Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996
Great Seal of the United States
Other short titlesIIRIRA
Long titleAn Act making omnibus consolidated appropriations for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1997, and for other purposes.
Acronyms (colloquial)i-RAI-ruh
NicknamesOmnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act of 1997
Enacted bythe 104th United States Congress
EffectiveApril 1, 1997[1]
Citations
Public lawPub.L. 104–208 (text) (PDF)
Statutes at Large110 Stat. 3009-546
Codification
Acts amendedAntiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996
Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994
Immigration Act of 1990
Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988
Titles amended8 U.S.C.: Aliens and Nationality
U.S.C. sections amended
Legislative history
United States Supreme Court cases

The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA or IIRAIRA), Division C of Pub.L. 104–208 (text) (PDF), 110 Stat. 3009-546, enacted September 30, 1996, made major changes to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). IIRIRA's changes became effective on April 1, 1997.[1]

Former United States President Bill Clinton asserted that the legislation strengthened "the rule of law by cracking down on illegal immigration at the border, in the workplace, and in the criminal justice system — without punishing those living in the United States legally".[2] However, IIRIRA has been criticized as overly punitive "by eliminating due process from the overwhelming majority of removal cases and curtailing equitable relief from removal".[3] A range of critiques have emerged concerning the provisions enacted with IIRIRA, such as the expansion of aggravated felonies, creation of the 287(g) program, reduction in due process rights, and intensified funding of border militarization.[3][4][5][6] With IIRIRA, all noncitizens, regardless of legal status and including long-term legal permanent residents, became subject to removal and greatly expanded the offenses that could lead to formal deportation.[7]

Proponents of the IIRIRA present the case that the policy provided a much needed end to numerous loopholes present beforehand in US immigration policy, which ultimately undermined their efficacy.[8] The ultimate goal of the IIRIRA has been to deter further illegal immigration into the US, and despite a noticeable increase in annual deportations since the policy was enacted in 1996 from around 50,000 to over 200,000 by the beginning of the 2000's,[9] overall illegal immigration has increased since the policy's enactment according to data compiled by the Pew Research Center.[10]

Before IIRIRA, nonimmigrants who overstayed their visas or violated their status could pay a fine that would allow them to adjust their status to permanent residence status.[11] With IIRIRA, however, lawfully admitted nonimmigrants who overstay their visas by one day or longer became ineligible for a new nonimmigrant visa.[11] If the period of overstay ranged from 180-365 days, the noncitizen would face a 3-year bar to reentry, and an overstay of more than 365 days would require a 10-year bar. These provisions impact noncitizens who were admitted before and after the enactment of IIRIRA.[11] In these circumstances, a noncitizen who falls under these categories would be subject to summary removal if attempting to reenter the United States. In these removal proceedings, the noncitizen does not have a right to a hearing or a lawyer and is subject to a 5-year bar of entry.[11]

Public Charge[edit]

IIRIRA imposed new regulations concerning public charge determinations for noncitizens seeking admission. IIRIRA requires that the individual(s) petitioning a family-sponsored immigrant must provide an affidavit of support.[12] In the affidavit, the petitioner must "agree to provide support to maintain the sponsored alien at an annual income that is not less than 125 percent of the federal poverty guidelines" until the noncitizen naturalizes as a U.S. citizen[12] or the noncitizen, the noncitizen's parent, or the noncitizen's spouse has worked for 40 qualifying quarters.[13]

Aggravated Felonies[edit]

With IIRIRA, the US Congress expanded the definition of the term aggravated felony. Aggravated felonies were first initiated with the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, and aggravated felonies consisted of murder, drug trafficking, and illicit firearm trafficking. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 made any noncitizen convicted of an aggravated felony at any time after their entry into the United States deportable. The Immigration Act of 1990, Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994 and Anti-terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 increased the types of offenses considered aggravated felonies. In addition, with these laws, crimes with a penalty of 5 years or longer would be considered an aggravated felony.[14][15]

After IIRIRA, however, the penalty was changed so that any crime with a penalty of one year or longer would be considered an aggravated felony.[16]

Any noncitizen who is convicted of an aggravated felony can face collateral immigration consequences: "noncitizens who have been convicted of an 'aggravated felony' are prohibited from receiving most forms of relief that would spare them from deportation, including asylum, and from being readmitted to the United States at any time in the future".[17] There is a "presumption of deportability" for noncitizens convicted of aggravated felonies, in which noncitizens "convicted of an aggravated felony shall be conclusively presumed to be deportable from the United States".[18] 

Importantly, aggravated felony charges can be applied retroactively, so if a change in the law deems a new category of offense an aggravated felony, any noncitizen previously convicted of that offense can then face removal.[17]

Under IIRIRA, any noncitizen convicted of an aggravated felony is categorically barred from cancellation of removal and placed in a form of expedited removal proceedings (but these are distinct from expedited removal). Under IIRIRA, expedited removal proceedings for noncitizens with aggravated felony charges are under the purview of the Attorney General who "shall provide for the initiation and, to the extent possible, the completion of removal proceedings, and any administrative appeals thereof, in the case of any alien convicted of an aggravated felony before the alien's release from incarceration for the underlying aggravated felony".[19] Under these expedited removal proceedings, noncitizens do attend immigration court, and they are afforded the right to counsel (at no expense to the government) for their immigration court proceedings and judicial review of their determination of removal.[20]

Removal[edit]

IIRIRA merged exclusion and deportation proceedings into removal proceedings.[21] All noncitizens who are removable are subject to removal proceedings.[11] Prior to IIRIRA, noncitizens were subject to either deportation proceedings or exclusion proceedings.[21][11] Deportation was reserved for noncitizens who "made an 'entry' into the U.S.", whereas exclusion proceedings were reserved for noncitizens who had not made entry into the United States.[22] The consolidation of exclusion and deportation proceedings into removal proceedings was an attempt to streamline the process of deportation and exclusion. Under IIRIRA, noncitizens "admitted to the United States, [noncitizens] applying for admission, and [noncitizens] present in the United States without being inspected and admitted" were all subject to removal proceedings.[22] Removal proceedings are adjudicated by immigration judges, which fall under the purview of the Executive Office of Immigration Review, which is part of the Department of Justice.

Post-IIRIRA removal proceedings are initiated with a notice to appear (NTA) that is sent to the noncitizen. NTAs replaced Order to Show Cause and Notice of Time and Place documents.[23][11] NTAs specify, among other things, "the nature of the proceedings against the alien", "the legal authority under which the proceedings are conducted", "the acts or conduct alleged to be in violation of the law" and "the charges against the alien and the statutory provisions alleged to have been violated".[24] IIRIRA established the authority of immigration judges in removal proceedings.[25] Immigration judges "shall administer oaths, receive evidence, and interrogate, examine, and cross-examine the alien and any witnesses. The immigration judge may issue subpoenas for the attendance of witnesses and presentation of evidence".[26]

Noncitizens have the right to a "reasonable opportunity to examine the evidence against the alien, to present evidence on the alien's own behalf, and to cross-examine witnesses presented by the Government" but not the right "to an application by the alien for discretionary relief under this Act".[27] Further, under IIRIRA, noncitizens "have the privilege of being represented, at no expense to the Government, by counsel of the [noncitizen's] choosing".[20] Therefore, noncitizens can have legal representation in immigration court, but they not entitled to legal representation provided by the Government if they cannot afford an attorney.

IIRIRA established a removal period of 90 days for noncitizens determined to be removable by an immigration judge.[28] The removal period can begin when "the date the order of removal becomes administratively final", "the date of the court's final order" or if the date at which the noncitizen is released from detention (only in cases of non-immigration related detention).[29] Noncitizens can file one motion to reconsider the decision of an immigration judge, which must be filed within 30 days of the final order being issued.[30] Noncitizens can also file 1 motion for reopening their case, which must be filed within 90 days of the final order of removal.[31]

Cancellation of Removal[edit]

IIRIRA restricted noncitizens' access to cancellation of removal, which is a form of relief from deportation. Prior to IIRIRA, noncitizens could receive cancellation of removal through discretionary relief from the Attorney General (this relief is carried out by immigration judges within Executive Office of Immigration Review.[32] In general, before IIRIRA noncitizens could become eligible for cancellation of removal if they "established seven years continuous physical presence in the U.S., good moral character during that period, and that deportation would result in extreme hardship to the individual or to his or her spouse, parent, or child who was a U.S. citizen or lawful permanent resident".[32] Cancellation of removal resulted in individuals becoming lawful permanent residents.[32]

IIRIRA restricted the requirements for individuals to become eligible for cancellation of removal and capped the number of cancellations available to 4,000 annually.[33] With IIRIRA, cancellation required continuous physical presence in the U.S. for 10 years prior to the initiation of removal proceedings, which is called the stop-time rule.[34] In 1997, the Bureau of Immigration Appeals ruled that the stop-time rule can also be applied retroactively to individuals who began removal proceedings prior to IIRIRA's implementation.[35] An additional IIRIRA mandated requirement for cancellation of removal is that noncitizens must demonstrate that removal would lead to "exceptional and extremely unusual hardship" to the individual's spouse, parent, or child who is a U.S. citizen or noncitizen with legal permanent residence status. IIRIRA eliminated the possibility of cancellation due to the hardship an individual themselves could face.[36]

Expedited Removal[edit]

IIRIRA established expedited removal, in which immigration officials gained the authority to summarily remove certain noncitizens.[37] This is different from the expedited removal proceedings for noncitizens convicted of aggravated felonies. Noncitizens subject to expedited removal include noncitizens "who are inadmissible because they lack valid entry documents or have sought admission through fraud (may also include aliens inadmissible on same grounds if they are present in the United States without being admitted or paroled and have been in the country less than two years)".[38]


Expedited removals can be considered removals without hearings: these removals do not require judicial review by immigration judges within the Executive Office of Immigration Review unless the individual plans to apply for asylum or indicates fear of persecution.[39][40] Therefore, noncitizens subject to expedited removal do not have the right to administrative review or the right to administrative appeal and judicial review.[38] Because expedited removals do not require judicial or administrative review, noncitizens who are subject to expedited removals are not afforded the right to an attorney during their interviews with immigration officials.[38]

Stipulated Removal[edit]

IIRIRA initiated stipulated removal, which is a type of plea agreement for noncitizens who are convicted of crimes in criminal court.[41] Stipulated removal orders under IIRIRA can be enacted for noncitizens facing felony and misdemeanor convictions that are considered aggravated felonies.[11][41] Stipulated removal allocated to United States federal district court judges "jurisdiction to enter a judicial order of removal pursuant to the terms of such stipulation".[41]


Orders of stipulated removal "constitute a conclusive determination of the [noncitizen's] removability from the U.S."[22] The plea agreements for stipulated removal orders make a "judicial order of removal form the United States […] a condition of the plea agreement" for the criminal conviction or a "condition of probation or supervised release, or both".[41] With stipulated removal, noncitizens "waive the right to notice and hearing" for a determination of their removability.[11]

IIRIRA initiated exceptions for stipulated removal for individuals in "exceptional circumstances":  serious illness of the alien or serious illness or death of the spouse, child, or parent of the alien, but not including less compelling circumstances) beyond the control of the alien.[22]

Reinstatement of Removal[edit]

IIRIRA implemented a process called reinstatement of removal. Reinstatement of removal concerns the reentry of undocumented immigrants who previously left through voluntary departure or who were previously issued orders of removal who entered without lawful admission.[42] With reinstatement of removal, "the prior order of removal is reinstated from its original date and is not subject to being reopened or reviewed" and the immigrant is ineligible for applying for or receiving any relief from removal.[42] Reinstatement of removal allows for the individual to "be removed under the prior order at any time after the reentry".[42]

Bond and Immigration Detention[edit]

IIRIRA expanded the authority of the Attorney General to detain noncitizens who are facing removal. Under IIRIRA, noncitizens "may be arrested and detained pending a decision on whether the [noncitizen] is to be removed from the United States".[43] IIRIRA did not impose any limitations on the length of detention, but IIRIRA did restrict these noncitizens' access to release from detention. Release could be granted with a "bond of at least $1,500" or on "conditional parole".[43] Noncitizens without legal permanent residence or prior work authorizations would be ineligible for receiving a work authorization during their release from detention.[43]


IIRIRA stipulated mandatory detention for noncitizens who furnished fraudulent documents or have convictions for aggravated felonies, including "crimes involving moral turpitude", as well as noncitizens found to have "membership in a terrorist organization".[44][45] Demore v. Kim (2003) upheld the constitutionality of the mandatory detention of noncitizens with qualifying convictions.


The provisions of IIRIRA concerning detention were initially conceptualized as allowing for indefinite detention of noncitizens.[22] However, court decisions have added clarity to the length of time a noncitizen can be detained. In Diouf v. Napolitano (2011), the Ninth Circuit held that an individual facing prolonged immigration detention under section 241(a)(6), inadmissible criminal aliens, of IIRIRA is entitled to be released on bond unless the government establishes the individual is a flight risk or a danger to the community.[46][22] In addition, these individuals entitled to the same procedural safeguards against prolonged detention as individuals detained under section 236(a) of the Act, including an individualized bond hearing before an immigration judge.[22] The court in Diouf v. Napolitano (2011) acknowledged that it was extending its holding in Casas-Castrillon v. DHS (2008).[47]

Bars to Re-Entry[edit]

Various bars for reentry of noncitizens were established by IIRIRA.

3-Year Bar to Entry[edit]

The 3-year bar to entry concerns noncitizens without lawful present status for more than 180 days but less than 365 days who returned to their home country voluntarily before the initiation of removal proceedings in immigration court.[48][49] The 3-year bar begins on the date of the individual's departure or removal from the U.S.[48]

10-Year Bar to Entry[edit]

The 10-year bar to entry applies to any noncitizen who was ordered removed in immigration court or to any noncitizen who returned to their home country prior to the final adjudication of their removal proceedings in immigration court who were in the United States without lawful immigration status for one or more years.[50] Individuals in either of these categories are summarily found ineligible for entry for 10 years.[50] If a noncitizen gains admission after the 10-year bar and is subsequently deported, IIRIRA imposed a 20-year bar to entry.[50]

Lifetime Bar to Entry[edit]

Lifetime bars to reentry were established for any noncitizen who was deported due to criminal convictions of aggravated felonies.[48] These individuals face a lifetime bar to reentry.[48]

287(g) Program[edit]

IIRIRA initiated the 287(g) program. The 287(g) program allows state and local law enforcement agencies to enter into agreements with Immigration and Naturalization Service (now Immigration and Customs Enforcement). These agreements allocate to certain agents the ability to "perform a function of an immigration officer in relation to the investigation, apprehension, or detention of aliens in the United States (including the transportation of such aliens across State lines to detention centers)".[51] Under 287(g), law enforcement officers are deputized to gain immigration enforcement authority, such as investigating, apprehending, and detaining noncitizens whom the officer believes to be removable. When agencies enter into 287(g) agreements, the individuals deputized are under the direction of ICE, but they are not considered federal officials.[51]

Local law enforcement is not allowed to enforce immigration law—that authority is vested in the federal government as immigration enforcement is a civil matter.[52][53] State local law enforcment officials, such as sheriffs' agencies and municipal law enforcement, are only allowed to enforce criminal matters. The 287(g) program has received considerable pushback from immigration scholars and immigrant advocacy groups, who expressed that the program increases racial profiling and undermines immigrants' rights.[54][55][56][57][58] As of November 2021, there were 142 agencies with signed 287(g) agreements in the United States.[59]

Border Enforcement Provisions[edit]

Among other changes, IIRIRA gave the United States Attorney General broad authority to construct barriers along the Mexico–United States border, and it authorized the construction of a secondary layer of border fencing to support the already-completed 14-mile primary fence. Construction of the secondary fence stalled because of environmental concerns raised by the California Coastal Commission.

IIRIRA substantially increased funding directed toward the Mexico-United States Border. IIRIRA appropriated $12 million of funding for multilayered fencing starting near San Diego, California and extending east for 14 miles.[60] This funding was used to supplement existing fencing and add second and third layered fencing along that portion of the border.[60]


In addition to the multilayered fencing near San Diego, California, IIRIRA allocated additional technology and funding for the Border Patrol. Included in this allocation were "fixed wing aircraft, helicopters, four-wheel drive vehicles, sedans, night vision goggles, night vision scopes, and sensor units".[61] (section 103). IIRIRA required that the number of full-time, active-duty border patrol agents would increase by at least 1,000 "in each of the fiscal years 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001".[62] IIRIRA also funded an increase of 300 supportive personnel in each of the fiscal years of 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001.[62] These new border patrol agents were to be stationed at areas with high proportions of illegal crossing, as measured within the previous year.[62] Such areas were largely concentrated at the southern border (Mexico-United States Border).[63][64]


IIRIRA targeted funding for agents and militarized technology to "areas of the border identified as areas of high illegal entry into the United States in order to provide a uniform and visible deterrent to illegal entry on a continuing basis".[65] In doing so, IIRIRA appropriated consistent funding that supported a border enforcement strategy known as "prevention through deterrence". Prevention through deterrence was first initiated in the early 1990s, and it aimed to reduce the number of migrants entering without authorization at high-traffic urban areas.[63][64]According to reports by the Government Accountability Office, prevention through deterrence increased the number of migrants that died while crossing into the United States.[66][63] Such strategies have been criticized as unconstitutional and deemed in violation of human rights.[67]

Higher education restrictions[edit]

IIRIRA expanded the restrictions on federally distributed post-secondary education funds that were initially enacted with the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). PRWORA denied federal funding for post-secondary education to most groups of noncitizens. IIRIRA extended these restrictions, applying them to state-level funding decisions.[68]Under IIRIRA, states cannot make undocumented immigrants eligible for in-state tuition rates for post-secondary education unless all citizens and nationals are also eligible, regardless of their state of residence.[68]


Several states have passed tuition-equality laws by allowing anyone regardless of legal status to apply for in-state tuition if they meet the state's eligibility requirements.[69] States have overcome these restrictions by basing eligibility on in-state tuition on factors besides residence, such as attendance at a high school in the state.[70] These provisions allow anyone, regardless of their immigration or citizenship status, to apply for in-state tuition if they meet the eligibility requirements.[70] In doing so, the states have complied with the mandates established by IIRIRA and PRWORA.[71]

Voting[edit]

IIRIRA made it a criminal offense for a noncitizen to vote in a federal election.[72] This, however, does not apply to those who have resided in the United States as non-citizen U.S. nationals or permanent residents while they were under the age of 16 years, and both of their parents are U.S. citizens.[73]

Impact[edit]

A 2018 paper found that the Act reduced the health and mental health outcomes of Latin-American undocumented immigrants in the United States by escalating their fear that they would be deported.[74]

In addition, this policy has been criticized by the Journal on Migration and Human Security for imposing overwhelming hurdles on refugees seeking asylum in the United States. These hurdles, such as mandatory detention and application deadlines, are argued to undermine the obligations the United States has under the Refugee Convention Protocols of 1967.[75] Furthermore, à paper in the Journal on Migration and Human Security analyzed a 2011 test conducted by the Migration Policy Institute aimed at exploring any negative externalities the 287(g) program had on the communities of Frederick County, Maryland. The journal found that, after recording arrests by the Frederick County Sheriff's Office, there was evidence pointing towards racial profiling against Hispanics in the area.[76][77]

The scope of the law's authority was judged by the U.S. Supreme Court in the 2022 Biden v. Texas ruling, which found in a 5-4 decision that the President had the direct authority to regulate the law's Migrant Protection Protocols without approval from Congress.[78][79]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

This article in most part is based on law of the United States, including statutory and latest published case law.

  1. ^ a b "Othi v. Holder, 734 F.3d 259". Fourth Circuit. Harvard Law School. October 29, 2013. p. 265.
  2. ^ Clinton, Bill (1996). "Statement on Signing the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act, 1997". Archived from the original on 12 May 2022.
  3. ^ a b Abrego, Leisy; Coleman, Mat; Martínez, Daniel E.; Menjívar, Cecilia; Slack, Jeremy (2017). "Making Immigrants into Criminals: Legal Processes of Criminalization in the Post-IIRIRA Era". Journal on Migration and Human Security. 5 (3): 694–715. doi:10.1177/233150241700500308. ISSN 2331-5024. S2CID 219950410.
  4. ^ De Genova, Nicholas (2005). Working the Boundaries: Race, Space, and "Illegality" in Mexican Chicago. Duke University Press. doi:10.1215/9780822387091. ISBN 978-0-8223-3626-6.
  5. ^ Hing, Bill Ong (2018). "Entering the Trump Ice Age: Contextualizing the New Immigration Enforcement Regime". Texas A&M Law Review. 5 (2): 253–321. doi:10.37419/LR.V5.I2.1. S2CID 158801311.
  6. ^ Menjivar, Cecilia; Kanstroom, Daniel, eds. (2013). Constructing Illegality in America: Critiques, Experiences, and Responses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9781107300408. ISBN 978-1-107-30040-8.
  7. ^ Goodman, Adam (2020). The Deportation Machine: America's Long History of Expelling Immigrants. Princeton University Press. pp. 164–196. ISBN 978-0691182155.
  8. ^ Stein, Daniel; Barton, Terri (1998). "THE ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION REFORM AND IMMIGRANT RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1996: NOTABLE CHANGES FOR RESTORING INTEGRITY AND CREDIBILITY TO U.S. IMMIGRATION POLICY". Rutgers Race & L Rev. 1 (1): 111–112. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  9. ^ Massey, Douglass; Pren, Karen (30 July 2012). "Unintended Consequences of US Immigration Policy: Explaining the Post-1965 Surge from Latin America". Population and Development Review. 38 (1): 8. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2012.00470.x. PMC 3407978. PMID 22833862.
  10. ^ Lopez, Mark; Passel, Jeffrey; Cohn, D'Vera. "Key facts about the changing U.S. unauthorized immigrant population". pewresearch.org. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Fragoman, Austin T. Jr. (1997). "The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996: An Overview". The International Migration Review. 31 (2): 438–460. doi:10.2307/2547227. JSTOR 2547227. PMID 12292878.
  12. ^ a b Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 stat. 300-675 §551(a)(1)(A). (1996). SEC. 551. Requirements for Sponsor's Affidavit of Support. (a) IN GENERAL.—Section 213A (8 U.S.C. 1183a), as inserted by section 423(a) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, is amended to read as follows: Requirements for Sponsor's Affidavit of Support. SEC. 213A. (a) ENFORCEABILITY.— (1) TERMS OF AFFIDAVIT.—No affidavit of support may be accepted by the Attorney General or by any consular officer to establish that an alien is not excludable as a public charge under section 212(a)(4) unless such affidavit is executed by a sponsor of the alien as a contract— (A) in which the sponsor agrees to provide support to maintain the sponsored alien at an annual income that is not less than 125 percent of the Federal poverty line during the period in which the affidavit is enforceable; (B) that is legally enforceable against the sponsor by the sponsored alien, the Federal Government, any State (or any political subdivision of such State), or by any other entity that provides any means-tested public benefit (as defined in subsection (e)), consistent with the provisions of this section; and (C) in which the sponsor agrees to submit to the jurisdiction of any Federal or State court for the purpose of actions brought under subsection (b)(2).
  13. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120. 110 Stat. 300-675-676 §231A(a)(3)(A), §231A (a)(3)(B)(i), §231A (a)(3)(B)(ii). (1996). (2) PERIOD OF ENFORCEABILITY.—An affidavit of support shall be enforceable with respect to benefits provided for an alien before the date the alien is naturalized as a citizen of the United States, or, if earlier, the termination date provided under paragraph (3). (3) Termination of Period of Enforceability Upon Completion of Required Period of Employment, ETC.— (A) IN GENERAL.—An affidavit of support is not enforceable after such time as the alien (i) has worked 40 qualifying quarters of coverage as defined under title II of the Social Security Act or can be credited with such qualifying quarters as provided under subparagraph (B), and (ii) in the case of any such qualifying quarter creditable for any period beginning after December 31, 1996, did not receive any Federal means-tested public benefit (as provided under section 403 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996) during any such period. (B) QUALIFYING QUARTERS.—For purposes of this section, in determining the number of qualifying quarters of coverage under title II of the Social Security Act an alien shall be credited with— (i) all of the qualifying quarters of coverage as defined under title II of the Social Security Act worked by a parent of such alien while the alien was under age 18, and (ii) all of the qualifying quarters worked by a spouse of such alien during their marriage and the alien remains married to such spouse or such spouse is deceased. No such qualifying quarter of coverage that is creditable under title II of the Social Security Act for any period beginning after December 31, 1996, may be credited to an alien under clause (i) or (ii) if the parent or spouse (as the case may be) of such alien received any Federal means-tested public benefit (as provided under section 403 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996) during the period for which such qualifying quarter of coverage is so credited.
  14. ^ Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-649. 104 Stat. 4320-4321. (1990). https://www.govinfo.gov/link/statute/104/4978?link-type=pdf
  15. ^ Immigration and Nationality Technical Corrections Act of 1994, Pub. L. 103-416, § 222, 109 Stat. 4305, 4320. https://uscode.house.gov/statutes/pl/103/416.pdf
  16. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 Stat. 3009-627, 628 § 321(1996). https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:8%20section:1373%20edition:prelim SEC. 321. AMENDED DEFINITION OF AGGRAVATED FELONY. (a) IN GENERAL.—Section 101(a)(43) (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(43)), as amended by section 441(e) of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (P.L. 104–132), is amended— [...](10) in subparagraph (R), by striking for which a sentence of 5 years' imprisonment or more may be imposed and inserting for which the term of imprisonment is at least one year [emphasis added]
  17. ^ a b American Immigration Council (2021). "Aggravated Felonies: An Overview" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2022.
  18. ^ "8 U.S. Code § 1228 - Expedited removal of aliens convicted of committing aggravated felonies". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2022-05-12. 8 U.S. Code § 1228: Expedited removal of aliens convicted of committing aggravated felonies--(c) Presumption of deportability: An alien convicted of an aggravated felony shall be conclusively presumed to be deportable from the United States
  19. ^ "8 U.S. Code § 1228 - Expedited removal of aliens convicted of committing aggravated felonies". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2022-05-12.8 U.S. Code § 1228 Expedited removal of aliens convicted of committing aggravated felonies (3)Expedited proceedings (A)Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Attorney General shall provide for the initiation and, to the extent possible, the completion of removal proceedings, and any administrative appeals thereof, in the case of any alien convicted of an aggravated felony before the alien's release from incarceration for the underlying aggravated felony. (B)Nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring the Attorney General to effect the removal of any alien sentenced to actual incarceration, before release from the penitentiary or correctional institution where such alien is confined.
  20. ^ a b Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 STAT. 3009-589, 590 §240(b)(4). (1996). Sec. 240(b)(4) ALIENS RIGHTS IN PROCEEDING.—In proceedings under this section, under regulations of the Attorney General— (A) the alien shall have the privilege of being rep- resented, at no expense to the Government, by counsel of the alien's choosing who is authorized to practice in such proceedings, (B) the alien shall have a reasonable opportunity to examine the evidence against the alien, to present evidence on the alien's own behalf, and to cross-examine witnesses presented by the Government but these rights shall not entitle the alien to examine such national security informa- tion as the Government may proffer in opposition to the alien's admission to the United States or to an application by the alien for discretionary relief under this Act, and (C) a complete record shall be kept of all testimony and evidence produced at the proceeding.
  21. ^ a b US Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2015). Asylum division officer training course suspension of deportation and special rule cancellation of removal under NACARA. https://www.uscis.gov/sites/default/files/document/lesson-plans/ABC_NACARA_Asylum_Lesson_Plan.pdf
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Wiegand, Charles A. III; Verrillo, Phillip; Byrd, Sarah; McDonnell, Alexa; Rempel, Sarah (October 2011). "Fundamentals of Immigration Law" (PDF). Executive Office of Immigration Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2022.
  23. ^ "Naizhu Jiang v. Garland, 18 F.4th 730 | Casetext Search + Citator". casetext.com. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  24. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 STAT. 3009-587-588 §239 (a). (1996). SEC. 304. Removal proceedings; Cancellation of Removal and Adjustment of Status; Voluntary Departure (Revised and New Sections 239 to 240c). SEC. 239. (a) NOTICE TO APPEAR.— (1) IN GENERAL.—In removal proceedings under section 240, written notice (in this section referred to as a notice to appear) shall be given in person to the alien (or, if personal service is not practicable, through service by mail to the alien or to the alien's counsel of record, if any) specifying the follow- ing: (A) The nature of the proceedings against the alien. (B) The legal authority under which the proceedings are conducted. (C) The acts or conduct alleged to be in violation of law. (D) The charges against the alien and the statutory provisions alleged to have been violated. (E) The alien may be represented by counsel and the alien will be provided (i) a period of time to secure counsel under subsection (b)(1) and (ii) a current list of counsel prepared under subsection (b)(2). (F)(i) The requirement that the alien must immediately provide (or have provided) the Attorney General with a written record of an address and telephone number (if any) at which the alien may be contacted respecting proceedings under section 240. [emphasis added]
  25. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 STAT. 3009-589, 590 §240(b). (1996). SEC. 240. (a) PROCEEDING.— (1) IN GENERAL.—An immigration judge shall conduct proceedings for deciding the inadmissibility or deportability of an alien.
  26. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 STAT. 3009-589, 590 §240(b)(1). (1996). Sec. 240 (b) Conduct of the Proceeding.— (1) AUTHORITY OF IMMIGRATION JUDGE.—The immigration judge shall administer oaths, receive evidence, and interrogate, examine, and cross-examine the alien and any witnesses. The immigration judge may issue subpoenas for the attendance of witnesses and presentation of evidence. The immigration judge shall have authority (under regulations prescribed by the Attorney General) to sanction by civil money penalty any action (or inaction) in contempt of the judge's proper exercise of authority under this Act.
  27. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 STAT. 3009-589, 590 §240(b)(1)(B). (1996). https://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=(title:8%20section:1373%20edition:prelim
  28. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 STAT. 3009–598 §241(a)(1)(A). (1996). SEC. 241. (a) Detention, Release, and Removal of Aliens Ordered Removed. (1) REMOVAL PERIOD.— (A) IN GENERAL.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, when an alien is ordered removed, the Attorney General shall remove the alien from the United States within a period of 90 days (in this section referred to as the 'removal period').
  29. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 STAT. 3009–598 §241(a)(1)(B)(i), §241(a)(1)(B)(ii), §241(a)(1)(B)(iii). (1996). SEC. 241. (a) Detention, Release, and Removal of Aliens Ordered Removed. (B) BEGINNING OF PERIOD.—The removal period begins on the latest of the following: (i) The date the order of removal becomes administratively final. (ii) If the removal order is judicially reviewed and if a court orders a stay of the removal of the alien, the date of the court's final order. (iii) If the alien is detained or confined (except under an immigration process), the date the alien is released from detention or confinement.
  30. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 Stat. 3009-593 §240(c)(5)(A), §240(c)(5)(B)(1996). (5) MOTIONS TO RECONSIDER.— (A) IN GENERAL.—The alien may file one motion to reconsider a decision that the alien is removable from the United States. (B) DEADLINE.—The motion must be filed within 30 days of the date of entry of a final administrative order of removal. (C) CONTENTS.—The motion shall specify the errors of law or fact in the previous order and shall be supported by pertinent authority.
  31. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 Stat. 3009-593 §240(c)(6)(A), §240(c)(6)(B) (1996). (6) MOTIONS TO REOPEN.— (A) IN GENERAL.—An alien may file one motion to reopen proceedings under this section. (B) CONTENTS.—The motion to reopen shall state the new facts that will be proven at a hearing to be held if the motion is granted, and shall be supported by affida- vits or other evidentiary material. (C) DEADLINE.— (i) IN GENERAL.—Except as provided in this subparagraph, the motion to reopen shall be filed within 90 days of the date of entry of a final adminis- trative order of removal.
  32. ^ a b c US Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2015). Asylum division officer training course suspension of deportation and special rule cancellation of removal under NACARA. https://www.uscis.gov/sites/default/files/document/lesson-plans/ABC_NACARA_Asylum_Lesson_Plan.pdf "Prior to enactment of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA), individuals in deportation proceedings could apply for suspension of deportation under section 244(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). Pre-IIRIRA INA section 244(a)(1). Under section 244(a) of the INA, the Attorney General could exercise discretion to grant suspension of deportation to an individual who established seven years continuous physical presence in the U.S., good moral character during that period, and that deportation would result in extreme hardship to the individual or to his or her spouse, parent, or child who was a US citizen or lawful permanent resident. By regulation, this authority was delegated to the Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR). Pre-IIRIRA INA section 244(a)(2). Under some circumstances (for example, when the individual was convicted of a certain crime), an individual was required to meet a higher standard and show, among other things, 10 years continuous physical presence and that deportation would result in 'exceptional and extremely unusual hardship.' Pre-IIRIRA INA section 244(a). When an individual is granted suspension of deportation, his or her status is adjusted to that of lawful permanent resident" (p.2).
  33. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120.110 STAT. 3009–596 §240A(e). (1996). Sec. 240A. Cancellation of Removal (e) ANNUAL LIMITATION.—The Attorney General may not cancel the removal and adjust the status under this section, nor suspend the deportation and adjust the status under section 244(a) (as in effect before the enactment of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996), of a total of more than 4,000 aliens in any fiscal year. The previous sentence shall apply regardless of when an alien applied for such cancellation and adjustment and whether such an alien had previously applied for suspension of deportation under such section 244(a).
  34. ^ US Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2015). Asylum division officer training course suspension of deportation and special rule cancellation of removal under NACARA. https://www.uscis.gov/sites/default/files/document/lesson-plans/ABC_NACARA_Asylum_Lesson_Plan.pdf Page 2-3 "IIRIRA dramatically restricted the availability of suspension of deportation, now called cancellation of removal, in the following ways: 1. Lengthened the time required for continuous physical presence in the US. An individual must show continuous physical presence in the United Stated for 10 years to be eligible for cancellation of removal."
  35. ^ "N-J-B, 21 I. & N. Dec. 812 – CourtListener.com". CourtListener. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  36. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120.110 STAT. 3009–594 §240A(b) (1996). Sec. 240A. Cancellation of Removal; Adjustment of Status. (b) Cancellation of Removal and Adjustment of Status for Certain Permanent Residents. (1) IN GENERAL.—The Attorney General may cancel removal in the case of an alien who is inadmissible or deport- able from the United States if the alien— (A) has been physically present in the United States for a continuous period of not less than 10 years imme- diately preceding the date of such application; (B) has been a person of good moral character during such period; (C) has not been convicted of an offense under section 212(a)(2), 237(a)(2), or 237(a)(3); and (D) establishes that removal would result in exceptional and extremely unusual hardship to the alien's spouse, parent, or child, who is a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence.
  37. ^ "8 U.S. Code § 1225 - Inspection by immigration officers; expedited removal of inadmissible arriving aliens; referral for hearing". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  38. ^ a b c Smith, Hillel R. (8 October 2019). "Expedited Removal of Aliens: Legal Framework [CRS Report No. R45314]". Congressional Research Service. p. 8.
  39. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120.110 STAT. 3009–580 § 235(b)(1) (1996). (1) INSPECTION OF ALIENS ARRIVING IN THE UNITED STATES AND CERTAIN OTHER ALIENS WHO HAVE NOT BEEN ADMITTED OR PAROLED.— (A) SCREENING.— (i) IN GENERAL.—If an immigration officer deter- mines that an alien (other than an alien described in subparagraph (F)) who is arriving in the United States or is described in clause (iii) is inadmissible under section 212(a)(6)(C) or 212(a)(7), the officer shall order the alien removed from the United States without further hearing or review unless the alien indicates either an intention to apply for asylum under section 208 or a fear of persecution. (ii) CLAIMS FOR ASYLUM.—If an immigration offi- cer determines that an alien (other than an alien described in subparagraph (F)) who is arriving in the United States or is described in clause (iii) is inadmis- sible under section 212(a)(6)(C) or 212(a)(7) and the alien indicates either an intention to apply for asylum under section 208 or a fear of persecution, the officer shall refer the alien for an interview by an asylum officer under subparagraph (B).
  40. ^ "Removal Without Recourse: The Growth Of Summary Deportations From The United States" (PDF). American Immigration Council.
  41. ^ a b c d "8 U.S. Code § 1228 - Expedited removal of aliens convicted of committing aggravated felonies". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2022-05-12. (5) Stipulated judicial order of removal: The United States Attorney, with the concurrence of the Commissioner, may, pursuant to Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 11, enter into a plea agreement which calls for the alien, who is deportable under this chapter, to waive the right to notice and a hearing under this section, and stipulate to the entry of a judicial order of removal from the United States as a condition of the plea agreement or as a condition of probation or supervised release, or both. The United States district court, in both felony and misdemeanor cases, and a United States magistrate judge in misdemeanor cases, may accept such a stipulation and shall have jurisdiction to enter a judicial order of removal pursuant to the terms of such stipulation.
  42. ^ a b c Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120. 110 Stat. 3009-599 §241(a)(5).(1996). (5) REINSTATEMENT OF REMOVAL ORDERS AGAINST ALIENS ILLEGALLY REENTERING.—If the Attorney General finds that an alien has reentered the United States illegally after having been removed or having departed voluntarily, under an order of removal, the prior order of removal is reinstated from its original date and is not subject to being reopened or reviewed, the alien is not eligible and may not apply for any relief under this Act, and the alien shall be removed under the prior order at any time after the reentry."
  43. ^ a b c Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120. 110 STAT. 3009–585 §303 (1996). SEC. 236. (a) ARREST, DETENTION, AND RELEASE.—On a warrant issued by the Attorney General, an alien may be arrested and detained pending a decision on whether the alien is to be removed from the United States. Except as provided in subsection (c) and pending such decision, the Attorney General—(1) may continue to detain the arrested alien; and (2) may release the alien on—(A) bond of at least $1,500 with security approved by, and containing conditions prescribed by, the Attorney General; or(B) conditional parole; but (3) may not provide the alien with work authorization (including an 'employment authorized' endorsement or other appropriate work permit), unless the alien is lawfully admitted for permanent residence or otherwise would (without regard to removal proceedings) be provided such authorization.
  44. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120. 110 STAT. 3009–585 §303(c). (1996). (c) DETENTION OF CRIMINAL ALIENS.— (1) CUSTODY.—The Attorney General shall take into custody any alien who— (A) is inadmissible by reason of having committed any offense covered in section 212(a)(2), (B) is deportable by reason of having committed any offense covered in section 237(a)(2)(A)(ii), (A)(iii), (B), (C), or (D), (C) is deportable under section 237(a)(2)(A)(i) on the basis of an offense for which the alien has been sentence to a term of imprisonment of at least 1 year, or (D) is inadmissible under section 212(a)(3)(B) or deportable under section 237(a)(4)(B), when the alien is released, without regard to whether the alien is released on parole, supervised release, or probation, and without regard to whether the alien may be arrested or imprisoned again for the same offense.
  45. ^ Smith, Hillel R. (20 July 2021). "The Law of Immigration Detention: A Brief Introduction [CRS Report No. IF11343]". Congressional Research Service.
  46. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120. 110 STAT. 3009–599 §241(a)(6) (1996). SEC. 241. (a) DETENTION, RELEASE, AND REMOVAL OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED.— (6) INADMISSIBLE OR CRIMINAL ALIENS.—An alien ordered removed who is inadmissible under section 212, removable under section 237(a)(1)(C), 237(a)(2), or 237(a)(4) or who has been determined by the Attorney General to be a risk to the community or unlikely to comply with the order of removal, may be detained beyond the removal period and, if released, shall be subject to the terms of supervision in paragraph (3).
  47. ^ Wiegand, C. A. III., Verrillo, P., Byrd, S., McDonnell, A., & Rempel, S. (2011). Fundamentals of immigration law. Executive Office of Immigration Review. https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/eoir/legacy/2014/08/15/Fundamentals_of_Immigration_Law.pdf
  48. ^ a b c d "Revision to and Re-designation ofAdjudicator's Field Manual (AFM) Chapter 30.l(d) as Chapter 40.9 (AFMUpdate AD 08-03)" (PDF). 6 May 2009.
  49. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120.110 STAT. 3009–576 §301(B). (1996). (B) ALIENS UNLAWFULLY PRESENT.— (i) IN GENERAL.—Any alien (other than an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence) who—(I) was unlawfully present in the United States for a period of more than 180 days but less than 1 year, voluntarily departed the United States (whether or not pursuant to section 244(e)) prior to the commencement of proceedings under section 235(b)(1) or section 240, and again seeks admission within 3 years of the date of such alien's departure or removal, or (II) has been unlawfully present in the United States for one year or more, and who again seeks admission within 10 years of the date of such alien's departure or removal from the United States, is inadmissible.
  50. ^ a b c Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120.110 STAT. 3009–576 §301(b) (1996). (1) IN GENERAL.—Section 212(a) (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)) is amended by redesignating paragraph (9) as paragraph (10) and by inserting after paragraph (8) the following new para- graph: (9) ALIENS PREVIOUSLY REMOVED.— (A) CERTAIN ALIENS PREVIOUSLY REMOVED.— (i) ARRIVING ALIENS.—Any alien who has been ordered removed under section 235(b)(1) or at the end of proceedings under section 240 initiated upon the alien's arrival in the United States and who again seeks admission within 5 years of the date of such removal (or within 20 years in the case of a second or subsequent removal or at any time in the case of an alien convicted of an aggravated felony) is inadmissible. (ii) OTHER ALIENS.—Any alien not described in clause (i) who—(I) has been ordered removed under section 240 or any other provision of law, or (II) departed the United States while an order of removal was outstanding, and who seeks admission within 10 years of the date of such alien's departure or removal (or within 20 years of such date in the case of a second or subsequent removal or at any time in the case of an alien convicted of an aggravated felony) is inadmissible.
  51. ^ a b Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120. 110 STAT. 3009–563 §133 (1996). SEC. 133. ACCEPTANCE OF STATE SERVICES TO CARRY OUT IMMIGRATION ENFORCEMENT. Section 287 (8 U.S.C. 1357) is amended by adding at the end the following: (g)(1) Notwithstanding section 1342 of title 31, United States Code, the Attorney General may enter into a written agreement with a State, or any political subdivision of a State, pursuant to which an officer or employee of the State or subdivision, who is determined by the Attorney General to be qualified to perform a function of an immigration officer in relation to the investigation, apprehension, or detention of aliens in the United States (including the transportation of such aliens across State lines to detention centers), may carry out such function at the expense of the State or political subdivision and to the extent consistent with State and local law. (2) An agreement under this subsection shall require that an officer or employee of a State or political subdivision of a State performing a function under the agreement shall have knowledge of, and adhere to, Federal law relating to the function, and shall contain a written certification that the officers or employees performing the function under the agreement have received ade- quate training regarding the enforcement of relevant Federal immigration laws. (3) In performing a function under this subsection, an officer or employee of a State or political subdivision of a State shall be subject to the direction and supervision of the Attorney General. (4) In performing a function under this subsection, an officer or employee of a State or political subdivision of a State may use Federal property or facilities, as provided in a written agreement between the Attorney General and the State or subdivision. (5) With respect to each officer or employee of a State or political subdivision who is authorized to perform a function under this subsection, the specific powers and duties that may be, or are required to be, exercised or performed by the individual, the duration of the authority of the individual, and the position of the agency of the Attorney General who is required to supervise and direct the individual, shall be set forth in a written agreement between the Attorney General and the State or political subdivision.
  52. ^ "ARIZONA v. UNITED STATES". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 2022-05-12. Among other things, federal law specifies categories of aliens who are ineligible to be admitted to the United States, 8 U. S. C. §1182; requires aliens to register with the Federal Government and to carry proof of status, §§1304(e), 1306(a); imposes sanctions on employers who hire unauthorized workers, §1324a; and specifies which aliens may be removed and the procedures for doing so, see §1227. Removal is a civil matter, and one of its principal features is the broad discretion exercised by immigration officials, who must decide whether to pursue removal at all. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), an agency within the Department of Homeland Security, is responsible for identifying, apprehending, and removing illegal aliens.
  53. ^ "Fong Yue Ting v. United States, 149 U.S. 698 (1893)". Justia Law. Retrieved 2022-05-12. In the United States, the power to exclude or to expel aliens is vested in the political departments of the National Government, and is to be regulated by treaty or by act of Congress, and to be executed by the executive authority according to the regulations so established, except so far as the Judicial Department is authorized by treaty or by statute, or is required by the Constitution, to intervene. The power of Congress to expel, like the power to exclude, aliens, or any specified class of aliens, from the country, may be exercised entirely through executive officers; or Congress may call in the aid of the Judiciary to ascertain any contested facts on which an alien's right to remain in the country has been made by Congress to depend.
  54. ^ Gallini, Brian; Young, Elizabeth L. (2010-09-01). "Car Stops, Borders, and Profiling: The Hunt for Undocumented (Illegal?) Immigrants in Border Towns". SSRN 1798085.
  55. ^ Hing, B. O. (2018). Entering the Trump ice age: Contextualizing the new immigration enforcement regime. Texas A & M Law Review, 5(2), 253-321. https://doi.org/10.37419/LR.V5.I2.1
  56. ^ McDowell, Meghan G.; Wonders, Nancy A. (2009). "Keeping Migrants in Their Place: Technologies of Control and Racialized Public Space in Arizona". Social Justice. 36 (2 (116)): 54–72. ISSN 1043-1578. JSTOR 29768537.
  57. ^ Menjívar, Cecilia; Abrego, Leisy J. (2012). "Legal Violence: Immigration Law and the Lives of Central American Immigrants". American Journal of Sociology. 117 (5): 1380–1421. doi:10.1086/663575. hdl:1808/21439. S2CID 143457393.
  58. ^ "License to Abuse: How ICE's 287(g) Program Empowers Racist Sheriffs". American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  59. ^ "Delegation of Immigration Authority Section 287(g) Immigration and Nationality Act". www.ice.gov. Archived from the original on 10 May 2022. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  60. ^ a b Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120. 110 STAT. 3009–554 §102 (b), (1996). "SEC. 102. IMPROVEMENT OF BARRIERS AT BORDER. (a) IN GENERAL.—The Attorney General, in consultation with the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, shall take such actions as may be necessary to install additional physical barriers and roads (including the removal of obstacles to detection of illegal entrants) in the vicinity of the United States border to deter illegal crossings in areas of high illegal entry into the United States. (b) CONSTRUCTION OF FENCING AND ROAD IMPROVEMENTS IN THE BORDER AREA NEAR SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA.—(1) IN GENERAL.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Attorney General shall provide for the construction along the 14 miles of the international land border of the United States, starting at the Pacific Ocean and extending eastward, of second and third fences, in addition to the existing reinforced fence, and for roads between the fences."
  61. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120. 110 STAT. 3009–555 §103, (1996). "SEC. 103. IMPROVED BORDER EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY. The Attorney General is authorized to acquire and use, for the purpose of detection, interdiction, and reduction of illegal immigration into the United States, any Federal equipment (includ- ing fixed wing aircraft, helicopters, four-wheel drive vehicles, sedans, night vision goggles, night vision scopes, and sensor units) determined available for transfer by any other agency of the Federal Government upon request of the Attorney General."
  62. ^ a b c Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120. 110 STAT. 3009–553, 554 §101(1996). "SEC. 101. BORDER PATROL AGENTS AND SUPPORT PERSONNEL. (a) INCREASED NUMBER OF BORDER PATROL AGENTS.—The Attorney General in each of fiscal years 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 shall increase by not less than 1,000 the number of positions for full-time, active-duty border patrol agents within the Immigration and Naturalization Service above the number of such positions for which funds were allotted for the preceding fiscal year. (b) INCREASE IN BORDER PATROL SUPPORT PERSONNEL.—The Attorney General, in each of fiscal years 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001, may increase by 300 the number of positions for personnel in support of border patrol agents above the number of such positions for which funds were allotted for the preceding fiscal year. (c) DEPLOYMENT OF BORDER PATROL AGENTS.—The Attorney General shall, to the maximum extent practicable, ensure that additional border patrol agents shall be deployed among Immigration and Naturalization Service sectors along the border in proportion to the level of illegal crossing of the borders of the United States measured in each sector during the preceding fiscal year and reasonably anticipated in the next fiscal year."
  63. ^ a b c Office, U. S. Government Accountability. "Illegal Immigration: Southwest Border Strategy Results Inconclusive; More Evaluation Needed" (PDF). www.gao.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2022. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  64. ^ a b Office, U. S. Government Accountability. "Border Control: Revised Strategy Is Showing Some Positive Results" (PDF). www.gao.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2022. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  65. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120. 110 STAT. 3009–553, 554 §101(d)(1)(1996). "(d) FORWARD DEPLOYMENT.— (1) IN GENERAL.—The Attorney General shall forward deploy existing border patrol agents in those areas of the border identified as areas of high illegal entry into the United States in order to provide a uniform and visible deterrent to illegal entry on a continuing basis. The previous sentence shall not apply to border patrol agents located at checkpoints."
  66. ^ Office, U. S. Government Accountability. "Illegal Immigration: Border-Crossing Deaths Have Doubled Since 1995; Border Patrol's Efforts to Prevent Deaths Have Not Been Fully Evaluated" (PDF). www.gao.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2022. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  67. ^ "Summary of Migrant Civil Rights Issues Along the Southwest Border". www.usccr.gov. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  68. ^ a b Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104-120, 110 STAT. 3009–672 §505. (1996). "SEC. 505. LIMITATION ON ELIGIBILITY FOR PREFERENTIAL TREAT- MENT OF ALIENS NOT LAWFULLY PRESENT ON BASIS OF RESIDENCE FOR HIGHER EDUCATION BENEFITS. (a) IN GENERAL.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an alien who is not lawfully present in the United States shall not be eligible on the basis of residence within a State (or a political subdivision) for any postsecondary education benefit unless a citizen or national of the United States is eligible for such a benefit (in no less an amount, duration, and scope) without regard to whether the citizen or national is such a resident. (b) EFFECTIVE DATE.—This section shall apply to benefits provided on or after July 1, 1998."
  69. ^ Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, Public Law 104-208, 104th Cong. 1st sess. (September 30, 1996).
  70. ^ a b "Undocumented Student Tuition: Overview". www.ncsl.org. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  71. ^ "Martinez v. Regents of UC". Justia Law. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  72. ^ 18 U.S.C. § 611
  73. ^ "Child Citizenship Act of 2000 ('CCA'), Pub. L. No. 106-395, 114 Stat. 1631 (2000)" (PDF). U.S. Congress. October 30, 2000. pp. 1633–36.
  74. ^ Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Kaushal, Neeraj (April 2018). "Health and Mental Health Effects of Local Immigration Enforcement". NBER Working Paper No. 24487. doi:10.3386/w24487.
  75. ^ Acer, Elaneor; Byrne, Olga (2017). "How the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 Has Undermined US Refugee Protection Obligations and Wasted Government Resources". Journal on Migration and Human Security. 5 (2): 356. doi:10.1177/233150241700500207. S2CID 219951873. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  76. ^ Kerwin, Donald (2018). "From IIRIRA to Trump: Connecting the Dots to the Current US Immigration Policy Crisis". Journal on Migration and Human Security. 6 (3): 201. doi:10.1177/2331502418786718. S2CID 158987327. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  77. ^ Capps, Randy; Rosenblum, Marc; Rodriguez, Cristina; Chishti, Muzaffar (January 2011). "Delegation and Divergence: A Study of 287(g) State and Local Immigration Enforcement". Migration Policy Institute.
  78. ^ Blitzer, Ronn (30 June 2022). "Supreme Court hands Biden victory, allows end to 'Remain in Mexico' policy". Fox News. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  79. ^ Montoya-Galvez, Camilo (30 June 2022). "Supreme Court says Biden can end "Remain in Mexico" rule for asylum-seekers". CBS News. Retrieved 30 June 2022.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]