/green
4 1 2 blue
5 1 1 white/blue
6 3 2 green
7 4 1 white/brown
8 4 2 brown
A Cat 5e Wall outlet showing the two wiring schemes: A for T568A, B for T568B.
Category 5 patch cable in T568B wiring

Cable types, connector types and cabling topologies are defined by TIA/EIA-568-B. Nearly always, 8P8C modular connectors (often referred to as RJ45 connectors) are used for connecting category 5 cable. The cable is terminated in either the T568A scheme or the T568B scheme. The two schemes work equally well and may be mixed in an installation so long as the same scheme is used on both ends of each cable.

The use of balanced lines helps preserve a high signal-to-noise ratio despite interference from both external sources and crosstalk from other pairs.

## Variants and comparisons

The category 5e specification improves upon the category 5 specification by revising and introducing new specifications to further mitigate the amount of crosstalk.[5] The bandwidth (100 MHz) and physical construction are the same between the two,[6] and most Cat 5 cables actually meet Cat 5e specifications, though they are not specifically certified as such.[7] The category 5 was deprecated in 2001 and superseded by the category 5e specification.[1]

The category 6 specification improves upon the category 5e specification by improving frequency response and further reducing crosstalk. The improved performance of Cat 6 provides 250 MHz bandwidth and supports 10GBASE-T (10-Gigabit Ethernet).[1]

## Applications

This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet over twisted pair. The cable standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), and 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet). 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX Ethernet connections require two wire pairs. 1000BASE-T Ethernet connections require four wire pairs. Through the use of power over Ethernet (PoE), up to 25 watts of power can be carried over the cable in addition to Ethernet data.

Cat 5 is also used to carry other signals such as telephony and video.[8]

In some cases, multiple signals can be carried on a single cable; Cat 5 can carry two conventional telephone lines as well as 100BASE-TX in a single cable.[9][10][11][12][13] The USOC/RJ-61 wiring standard may be used in multi-line telephone connections.

Various schemes exist for transporting both analog and digital video over the cable. HDBaseT (10.2 Gbit/s) is one such scheme.[14]

## Characteristics

Electrical characteristics for Cat 5e UTP
Property Nominal Tolerance Unit ref
Characteristic impedance, 1-100 MHz 100 ± 15 Ω [15]
Characteristic impedance @ 100 MHz 100 ± 5 Ω [15]
DC loop resistance ≤ 0.188 Ω/m [15]
Propagation speed 0.64 c [15]
Propagation delay 4.80-5.30 ns/m [15]
Delay skew < 100 MHz < 0.20 ns/m [15]
Capacitance at 800 Hz 52 pF/m [15]
Inductance 525 nH/m [16]
Corner frequency ≤ 57 kHz [16] [17]
Max tensile load, during installation 100 N [15]
Wire diameter 24 AWG (0.51054 mm ; 0.205 mm2)
Insulation thickness 0.245 mm [15]
Maximum current per conductor 0.577 A [18]
Operating temperature -55 to +60 °C [15]
Maximum operating voltage
(PoE uses max 57 V DC)[19]
125 [20]

### Insulation

Outer insulation is typically polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or low smoke zero halogen (LSOH).

Example materials used as insulation in the cable[21]
Acronym Material
PE Polyethylene
FP Foamed polyethylene
FEP Teflon/fluorinated ethylene propylene
FFEP Foamed Teflon/fluorinated ethylene propylene
LSZH or LS0H Low smoke, zero halogen
LSFZH or LSF0H Low smoke and fume, zero halogen

Most Category 5 cables can be bent at any radius exceeding approximately four times the outside diameter of the cable.[22][23]

### Maximum cable segment length

The maximum length for a cable segment is 100 m per TIA/EIA 568-5-A.[24] If longer runs are required, the use of active hardware such as a repeater or switch is necessary.[25][26] The specifications for 10BASE-T networking specify a 100-meter length between active devices.[27] This allows for 90 meters of solid-core permanent wiring, two connectors and two stranded patch cables of 5 meters, one at each end.[28]

### Conductors

Since 1995, solid-conductor UTP cables for backbone cabling is required to be no thicker than 22 American Wire Gauge (AWG) and no thinner than 24 AWG, or 26 AWG for shorter-distance cabling. This standard has been retained with the 2009 revision of ANSI TIA/EIA 568.[29]

Although cable assemblies containing 4 pairs are common, category 5 is not limited to 4 pairs. Backbone applications involve using up to 100 pairs.[30]

### Individual twist lengths

Each of the four pairs in a Cat 5 cable has differing precise number of twists per meter to minimize crosstalk between the pairs. By altering the length of each twist, crosstalk is reduced, without affecting the characteristic impedance.[dubious ] The distance per twist is commonly referred to as pitch. The pitch of the twisted pairs is not specified in the standard. Measurements on one sample of Cat 5 cable yielded the following results.[31]

Since the pitch of the various colors is not specified in the standard, pitch can vary according to manufacturer and should be measured for the batch being used if cable is being used in non-Ethernet situation where pitch might be critical.

Pair color [cm] per turn Turns per [m]
Blue 1.38 72
Green 1.53 65
Orange 1.78 56
Brown 1.94 52

### Environmental ratings

United States and Canada fire certifications[32]
Class Phrase Standards
LSZH Communications low-smoke zero halogen NES-711, NES-713, MIL-C-24643, UL-1685
CMP Communications plenum CSA FT6[33] or NFPA 262 (UL 910)
CMR Communications riser UL 1666
CMG Communications general purpose CSA FT4
CM Communications UL 1685 (UL 1581, Sec. 1160) Vertical-Tray
CMX Communications residential UL 1581, Sec. 1080 (VW-1)
CMH CSA FT1
Communications riser (CMR) is insulated with high-density polyolefin and jacketed with low-smoke polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
Communications plenum (CMP) is insulated with fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) and polyethylene (PE) and jacketed with low-smoke polyvinyl chloride (PVC), due to better flame test ratings.
Communications (CM) is insulated with high-density polyolefin, but not jacketed with PVC and therefore is the lowest of the three in flame resistance.

Some cables are "UV-rated" or "UV-stable" meaning they can be exposed to outdoor UV radiation without significant destruction.[citation needed]

Plenum-rated cables are slower to burn and produce less smoke than cables using a mantle of materials like PVC. Plenum-rated cables may be installed in plenum spaces where PVC is not allowed.[34]

Shielded cables (FTP or STP) are useful for environments where proximity to RF equipment may introduce electromagnetic interference, and can also be used where eavesdropping likelihood should be minimized.

## References

1. ^ a b c "Voice and Data Cabling & Wiring Installations". Retrieved 2013-05-12.
2. ^ "Additional Transmission Performance Guidelines for 4-pair 100 v category 5 Cabling" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-12.
3. ^ "Ethernet Cable Identification and Use". Donutey. Archived from the original on 2011-07-10. Retrieved 2011-04-01.
4. ^
5. ^ "UNDERSTANDING CAT - 5 CABLES" (PDF). Satelliete & Cable TV. Retrieved 2013-01-05"."
6. ^ "Cat5 Spec, cat6 specs, cat7 spec - Definitions, Comparison, Specifications". TEC Datawire. Retrieved 2013-01-05"."
7. ^
8. ^ "Transmitting video over CAT 5 cable". EE Times. 2005-06-08. Retrieved 2013-12-07
9. ^ "Hack your House: Run Both Ethernet and Phone Over Existing Cat 5 Cable". Retrieved 2016-08-15.
10. ^ "LAN and Telephones". ZyTrax.com. Since 10base-T or 100base-TX wiring uses 2 pairs (4 wires) and each analog phone connection uses a single pair (2 wires) you can, subject to limitations, run 2 telephone connections and LAN traffic on category 5(e) wiring
11. ^
12. ^ "RJ45/RJ11 Network Cable Splitters for Ethernet and Phone Line Sharing". carry one old fashioned analog telephone signal and one 10/100Mbps Ethernet signal by the same single network cable.
13. ^ "ATS 10/100 Base T Splitter Adapters". Duxcw.com. Retrieved 2014-08-17.
14. ^ "HDBaseT Alliance Shows the Future of Connected Home Entertainment at CES 2013" (PDF). HDBaset.org. January 9, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
15. "SuperCat OUTDOOR CAT 5e U/UTP" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-16.
16. ^ a b
17. ^ The characteristic impedance of a transmission line is given by ${\displaystyle Z_{0}={\sqrt {\frac {R+j\omega L}{G+j\omega C}}}}$. There are two important transition frequencies related this equation: ${\displaystyle f_{RL}={\frac {R}{2\pi L}}}$ and ${\displaystyle f_{GC}={\frac {G}{2\pi C}}}$. Typically we have ${\displaystyle f_{RL}>f_{GC}}$ and the corner frequency (or break frequency) is defined as ${\displaystyle f_{RL}}$ because at frequencies greater than ${\displaystyle f_{RL}}$ the familiar "lossless" relation ${\displaystyle Z_{0}={\sqrt {\frac {L}{C}}}}$ for characteristic impedance holds true to excellent approximation. Unfortunately neither of the terms corner frequency nor break frequency are consistently used in the literature. Most often these frequencies are not given any special name, and the topic itself is glossed over in most modern texts. Refer to Jim Brown. "Transmission Lines at Audio Frequencies, and a Bit of History" (PDF). Audio Systems Group, Inc. and the references given within.
18. ^ a b "Wire Gauge and Current Limits Including Skin Depth and Strength". PowerStream. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
19. ^ IEEE 802.3at-2009 Table 33-11
20. ^ "Copper Data Cables" (PDF). p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-25.
21. ^ "UTP-STP Cable" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-08-18.
22. ^ "Selecting coax and twisted-pair cable". Electronic Products. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01.
23. ^ "Category 5". Archived from the original on 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
24. ^ "The Evolution of Copper Cabling Systems from Cat 5 to Cat 5e to Cat 6" (PDF). Panduit. 2004-02-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-14. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
25. ^ "UTP technology" (PDF). Extron Electronics. 2001. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
26. ^ "CAT 5e Cable Wiring Schemes". B&B Electronics. Archived from the original on 2012-10-05.
27. ^ "IEEE Std 802.3-2008". Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 2008. Table 13-1
28. ^ "Horizontal Cabling". The Network Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
29. ^
30. ^ As noted in ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B-2 standard for backbone applications
31. ^ http://www.prc68.com/I/Zo.shtml#Wm
32. ^ "Technical Information" (PDF). Belden. p. 22.20.
33. ^ "CSA Flame Test Ratings". Retrieved 2013-05-12.
34. ^ "What are the differences between PVC, riser and plenum-rated cables?". Archived from the original on 2011-07-13.