Center for Immigration Studies
|Formation||January 9, 1986|
|Type||Public policy think tank|
|Headquarters||1629 K Street N.W., Suite 600|
The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) is an anti-immigration think tank. It favors far lower immigration numbers, and produces research to further those views. The CIS was founded by historian Otis L. Graham and John Tanton, a eugenicist and white nationalist. The foundation was founded in 1985 as a spin-off from the Federation for American Immigration Reform, and is one of a number of anti-immigration organizations founded by Tanton, along with FAIR and NumbersUSA.
Reports published by CIS have been disputed by scholars on immigration, fact-checkers such as PolitiFact, FactCheck.Org, Snopes, media outlets such as Washington Post, CNN and NBC News, and immigration-research organizations. The organization has "significant influence in the [Trump] White House", and has been cited by members of the Trump administration to defend his immigration policies. The Southern Poverty Law Center describes CIS as a hate group with ties to the American nativist movement. CIS has said that the allegation is false and, in January 2019, filed a lawsuit against the SPLC over the question, which was dismissed in September 2019.
- 1 History and funding
- 2 Policy stances and Activities
- 3 Criticism
- 4 References
- 5 External links
History and funding
Otis L. Graham, professor emeritus of history at the University of California, Santa Barbara was the founding chairman of CIS, and later a founding board member. John Tanton, an ophthalmologist, eugenicist, and white nationalist, was instrumental in its founding. The CIS began as the research arm of the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), and became a separate entity in 1986. According to immigration historian Carly Goodman, Tanton created CIS as a separate entity from FAIR so that they could produce research that had a greater appearance of objectivity.
CIS has been described as conservative, a label rejected by the organization. After an NPR story described CIS as "decidedly right-wing," Edward Schumacher-Matos, the then ombudsman of NPR, argued that this mislabelled CIS, noting the organization's "political diversity."
In 2017, CIS analyst Jon Feere joined the Immigration and Customs Enforcement of the Trump administration. In his writings for CIS Feere had claimed that giving birth on U.S. soil gives immigrants access to welfare and other social benefits, and that this gives rise "birth tourism" (the practice of foreigners traveling to the United States to give birth to U.S. citizens). CNN wrote that "Politifact has mostly debunked those claims, concluding that US-born children do little in the long term to help their immigrant parents. Citizen children cannot sponsor their parents for citizenship until the young person turns 21 and any social benefits would be given to the child and not their undocumented parents, who do not qualify. The Pew Research Center also has found that the number of babies born to unauthorized immigrants in the United States has been declining steadily in recent years."
In September 2017, the Trump administration defended its claim that Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) "denied jobs to hundreds of thousands of Americans by allowing those same illegal aliens to take those jobs" by citing editorials written by members of the Center for Immigration Studies. However, economists consulted by PolitiFact rejected the claim, noting that the job market is not fixed or zero-sum.
In May 2018, President Trump nominated Ronald Mortensen, a CIS fellow, as Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, a top state department position overseeing refugee resettlement. Mortensen had been a vocal critic of illegal immigration.
In March 2019, CIS fellow Todd Bensman claimed that female migrants were given free elective laser eye surgery in detention centers, and that their children were given free braces. The Associated Press found the claim to be false.
Policy stances and Activities
Support for Trump administration's family separation policy
In 2018, CIS defended the Trump administration's decision to separate undocumented immigrant children from their parents. CIS argued that the policy deterred immigrant families from crossing the US border and said that the policy "actually protects foreign nationals." At a June 2018 event hosted at CIS, outgoing Acting Director of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Thomas Homan, defended the policy.
Opposition to sanctuary cities
CIS opposes sanctuary cities, which are jurisdictions which limit cooperation with federal immigrant enforcement agencies or prioritize law enforcement resources for other things than immigration enforcement.
Opposition to work permits for foreign university students
CIS publishes books and posts on its website a variety of announcements, research reports, memoranda, op-eds and articles, panel discussion transcripts, Congressional testimony, and videos.[non-primary source needed] It also maintains a blog.[non-primary source needed] The organization's publications address topics relating to both illegal and legal immigration.
The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) published reports in 2002 and 2009 on John Tanton, who founded CIS. Tanton is a retired Michigan ophthalmologist who opposed immigration on racial grounds, desired a white ethnic majority in the United States and advocated for eugenics. The SPLC's 2009 report charged that "FAIR, CIS and NumbersUSA are all part of a network of restrictionist organizations conceived and created by John Tanton" who they said had "deeply racist" views, and said that the group had "frequently manipulated data" in order to promote anti-immigration goals.
In a response in the National Review, Krikorian called the SPLC's report "hackwork", and pointed to members of the CIS board who were involved with civil rights organizations as evidence that the group was not a hate group. Tanton also denied the SPLC's accusations. As to his alleged influence at CIS, he wrote, "I also helped raise a grant in 1985 for the Center for Immigration Studies, but I have played no role in the Center's growth or development." According to CNN, Tanton openly embraced eugenics. The New York Times noted that Tanton made his case against immigration in racial terms. CIS has consequently been criticized for its reluctance to criticize Tanton and his views.
In March 2010, CIS published a report written by Jerry Kammer, a senior research fellow at CIS, that was sharply critical of the SPLC, its tactics and methodologies, and its attacks against groups such as CIS, NumbersUSA, and FAIR.
In 2004, a Wall Street Journal editorial repeated the SPLC's allegation that CIS is part of a network of organizations founded by Tanton and also charged that these organizations are "trying to stop immigration to the U.S." It quoted Chris Cannon, at the time a Republican U.S. Representative from Utah, as saying, "Tanton set up groups like CIS and FAIR to take an analytical approach to immigration from a Republican point of view so that they can give cover to Republicans who oppose immigration for other reasons."
Several months earlier, Krikorian denied allegations made in a similarly critical Wall Street Journal editorial and by Rep. Cannon, writing "This kind of venomous lying and guilt by association are par for the course in the fever swamps of the web, but are startling in the halls of the U.S. Congress and the pages of the nation's largest-circulation newspaper." Although former Rep. Cannon expressed a negative view of CIS, the CIS website quotes other elected officials, including U.S. Representative Lamar S. Smith (R-TX), former Governor Richard D. Lamm (D-CO), U.S. Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL), and former U.S. Senator Alan Simpson (R-WY), in support of the organization.
In 2016, the SPLC began describing CIS as an anti-immigrant hate group. It cited CIS's repeated publication of white nationalist and anti-Semitic writers, its employment of an analyst known to promote racist pseudoscience, its association with John Tanton, and its record of publishing reports that it said hyped the criminality of immigrants. In 2019, CIS sued the SPLC over the hate group designation in a RICO lawsuit, alleging that the designation was false and part of a "smear campaign." Notre Dame Law School professor G. Robert Blakey, the author of the 1970 RICO statute, described CIS's filing as "not too thoughtful" and said its legal claims lacked merit. The SPLC described the suit as an attempt to suppress their right to free speech. Some conservatives came to CIS' defense, with Tucker Carlson saying there was "no basis" for the "shocking" hate group designation and National Review's Rich Lowry saying that the organization's views were "perfectly reasonable." The lawsuit was dismissed in September 2019 by Judge Amy Berman Jackson for failure to state a claim.
The Center for Immigration Studies has been criticized for publishing a number of reports deemed to be false or misleading and using poor methodology by scholars on immigration, such as the authors of the National Academies of Sciences 2016 report on immigration; by think tanks such as the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the Cato Institute, Urban Institute and Center for American Progress; fact-checkers such as FactCheck.Org, PolitiFact, Washington Post, Snopes and NBC News; and by immigration-research organizations (such as Migration Policy Institute and the Immigration Policy Center.
A March 2003 CIS report said that between 1996 and 2001 welfare use by immigrant headed households had increased and that "welfare use rates for immigrants and natives are essentially back to where they were in 1996 when welfare reform was passed." The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities said this was misleading because the U.S. children of noncitizens "account[ed] for all of the increase in Medicaid or SCHIP participation among U.S. citizens living in low-income households headed by noncitizens."
In March 2007, CIS issued a report saying that the "proportion of immigrant-headed households using at least one major welfare program is 33 percent, compared to 19 percent for native households." Wayne A. Cornelius of the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies at UCSD, wrote that this was misleading because "once 'welfare usage' is disaggregated, as Camarota does in a table near the end of his report, we see that food assistance is the only category in which there is a significant difference between immigrant- and native-headed households. Immigrants are significantly less likely than natives to use Medicaid, and they use subsidized housing and cash assistance programs at about the same (low) rate as natives."
In September 2011, CIS published a report Who Benefited from Job Growth In Texas? saying that, in the period 2007–2011, immigrants (legal and illegal) had taken 81% of newly created jobs in the state. According to Jeffrey S. Passel, senior demographer for the Pew Hispanic Center, "there are lots of methodological problems with the CIS study, mainly having to do with the limitations of small sample sizes and the fact that the estimates are determined by taking differences of differences based on small sample sizes." Chuck DeVore, a conservative at the Texas Public Policy Foundation, criticized the report, saying that it "relied on flawed methodology." CIS subsequently replied to DeVore's criticism. The report was subsequently cited by Mitt Romney and David Frum. Politifact, when evaluating Frum and Romney's statements, noted that CIS's report "does acknowledge that 'no estimate of illegal immigration is exact'. But the methodological shortcomings also weaken the certainty of Romney’s statistic. On balance, we think that both the report’s authors and its critics have reasonable points. In the big picture, we agree with Chuck DeVore – a conservative critic of the study – that 'trying to draw conclusions about immigration and employment in Texas in isolation from other factors is problematic at best.' But we also agree with Mark Krikorian, the Center for Immigration Studies’ executive director, that 'even if DeVore prefers a net-to-net comparison, immigrants still got a disproportionate share of new jobs'."
Norman Matloff, a UC Davis professor of computer science, wrote a report featured at CIS arguing that most H-1B visa workers, rather than being "the best and the brightest," are mostly of average talent. James Shrek of the Heritage Foundation argued that Matloff's methodology was a "highly misleading measure of ability," as Matloff simply looked at the wages of the H-1B visa workers and how they compared to other workers in the sector. Shrek notes that the existing data shows that H-1B workers are more skilled than the average American: "H-1B workers are highly educated. Almost half have an advanced degree. The median H-1B worker earns 90 percent more than the median U.S. worker. They are in no way average workers." Matloff, in his reply, said that H-1B workers were not supposed to be compared to median workers and that Sherk's argument is "completely at odds with the claims the industry has made concerning the "best and brightest" issue" and that comparison to O-1 visa wage data showed that H-1B visas were being used by employers to undercut wages.
In May 2014, a CIS report said that in 2013 Immigration and Customs Enforcement had "freed 36,007 convicted criminal aliens from detention who were awaiting the outcome of deportation proceedings... [and t]he vast majority of these releases from ICE custody were discretionary, not required by law (in fact, in some instances, apparently contrary to law), nor the result of local sanctuary policies." An ICE spokesman said that many such releases were required by law, for instance when a detainee's home country refuses to accept them or required by a judge's order. Caitlin Dickson, writing in the Daily Beast said that ICE had "highlighted key points that CIS failed to address." Associated Press, however, when reporting on CIS's figures, said that "the releases that weren't mandated by law, including [the] 28 percent of the immigrants with homicide convictions, undermines the government's argument that it uses its declining resources for immigration enforcement to find and jail serious criminal immigrants who may pose a threat to public safety or national security." CIS's report was criticized by the Immigration Policy Center of the American Immigration Council who said that "looking at this group of people as an undifferentiated whole doesn’t tell you much about who poses a risk to public safety and who does not." Muzaffar Chishti, the New York director of the nonpartisan Migration Policy Institute, said that the CIS report was "a select presentation of a set of facts without any comparative analysis that can lead to misleading conclusions." According to CBS, Gregory Chen of the American Immigration Lawyers Association said the report had “a lot of misleading information” and "that the report's definition of criminals who have been 'released' includes those who are still subject to supervision including electronic ankle monitoring and regular check ins with ICE."
A May 2015 report by CIS stated that "immigrant households receive 41 percent more federal welfare than households headed by native-born citizens." The report was criticized on the basis of poor methodology by Alex Nowrasteh of the Cato Institute. Nowrasteh said that the report opted not to examine how much welfare immigrants use, but to examine households led by an immigrant so that the report could count the welfare usage of the immigrant's US-born children, which leads to a misleading estimate of immigrant welfare use.
In September 2016, CIS misrepresented the findings of a comprehensive state-of-the-art report on the academic immigration literature by the National Academies of Sciences. CIS headlined its own summary of the report, "National Academy of Sciences Study of Immigration: Workers and Taxpayers Lose, Businesses Benefit." A 2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) study cited CIS's misrepresentation, which was repeated by President Trump, as an example of unscrupulous actors with ulterior motives who make it difficult for researchers to communicate scientific findings to the public.
A February 2017 CIS report said that "72 individuals from the seven countries covered in President Trump's vetting executive order have been convicted in terror cases since the 9/11 attacks," an assertion that several fact-checking agencies debunked. Stephen Miller, a senior White House policy adviser, used the data provided by CIS to justify President Trump's 90-day travel ban, earning him "Three Pinocchois" from the Washington Post Fact-Checker (its second-worst rating). FactCheck.Org found that most (44 of the 72) had not been convicted on terrorism charges, and that none of the 72 people were responsible for a terrorism-related death in the US, and Snopes mirrored the assessment.
In March 2018, the Trump administration stated that construction on a Mexico border wall would pay for itself by keeping undocumented immigrants out of the United States, citing a CIS report. The CIS report was based on data from the 2016 National Academies of Science (NAS) report. However, several of the authors of the NAS report said that CIS misused the data from the report, made unjustifiable methodological decisions, and that it was likelier that keeping undocumented immigrants out would reduce government revenue. The 18-member panel of economists, sociologists, demographers and public policy experts, and chosen by the National Academies of Science, concluded that undocumented immigrants had a net positive fiscal impact.
- "Center for Immigration Studies". OpenCorporates. Retrieved April 1, 2017.
- "Center for Immigration Studies Staff List – Center for Immigration Studies". cis.org.
- Alemany, Jacqueline (May 22, 2019). "Power Up: Trump's new immigration coordinator has a lot to coordinate". Washington Post.
- Lopez, Luciana. "Two hawkish anti-immigration groups say consulted by Trump". U.S. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
- "Center for Immigration Studies". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
- Bixby, Scott (January 16, 2019). "Anti-Immigration Group Uses Mafia Law to Attack SPLC". Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Feuerherd, Ben (January 17, 2019). "Anti-immigration group sues SPLC over inclusion on hate list". New York Post. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia (September 13, 2019) "Memorandum & Opinion"
- Kunzelman, Michael (September 16, 2019). "Judge tosses lawsuit over law center's hate group labels". Associated Press. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
- Staff (ndg) "Otis L. Graham Jr." Center for Immigration Studies website
- DeParle, Jason (April 17, 2011 "The Anti-Immigration Crusader" The New York Times
- Sherman, Amy (March 22, 2017) "Is the Center for Immigration Studies a hate group, as the Southern Poverty Law Center says?" PolitiFact
- Master, Cyra (April 12, 2017). "DHS hires incense immigration supporters". TheHill. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- Woods, Joshua; Manning, Jason; Matz, Jacob (October 2, 2015). "The Impression Management Tactics of an Immigration Think Tank". Sociological Focus. 48 (4): 354–372. doi:10.1080/00380237.2015.1064852. ISSN 0038-0237.
- "Former Executive Director of Anti-Immigrant Hate Group FAIR Joins Trump Administration". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- Ellis, Emma (January 14, 2017). "Fake Think Takes Fuel Fake News". Wired. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- Kulish, Nicholas; McIntire, Mike (August 14, 2019). "Why an Heiress Spent Her Fortune Trying to Keep Immigrants Out". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
- Goodman, Carly (July 18, 2019). "John Tanton has died. He made America less open to immigrants — and more open to Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
- Sherman, Amy (March 22, 2017). "Is the Center for Immigration Studies a 'hate group' ?". PolitiFact Florida. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
- Bank, Justin (April 6, 2009). "Cost of Illegal Immigrants". www.factcheck.org. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Rosenberg, Mica (January 29, 2017). "Two Iraqis lead legal fight against Trump order blocking entry". Reuters. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Cox, Tony (June 22, 2010). "Center For Immigration Studies Wary Of Dream Act". NPR.org. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Swanson, Ian (May 16, 2014). "GOP's new immigration weapon". thehill.com.
- Graham, Jr (2008). Immigration Reform and America's Unchosen Future. AuthorHouse. p. 407. ISBN 978-1-4389-0996-7.
- Schumacher-Matos, Edward. "Getting The Bedfellows Of Immigration Policy Right". NPR.org.
- CNN, Maria Santana. "Hard-line anti-illegal immigration advocates hired at 2 federal agencies". CNN. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- Jacobson, Louis. "Jeff Sessions remarks on DACA, fact-checked". PolitiFact. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- Da Silva, Chantal (May 25, 2018). "Donald Trump has nominated an immigration hard-liner for a post dealing with refugees". Newsweek. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
- Press, The Associated (March 8, 2019). "AP Fact Check: Free Lasik offered at migrant detention centers? Nope". oregonlive.com. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
- "Trump bets on public charge". Poltico. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- "Trump Administration Aims to Sharply Restrict New Green Cards for Those on Public Aid". Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- Etehad, Melissa. "Number of immigrants in U.S. illegally could be double the widely accepted estimates, study suggests". latimes.com. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- Da Silva, Chantal (June 5, 2018). "ICE's director is set to speak at an "anti-immigrant hate group," event, the SPLC says". Newsweek. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
- Immigration and Customs Enforcement Director Defends Separating Families at the Border, Time Magazine, Maya Rhodan, June 5, 2018. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
- WRAL (October 22, 2018). "Fact Check: Linda Coleman and sanctuary cities". WRAL.com. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
- Foley, Elise (October 20, 2015). "Senate Republicans Fail In Push To Punish 'Sanctuary Cities'". HuffPost. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
- "H-1B visa: Amid OPT work permit delays, foreign students reportedly losing internship opportunities". The Denver Post. June 19, 2019. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
- "All Publications". www.cis.org. Center for Immigration Studies.
- "Immigration Blog". www.cis.org. Center for Immigration Studies.
- "John Tanton is the Mastermind Behind the Organized Anti-Immigration Movement". splcenter.org.
- Beirich, Heidi. The Nativist Lobby Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Southern Poverty Law Center.
- Santana, Maria. "Hard-line anti-illegal immigration advocates hired at 2 federal agencies". CNN.com. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- DeParle, Jason (April 17, 2011). "The Anti-Immigration Crusader". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- Krikorian, Mark (February 11, 2009). "Free Speech Is Great, But . ." The National Review. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
- Tanton, John. "SPLC’s MO: Audacter calumniare semper aliquid haeret (slander boldly, something always sticks)." The Social Contract. Spring 2010.
- Weaver, Dustin (February 29, 2016). "Liberal report links immigration groups to white nationalism". TheHill. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
- DeParle, Jason (April 17, 2011). "The Anti-Immigration Crusader". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
- Kammer, Jerry. "Immigration and the SPLC: How the Southern Poverty Law Center Invented a Smear, Served La Raza, Manipulated the Press, and Duped its Donors." Center for Immigration Studies. March 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
- Krikorian, Mark (March 18, 2010). "Panel Transcript: Immigration and the SPLC | Center for Immigration Studies". Cis.org. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- "Borderline Republicans", Wall Street Journal, p. A18, June 14, 2004
- Riley, Jason L. (March 15, 2004), "GOP Nativists Tarnish Reagan's 'Shining City'", Wall Street Journal
- Krikorian, Mark. "Strange Bedfellows." National Review Online. March 31, 2004.
- "About the Center for Immigration Studies". Center for Immigration Studies.
- Bixby, Scott (January 16, 2019). "Anti-Immigration Group Uses Mafia Law to Attack SPLC". Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Feuerherd, Ben (January 17, 2019). "Anti-immigration group sues SPLC over inclusion on hate list". New York Post. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Bixby, Scott (January 16, 2019). "Anti-Immigration Group Uses Mafia Law to Attack SPLC". The Daily Beast. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- "Dhillon: Google not disclosing altering of search results is a fraud on our democracy". Fox News. January 17, 2019. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
- "The SPLC Designates Itself". National Review. March 19, 2019. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
- Vijayan, Jaikumar. "Real ID alive and kicking, report says". Computerworld. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- Wang, Marie (May 21, 2003). "The Decline in Medicaid Use by Noncitizens since Welfare Reform". Urban Institute.
- Waslin, Michele (October 12, 2008). "Expanding Flawed E-Verify System Will Hurt Lawful Workers". AlterNet. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- Ku, Leighton (April 21, 2003). "Noncitizens' Use Of Public Benefits Has Declined Since 1996, Revised 4/21/03". www.cbpp.org. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Camarota, Steven A. (July 25, 2012). "Immigrants in the United States, 2007". Center for Immigration Studies.
- Commentary, Wayne A. Cornelius. "Immigration study misleading, negative". sandiegouniontribune.com. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Camarota, Steven A. (August 7, 2012). "Who Benefited from Job Growth In Texas?". Center for Immigration Studies.
- Jacobson, Louis (October 19, 2011). "Mitt Romney hits Rick Perry, saying 40 percent of Texas job growth went to illegal immigrants". PolitiFact. politifact.com. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
- Devore, Chuck (October 2011). "Who Really Gets Texas Jobs" (PDF). The Texas Model: A Texas Public Policy Foundation Publication. Texas Public Policy Foundation. texaspolicy.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 1, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2018.
- Krikorian, Mark (October 10, 2011). "Response to Chuck DeVore on Texas Immigration". National Review.
- Shelby, W. Gardner (December 2, 2011). "David Frum says foreign-born individuals filled 80 percent of the Texas jobs added from 2009 into 2011". Politifact. politifact.com.
- Matloff, Norman. "H-1Bs: Still Not the Best and Brightest".
- Matloff, Norman (January 1, 2013). "Immigration and the tech industry: As a labour shortage remedy, for innovation, or for cost savings?". Migration Letters. 10 (2): 210–27. ISSN 1741-8984.
- Matloff, Norman (February 28, 2013). "Are foreign students the 'best and brightest'?: Data and implications for immigration policy". Economic Policy Institute.
- Sherk, James (May 6, 2008). "H-1B Workers: Highly Skilled, Highly Needed". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Matloff, Norm (May 7, 2008). "Heritage Foundation analysis of my CIS article". UC Davis.
- Vaughan, Jessica M. (May 11, 2014). "ICE Document Details 36,000 Criminal Alien Releases in 2013". Center for Immigration Studies.
- Shelby, W. Gardner (June 10, 2014). "Lamar Smith claim about Obama's 'prison break' of illegal immigrants fails to acknowledge detainees had served criminal sentences and all releases weren't discretionary". @politifact.
- Dickson, Caitlin (May 15, 2014). "Inside The Center For Immigration Studies, The Immigration False-Fact Think Tank". The Daily Beast.
- Caldwell, Alicia A. "Data: DHS freed thousands of criminal immigrants". AP.
- Kaplan, Rebecca (May 15, 2014). "Report: U.S. released thousands of immigrant felons last year". CBS News. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- Rosen, Ben (May 9, 2016). "Do immigrants receive more welfare money than natural born US citizens?". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
- Iyengar, Shanto; Massey, Douglas S. (April 16, 2019). "Scientific communication in a post-truth society". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (16): 7656–7661. doi:10.1073/pnas.1805868115. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6475392.
- Kiely, Eugene (February 24, 2017). "Terrorism and Trump's Travel Ban". FactCheck.org. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
- Vaughan, Jessica M. (February 10, 2017). "Study Reveals 72 Terrorists Came From Countries Covered by Trump Vetting Order". Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
- Ya Hee Lee, Michelle (February 13, 2017). "Stephen Miller's claim that 72 from banned countries were implicated in 'terroristic activity'". Washington Post. Retrieved March 29, 2017.
- Farley, Robert (March 16, 2018). "Will Trump's Wall Pay for Itself?". FactCheck.org. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
- Kasprak, Alex (March 23, 2018). "Will A Border Wall 'Pay For Itself' Because Immigrants Cost the Government Money?". Snopes.com. Retrieved April 5, 2018.