Center for Immigration Studies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Center for Immigration Studies logo.png
Motto Pro-Immigrant, Low-Immigration
Formation January 9, 1986; 32 years ago (1986-01-09)[1]
Type Public policy think tank
52-1449368
Headquarters 1629 K Street N.W., Suite 600
Location
Executive Director
Mark Krikorian[2]
Website Official website

The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) is a non-profit organization "that favors far lower immigration numbers and produces research to further those views."[3]

Founded in 1985 as a spin-off from the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR),[4] the center's self-described mission is to provide immigration policymakers, the academic community, news media, and concerned citizens with reliable information about the social, economic, environmental, security, and fiscal consequences of legal and illegal immigration into the United States.[5] CIS is one of a number of anti-immigration organizations that John Tanton helped found.[4][6][7]

Several reports published by CIS have been disputed by scholars on immigration; a wide range of think tanks; fact-checkers such as PolitiFact, FactCheck.Org, Washington Post, Snopes, CNN and NBC News; and by immigration-research organizations; the organization has been cited by President Donald Trump on Twitter, and used by members of his administration.[8][9][10]

Critics have accused CIS of promoting and having ties to nativists, which CIS denies.

History, board and funding[edit]

CIS does not include details about its founding, but according to several sources, John Tanton was involved in the organization's founding.[11][7][6] Otis Graham Jr. of CIS disputed that, saying Tanton "played no part in its organization."[12]

Founding CIS Board Members included George W. Grayson. Several of the founding members are still on the Board, which is headed by former U.S. Attorney Peter Nuñez and includes Jan C. Ting and T. Willard Fair from the Urban League of Greater Miami.[13] George Borjas has been a CIS fellow and served one term on its board.[14]

CIS has been described as conservative,[15][16][17][18] a label rejected by CIS.[19] After an NPR story described CIS as "decidedly right-wing", Edward Schumacher-Matos, the then ombudsman of NPR, argued that this mislabelled CIS, noting the organization's "political diversity".[20]

Funding comes from contributions and grants by private foundations, from contracts with the Census Bureau and Department of Justice, and from donations by individuals,[13] including donations made through the Combined Federal Campaign.[21]

Trump administration[edit]

In 2017, CIS analyst Jon Feere joined the Immigration and Customs Enforcement of the Trump administration. In his writings for CIS, Feere had claimed that giving birth on U.S. soil gives immigrants access to welfare and other social benefits, and that this gives rise "birth tourism" (the practice of foreigners traveling to the United States to give birth to U.S. citizens).[22] CNN wrote that "Politifact has mostly debunked those claims, concluding that US-born children do little in the long term to help their immigrant parents. Citizen children cannot sponsor their parents for citizenship until the young person turns 21 and any social benefits would be given to the child and not their undocumented parents, who would not qualify. The Pew Research Center also has found that the number of babies born to unauthorized immigrants in the United States has been declining steadily in recent years."[22]

In September 2017, the Trump administration defended its claim that Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) "denied jobs to hundreds of thousands of Americans by allowing those same illegal aliens to take those jobs" by citing editorials written by members of the Center for Immigration Studies.[23] However, economists consulted by PolitiFact rejected the claim, noting that the job market is not fixed or zero-sum.[23]

In May 2018, President Trump nominated Ronald Mortensen, a CIS fellow, as Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, a top state department position overseeing refugee resettlement. Mortensen has been a vocal critic of illegal immigration.[24]

In 2018, CIS defended the Trump administration's decision to separate undocumented immigrant children from their parents.[25] CIS argued that the policy deterred immigrant families from crossing the US border and said that the policy "actually protects foreign nationals".[25] At a June 2018 event hosted at CIS, outgoing Acting Director of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Thomas Homan, defended the policy.[26]

Activity[edit]

Publications[edit]

CIS publishes books and posts for free on its website a variety of announcements, research reports, memoranda, op-eds and articles, panel discussion transcripts, Congressional testimony, and videos.[27] It also maintains a blog.[28] The organization's publications address topics relating to both illegal and legal immigration.

Eugene Katz Award[edit]

The Center gives an annual award called the Eugene Katz Award for Excellence in the Coverage of Immigration to journalists covering immigration issues.[29] The award is named in memory of Eugene Katz, a journalist who started his career as a reporter for the Daily Oklahoman.

Katz Award recipients have included the following:

Criticism[edit]

The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) published reports in 2002[32] and 2009[33] on John Tanton, who helped found CIS. Tanton is a retired Michigan ophthalmologist who opposed immigration on racial grounds, desired a white ethnic majority in the United States and advocated for eugenics.[34][6][35]

The SPLC's 2009 report charged:[33]

FAIR, CIS and NumbersUSA are all part of a network of restrictionist organizations conceived and created by John Tanton, the "puppeteer" of the nativist movement and a man with deep racist roots ... CIS was conceived by Tanton and began life as a program of FAIR. CIS presents itself as a scholarly think tank that produces serious immigration studies meant to serve "the broad national interest." But the reality is that CIS has never found any aspect of immigration that it liked, and it has frequently manipulated data to achieve the results it seeks.

In response, Krikorian wrote:[36]

The fact that they went after mainstream groups rather than fringe ones shows that the goal is not elevating the tone of public discourse but shutting it down altogether. ... The report's section on CIS is not just hackwork, but amateurish hackwork. Much of it dwells on letters written to (not by, but to) one of my board members, misidentified as having been executive director. Our research is described as having been debunked by "mainstream think tanks and organizations," oddly enough including two of the most strident open-borders advocacy groups in the nation. My tenure there, the majority of the center's existence, is dismissed briefly at the end as "The Later Years." And they didn’t even mention my book, which knits together decades of CIS research on the many facets of immigration into a unified theoretical framework – something at least worth touching on when trying to show how naughty CIS is. What's more, CIS is an unlikely source of "intolerance." The chairman is Peter Nuñez, U.S. attorney for San Diego under Reagan; the board includes the president of the Greater Miami Urban League and a former executive director of the National Black Caucus Foundation; the staff includes the former national policy director for the American Jewish Committee; and I didn't even speak English until I got to kindergarten.

Tanton also denied the SPLC's accusations. As to his alleged influence at CIS, he wrote, "I also helped raise a grant in 1985 for the Center for Immigration Studies, but I have played no role in the Center's growth or development."[37][38] According to CNN, Tanton openly embraced eugenics.[34] The New York Times noted that Tanton made his case against immigration in racial terms.[39] CIS has consequently been criticized for its reluctance to criticize Tanton and his views.[39]

In March 2010, CIS published a report written by Jerry Kammer, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist[40] and senior research fellow at CIS, that was sharply critical of the SPLC, its tactics and methodologies, and its attacks against groups such as CIS, NumbersUSA, and FAIR.[41][42] Ken Silverstein wrote in his online blog in reference to the SPLC's article:[43]

In 2004, a Wall Street Journal editorial repeated the SPLC's allegation that CIS is part of a network of organizations founded by Tanton and also charged that these organizations are "trying to stop immigration to the U.S." It quoted Chris Cannon, at the time a Republican U.S. Representative from Utah, as saying, "Tanton set up groups like CIS and FAIR to take an analytical approach to immigration from a Republican point of view so that they can give cover to Republicans who oppose immigration for other reasons."[44]

Several months earlier, Krikorian denied allegations made in a similarly critical Wall Street Journal editorial[45] and by Rep. Cannon, writing "This kind of venomous lying and guilt by association are par for the course in the fever swamps of the web, but are startling in the halls of the U.S. Congress and the pages of the nation's largest-circulation newspaper."[46] Although former Rep. Cannon expressed a negative view of CIS, the CIS website quotes other elected officials, including U.S. Representative Lamar S. Smith (R-TX), former Governor Richard D. Lamm (D-CO), U.S. Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL), and former U.S. Senator Alan Simpson (R-WY), in support of the organization.[13]

Controversial Reports[edit]

The Center for Immigration Studies has been criticized for publishing reports deemed to be misleading and using poor methodology by scholars on immigration (such as the authors of the National Academies of Sciences 2016 report on immigration); think tanks such as the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the Cato Institute,[47] Urban Institute[48] and Center for American Progress; fact-checkers such as FactCheck.Org, PolitiFact, Washington Post, Snopes and NBC News; and by immigration-research organizations (such as Migration Policy Institute and the Immigration Policy Center[49].

A March 2003 CIS report said that between 1996 and 2001 welfare use by immigrant headed households had increased and that "welfare use rates for immigrants and natives are essentially back to where they were in 1996 when welfare reform was passed." The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities said this was misleading because the U.S. children of noncitizens "account[ed] for all of the increase in Medicaid or SCHIP participation among U.S. citizens living in low-income households headed by noncitizens."[50]

In March 2007, CIS issued a report saying that the "proportion of immigrant-headed households using at least one major welfare program is 33 percent, compared to 19 percent for native households."[51] Wayne A. Cornelius of the Center for Comparative Immigration Studies at UCSD, wrote that this was misleading because "once 'welfare usage' is disaggregated, as Camarota does in a table near the end of his report, we see that food assistance is the only category in which there is a significant difference between immigrant- and native-headed households. Immigrants are significantly less likely than natives to use Medicaid, and they use subsidized housing and cash assistance programs at about the same (low) rate as natives."[52]

In September 2011, CIS published a report Who Benefited from Job Growth In Texas? saying that, in the period 2007-2011, immigrants (legal and illegal) had taken 81% of newly created jobs in the state.[53] According to Jeffrey S. Passel, senior demographer for the Pew Hispanic Center, "there are lots of methodological problems with the CIS study, mainly having to do with the limitations of small sample sizes and the fact that the estimates are determined by taking differences of differences based on small sample sizes."[54] Chuck DeVore, a conservative at the Texas Public Policy Foundation, criticized the report, saying that it "relied on flawed methodology".[55] CIS subsequently replied to DeVore's criticism.[56] The report was subsequently cited by Mitt Romney and David Frum. Politifact, when evaluating Frum and Romney's statements, noted that CIS's report "does acknowledge that 'no estimate of illegal immigration is exact'. But the methodological shortcomings also weaken the certainty of Romney’s statistic. On balance, we think that both the report’s authors and its critics have reasonable points. In the big picture, we agree with Chuck DeVore – a conservative critic of the study – that 'trying to draw conclusions about immigration and employment in Texas in isolation from other factors is problematic at best.' But we also agree with Mark Krikorian, the Center for Immigration Studies’ executive director, that 'even if DeVore prefers a net-to-net comparison, immigrants still got a disproportionate share of new jobs'."[54][57]

Norman Matloff, a UC Davis professor of computer science, wrote a report featured at CIS arguing that most H-1B visa workers, rather than being "the best and the brightest", are mostly of average talent.[58][59][60] James Shrek of the Heritage Foundation argued that Matloff's methodology was a "highly misleading measure of ability", as Matloff simply looked at the wages of the H-1B visa workers and how they compared to other workers in the sector.[61] Shrek notes that the existing data shows that H-1B workers are more skilled than the average American: "H-1B workers are highly educated. Almost half have an advanced degree. The median H-1B worker earns 90 percent more than the median U.S. worker. They are in no way average workers."[61] Matloff, in his reply, said that H-1B workers were not supposed to be compared to median workers and that Sherk's argument is "completely at odds with the claims the industry has made concerning the "best and brightest" issue" and that comparison to O-1 visa wage data showed that H-1B visas were being used by employers to undercut wages.[62]

In May 2014, a CIS report said that in 2013 Immigration and Customs Enforcement had "freed 36,007 convicted criminal aliens from detention who were awaiting the outcome of deportation proceedings... [and t]he vast majority of these releases from ICE custody were discretionary, not required by law (in fact, in some instances, apparently contrary to law), nor the result of local sanctuary policies."[63] An ICE spokesman said that many such releases were required by law, for instance when a detainee's home country refuses to accept them or required by a judge's order.[64] Caitlin Dickson, writing in the Daily Beast said that ICE had "highlighted key points that CIS failed to address".[65] Associated Press, however, when reporting on CIS's figures, said that "the releases that weren't mandated by law, including [the] 28 percent of the immigrants with homicide convictions, undermines the government's argument that it uses its declining resources for immigration enforcement to find and jail serious criminal immigrants who may pose a threat to public safety or national security."[66] CIS's report was criticized by the Immigration Policy Center of the American Immigration Council who said that "looking at this group of people as an undifferentiated whole doesn’t tell you much about who poses a risk to public safety and who does not."[65] Muzaffar Chishti, the New York director of the nonpartisan Migration Policy Institute, said that the CIS report was "a select presentation of a set of facts without any comparative analysis that can lead to misleading conclusions."[65] According to CBS, Gregory Chen of the American Immigration Lawyers Association said the report had “a lot of misleading information” and "that the report's definition of criminals who have been 'released' includes those who are still subject to supervision including electronic ankle monitoring and regular check ins with ICE."[67]

A September 2015 report by CIS asserted that "immigrant households receive 41 percent more federal welfare than households headed by native-born citizens."[68] The report was criticized on the basis of poor methodology by Alex Nowrasteh of the Cato Institute. Nowrasteh said that the report opted not to examine how much welfare immigrants use, but to examine households led by an immigrant so that the report could count the welfare usage of the immigrant's US-born children, which leads to a misleading estimate of immigrant welfare use.[68]

A February 2017 CIS report said that "72 individuals from the seven countries covered in President Trump's vetting executive order have been convicted in terror cases since the 9/11 attacks," an assertion that several fact-checking agencies debunked.[69][70] Stephen Miller, a senior White House policy adviser, used the data provided by CIS to justify President Trump's 90-day travel ban, earning him "Three Pinocchois" from the Washington Post Fact-Checker (its second-worst rating).[69][71] FactCheck.Org found that most (44 of the 72) had not been convicted on terrorism charges, and that none of the 72 people were responsible for a terrorism-related death in the US, and Snopes mirrored the assessment.[69]

In March 2018, the Trump administration claimed that construction on a Mexico border wall would pay for itself by keeping undocumented immigrants out of the United States, citing a CIS report.[72] The CIS report was based on data from the 2016 National Academies of Science (NAS) report.[72] However, several of the authors of the NAS report said that CIS misused the data from the report, made unjustifiable methodological decisions, and that it was likelier that keeping undocumented immigrants out would reduce government revenue.[72][73] The 18-member panel of economists, sociologists, demographers and public policy experts, and chosen by the National Academies of Science, concluded that undocumented immigrants had a net positive fiscal impact.[72]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Center for Immigration Studies". OpenCorporates. Retrieved April 1, 2017. 
  2. ^ "Center for Immigration Studies Staff List – Center for Immigration Studies". cis.org. 
  3. ^ Murray, Mark. "Fact-Checking the First Night of the Republican National Convention". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-03-07. 
  4. ^ a b DeParle, Jason (April 17, 2011). "The Anti-Immigration Crusader". New York Times. 
  5. ^ "About Us". Center for Immigration Studies. 
  6. ^ a b c Master, Cyra (April 12, 2017). "DHS hires incense immigration supporters". TheHill. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  7. ^ a b Ellis, Emma (January 14, 2017). "Fake Think Takes Fuel Fake News". Wired. Retrieved March 13, 2018. 
  8. ^ Lopez, Luciana. "Two hawkish anti-immigration groups say consulted by Trump". U.S. Retrieved 2018-08-16. 
  9. ^ "Donald J. Trump on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2018-08-16. 
  10. ^ "Donald J. Trump on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2018-08-16. 
  11. ^ Sherman, Amy (March 22, 2017). "Is the Center for Immigration Studies a 'hate group' ?". PolitiFact Florida. Retrieved 2018-04-06. 
  12. ^ Graham Jr., Otis L. (2008). Immigration Reform and America's Unchosen Future. AuthorHouse. pp. 138–139. ISBN 9781438909967. 
  13. ^ a b c "About the Center for Immigration Studies". Center for Immigration Studies. 
  14. ^ Graham, Jr (2008). Immigration Reform and America's Unchosen Future. AuthorHouse. p. 279. ISBN 9781438909967. 
  15. ^ Bank, Justin (April 6, 2009). "Cost of Illegal Immigrants". www.factcheck.org. Retrieved 2017-03-07. 
  16. ^ Rosenberg, Mica (January 29, 2017). "Two Iraqis lead legal fight against Trump order blocking entry". Reuters. Retrieved 2017-03-07. 
  17. ^ Cox, Tony (June 22, 2010). "Center For Immigration Studies Wary Of Dream Act". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-03-07. 
  18. ^ Swanson, Ian (May 16, 2014). "GOP's new immigration weapon". thehill.com. 
  19. ^ Graham, Jr (2008). Immigration Reform and America's Unchosen Future. AuthorHouse. p. 407. ISBN 9781438909967. 
  20. ^ Schumacher-Matos, Edward. "Getting The Bedfellows Of Immigration Policy Right". NPR.org. 
  21. ^ "CFC Promotion Video". Center for Immigration Studies. 
  22. ^ a b CNN, Maria Santana. "Hard-line anti-illegal immigration advocates hired at 2 federal agencies". CNN. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  23. ^ a b Jacobson, Louis. "Jeff Sessions remarks on DACA, fact-checked". PolitiFact. Retrieved 2017-09-17. 
  24. ^ Da Silva, Chantal (May 25, 2018). "Donald Trump has nominated an immigration hard-liner for a post dealing with refugees". Newsweek. Retrieved 2018-08-30. 
  25. ^ a b Da Silva, Chantal (June 5, 2018). "ICE's director is set to speak at an "anti-immigrant hate group," event, the SPLC says". Newsweek. Retrieved 2018-06-06. 
  26. ^ Immigration and Customs Enforcement Director Defends Separating Families at the Border, Time Magazine, Maya Rhodan, June 5, 2018. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  27. ^ "All Publications". www.cis.org. Center for Immigration Studies. 
  28. ^ "Immigration Blog". www.cis.org. Center for Immigration Studies. 
  29. ^ "Eugene Katz Award". Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved February 21, 2018. 
  30. ^ "PBS's Erbe Wins Immigration Journalism Award". PRNewswire-USNewswire. June 4, 2014. Retrieved December 11, 2017. 
  31. ^ "Heather MacDonald – Excellence in Media Award – State Troopers 2016 Dinner". National Police Defense Foundation. Retrieved December 11, 2017. 
  32. ^ "John Tanton is the Mastermind Behind the Organized Anti-Immigration Movement". splcenter.org. 
  33. ^ a b Beirich, Heidi. The Nativist Lobby Archived July 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Southern Poverty Law Center.
  34. ^ a b CNN, Maria Santana. "Hard-line anti-illegal immigration advocates hired at 2 federal agencies". CNN. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  35. ^ DePARLE, JASON (April 17, 2011). "The Anti-Immigration Crusader". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-13. 
  36. ^ Krikorian, Mark. "Free Speech Is Great, But...." National Review Online. February 11, 2009.
  37. ^ Tanton, John. "SPLC’s MO: Audacter calumniare semper aliquid haeret (slander boldly, something always sticks)." The Social Contract. Spring 2010.
  38. ^ Weaver, Dustin (February 29, 2016). "Liberal report links immigration groups to white nationalism". TheHill. Retrieved 2018-08-16. 
  39. ^ a b Deparle, Jason (April 17, 2011). "The Anti-Immigration Crusader". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-04-12. 
  40. ^ "Biography - Mr. Jerry Kammer". Pulitzer Prize Winners Workshop. Retrieved 2018-09-18. 
  41. ^ Kammer, Jerry. "Immigration and the SPLC: How the Southern Poverty Law Center Invented a Smear, Served La Raza, Manipulated the Press, and Duped its Donors." Center for Immigration Studies. March 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
  42. ^ Krikorian, Mark (March 18, 2010). "Panel Transcript: Immigration and the SPLC | Center for Immigration Studies". Cis.org. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  43. ^ Silverstein, Ken (March 22, 2010). ""Hate," Immigration, and the Southern Poverty Law Center". harpers.org. 
  44. ^ "Borderline Republicans", Wall Street Journal, p. A18, June 14, 2004 
  45. ^ Riley, Jason L. (March 15, 2004), "GOP Nativists Tarnish Reagan's 'Shining City'", Wall Street Journal 
  46. ^ Krikorian, Mark. "Strange Bedfellows." National Review Online. March 31, 2004.
  47. ^ Vijayan, Jaikumar. "Real ID alive and kicking, report says". Computerworld. Retrieved 2017-03-29. 
  48. ^ Wang, Marie (May 21, 2003). "The Decline in Medicaid Use by Noncitizens since Welfare Reform". Urban Institute. 
  49. ^ Waslin, Michele (October 12, 2008). "Expanding Flawed E-Verify System Will Hurt Lawful Workers". AlterNet. Retrieved 2017-03-29. 
  50. ^ Ku, Leighton (April 21, 2003). "Noncitizens' Use Of Public Benefits Has Declined Since 1996, Revised 4/21/03". www.cbpp.org. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  51. ^ Camarota, Steven A. (July 25, 2012). "Immigrants in the United States, 2007". Center for Immigration Studies. 
  52. ^ Commentary, Wayne A. Cornelius. "Immigration study misleading, negative". sandiegouniontribune.com. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  53. ^ Camarota, Steven A. (August 7, 2012). "Who Benefited from Job Growth In Texas?". Center for Immigration Studies. 
  54. ^ a b Jacobson, Louis (October 19, 2011). "Mitt Romney hits Rick Perry, saying 40 percent of Texas job growth went to illegal immigrants". PolitiFact. politifact.com. Retrieved 2018-08-11. 
  55. ^ Devore, Chuck (October 2011). "Who Really Gets Texas Jobs" (PDF). The Texas Model: A Texas Public Policy Foundation Publication. Texas Public Policy Foundation. texaspolicy.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-01. Retrieved 2018-08-11. 
  56. ^ Krikorian, Mark (October 10, 2011). "Response to Chuck DeVore on Texas Immigration". National Review. 
  57. ^ Shelby, W. Gardner (December 2, 2011). "David Frum says foreign-born individuals filled 80 percent of the Texas jobs added from 2009 into 2011". Politifact. politifact.com. 
  58. ^ Matloff, Norman. "H-1Bs: Still Not the Best and Brightest". 
  59. ^ Matloff, Norman (January 1, 2013). "Immigration and the tech industry: As a labour shortage remedy, for innovation, or for cost savings?". Migration Letters. 10 (2): 210–27. ISSN 1741-8984. 
  60. ^ Matloff, Norman (February 28, 2013). "Are foreign students the 'best and brightest'?: Data and implications for immigration policy". Economic Policy Institute. 
  61. ^ a b Sherk, James (May 6, 2008). "H-1B Workers: Highly Skilled, Highly Needed". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  62. ^ Matloff, Norm (May 7, 2008). "Heritage Foundation analysis of my CIS article". UC Davis. 
  63. ^ Vaughan, Jessica M. (May 11, 2014). "ICE Document Details 36,000 Criminal Alien Releases in 2013". Center for Immigration Studies. 
  64. ^ Shelby, W. Gardner (June 10, 2014). "Lamar Smith claim about Obama's 'prison break' of illegal immigrants fails to acknowledge detainees had served criminal sentences and all releases weren't discretionary". @politifact. 
  65. ^ a b c Dickson, Caitlin (May 15, 2014). "Inside The Center For Immigration Studies, The Immigration False-Fact Think Tank". The Daily Beast. 
  66. ^ Caldwell, Alicia A. "Data: DHS freed thousands of criminal immigrants". AP. 
  67. ^ Kaplan, Rebecca (May 15, 2014). "Report: U.S. released thousands of immigrant felons last year". CBS News. Retrieved 2017-03-29. 
  68. ^ a b Rosen, Ben (May 9, 2016). "Do immigrants receive more welfare money than natural born US citizens?". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
  69. ^ a b c Kiely, Eugene (February 24, 2017). "Terrorism and Trump's Travel Ban". FactCheck.org. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
  70. ^ Vaughan, Jessica M. (February 10, 2017). "Study Reveals 72 Terrorists Came From Countries Covered by Trump Vetting Order". Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved 2017-03-24. 
  71. ^ Ya Hee Lee, Michelle (February 13, 2017). "Stephen Miller's claim that 72 from banned countries were implicated in 'terroristic activity'". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-03-29. 
  72. ^ a b c d Farley, Robert (March 16, 2018). "Will Trump's Wall Pay for Itself? - FactCheck.org". FactCheck.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05. 
  73. ^ Kasprak, Alex (March 23, 2018). "Will A Border Wall 'Pay For Itself' Because Immigrants Cost the Government Money?". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2018-04-05. 

External links[edit]