Federation for American Immigration Reform

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Federation for American Immigration Reform
Formation January 2, 1979[1]
Founder John Tanton
Otis L. Graham, Jr.
Sidney Swensrud
Founded at Washington, DC
Legal status Non-profit tax exempt
Headquarters 25 Massachusetts Ave NW, Suite 330 Washington, D.C. 20001
Coordinates 38°53′54″N 77°00′46″W / 38.8984°N 77.01265°W / 38.8984; -77.01265Coordinates: 38°53′54″N 77°00′46″W / 38.8984°N 77.01265°W / 38.8984; -77.01265
Region
United States
Key people
President Daniel A. Stein (1988-)
Bob Dane, Executive Director[2]
Affiliations Immigration Reform Law Institute (IRLI) (est. 1987)[3] FAIR Congressional Task Force (FCTF) (est. 2004)[4]
Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) (est. 1985)[5]
Budget (2016[6])
$5.5 million[6]
Mission "improve border security, stop illegal immigration, promote immigration levels at about 300,000 annually"
Website FAIR

The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) is a non-profit tax exempt organization in the United States that seeks to significantly reduce both legal and illegal immigration.[8][9][10]

FAIR was founded in 1979 by the ophthalmologist John Tanton, former historian of labor movements and director of the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions Otis L. Graham, Jr. and the late Sidney Swensrud, who was a former chairman of Gulf Oil and governing board member of Planned Parenthood.[1][11][12] The founding chairman, John Tanton, became leader of several anti-immigration groups.[13]

Mission[edit]

FAIR seeks a moratorium on net immigration by anyone other than refugees and the spouses and minor children of U.S. citizens, until it can be shown that higher immigration levels are needed.[14] FAIR also believes that the perpetual economic and social growths in the United States are no longer sustainable at the current rate of the influx of immigrants into the country. In an article entitled "Why America Needs an Immigration Time-Out", explains it "would ease the pressure on the environment and give us a chance to repair our institutions."[14]

FAIR identifies itself as a "group whose membership runs the gamut from liberal to conservative, [whose] grassroots networks help concerned citizens use their voices to speak up for effective, sensible immigration policies that work for America’s best interests".[15] Its Board of Advisors has included individuals such as former Congressman Brian Bilbray (R-CA) and former Governor Richard Lamm (D-CO). The group promotes policies to improve border security and stop illegal immigration, and to reduce legal immigration into the United States to around 300,000 people a year. FAIR's policy studies emphasize the environmental, economic, and social effects of mass immigration. FAIR's President Dan Stein serves on the 61-member board of the Citizens' Debate Commission, a nonpartisan American organization formed in 2004, which was established to sponsor future general election presidential debates.

FAIR is a member of the Coalition for the Future American Worker, which describes itself as "an umbrella organization of professional trade groups, population/environment organizations, and immigration reform groups. CFAW was formed to represent the interests of American workers and students in the formulation of immigration policy."[16]

Principles[edit]

FAIR advocates "7 Principles of True Comprehensive Immigration Reform":[17]

  1. End Illegal Immigration
  2. No Amnesty or Mass Guest-Worker Program
  3. Protect Wages and Standards of Living
  4. Major Upgrade in Interior Enforcement, Led by Strong Employers Penalties
  5. Stop Special Interest Asylum Abuse
  6. An Immigration Time Out
  7. Equal Under the Law

Influence and work[edit]

Through organizing private events and lobbying, the Federation for American Immigrant Reform has brought some impacts with regard to governmental policies including immigration and civil rights.

  • Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act, Senate Bill 1070: This bill, primarily written with the help Kris Kobach, a professor at the University of Missouri-Kansas City Law School, and Kansas Secretary of State, is a controversial immigration law in Arizona.[18] Kris Kobach is the leading expert on the constitutional law in the Immigration Reform Law Institute, which is the legal arm of the Federation for American Immigration Reform.[19] Critics of the legislation said it would encourage racial profiling, while supporters argued that the law prohibits the use of race as the sole basis for investigating immigration status. The law was modified by Arizona House Bill 2162 within a week of its signing with the goal of addressing some of these concerns. There were protests in opposition to the law in over 70 U.S. cities, including boycotts and calls for boycotts of Arizona. Polling had found the law to have majority support in Arizona and nationwide. The passage of the measure has prompted other states to consider adopting similar legislation. The bill was signed into law by Governor Jan Brewer on April 23, 2010.[20] It was scheduled to go into effect on July 29, 2010, ninety days after the end of the legislative session.[21] Legal challenges over its constitutionality and compliance with civil rights law were filed, including one by the United States Department of Justice that also asked for an injunction against enforcement of the law. The day before the law was to take effect, a federal judge issued a preliminary injunction that blocked the law's most controversial provisions.
    • On December 12, 2011, the United States Supreme Court granted certiorari to hear the case. The court heard oral arguments for this case on April 25, 2012. Justice Elena Kagan recused herself from the case, presumably because while she was the United States Solicitor General, she defended the federal government's position in this case under the Obama administration.[22]
    • In June 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on the case Arizona v. United States, upholding the provision requiring immigration status checks during law enforcement stops but striking down three other provisions as violations of the Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution. The majority opinion was written by Justice Kennedy and was joined by Chief Justice Roberts, Justice Ginsburg, Justice Breyer, and Justice Sotomayor. Justices Scalia, Thomas, and Alito each concurred in part and dissented in part in separate opinions joined by no other justice. Justice Kennedy's majority opinion held that Sections 3, 5(C), and 6 were preempted by federal law.[23][24][25] The three provisions struck down: required legal immigrants to carry registration documents at all times; allowed state police to arrest any individual for suspicion of being an illegal immigrant; and made it a crime for an illegal immigrant to search for a job (or to hold one) in the state.[26][27][28]
  • Protect Arizona Now, Proposition 200: In 2004, the Federation for American Immigration Reform cooperated with the group called Protect Arizona Now in order to support the passage of Proposition 200, which shares the similarities with California’s Proposition 187 in which illegal aliens are restricted from public benefits and voting because they are most likely unable to provide the required proof of citizenship. It also made the crime of a public official not reporting illegal status a class 2 misdemeanor.[29]
  • End Sanctuary Cities Policy: After the shooting incidence in the summer of 2015 when Kathryn Steinle was killed by an undocumented immigrant, Francisco Sanchez, in San Francisco, the Federation for American Immigrant Reform organized the "End Sanctuary Cities" movement, arguing that the Federal government should end the sanctuary cities policy because the influx of illegal immigrants is the fundamental cause of criminal activities in the United States. Sanctuary cities including San Francisco are the jurisdictions where illegal immigrants are protected from Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).[30] Through lobbying in Washington D.C, and actively promoting its ideas on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, FAIR is calling for the Federal government's denial of federal funds to sanctuary jurisdictions and amendment of IIRIRA Section 642 that hampers the collection of immigration information from immigrants in the United States.
  • Suing the Obama Administration for crime rate records: In 2016, the Immigration Reform Law Institute (IRLI), the affiliated group of FAIR, "filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia seeking records from the Department of Justice (DOJ) concerning illegal alien crime rates."[31]

IRLI argues that Obama Administration was unwilling to debunk data regarding illegal alien crime rates in order to continue to promote the administration's so-called "no-border policies." It also maintains in its research paper that "every crime illegal aliens commit in the U.S. was potentially preventable if the illegal alien had been identified." A statistical study on criminal rates by Tim Wadsworth also points out that immigration is correlated with a "9.3 percent...decline in homicide rates, and that growth in total immigration was, on average, responsible for 22.2 percent of the decrease in robbery.[32] This lawsuit filing with a series of other local community events organized by IRLI aims at raising the public awareness regarding the adverse effect of illegal immigration.

History[edit]

The "founder of the modern immigration reform movement"[33]—John Tanton—an opthamologist in Petoskey, Michigan—"saw a threat coming in the soaring rates of immigration" and that the "environment was threatened by overpopulation".[34]:174 Frustrated by the lack of interest of his "liberal colleagues in groups such as Planned Parenthood and the Sierra Club where he was actively engaged, he helped establish "three major national groups"—FAIR, Numbers USA the Center for Immigration Studies—to fight to reduce [legal and illegal] immigration."[35][36]

Tanton—along with University of North Carolina professor, Otis Graham and former Gulf Oil CEO, Sydney Swensrud—established FAIR in 1979.[37][1][11] In 1982 Tanton also established U.S. Inc, a foundation chaired by Tanton with financial support from Cordelia Scaife May which would over the years, serve as a funding conduit for FAIR, Numbers USA, the Center for Immigration Studies, and many other groups.[33][38][39]

FAIR's first executive director was environmental lawyer Roger Conner. Other co-founders included feminist Sharon Barnes,[12] philanthropists Jay Harris and Stewart Mott (of the Stewart R. Mott Foundation) and William Paddock, dean of Zamorano the Pan American School of Agriculture[1][40] Dan Stein has been president of FAIR since 1988.

In American Immigration: An Encyclopedia of Political, Social, and Cultural Change, Brian N. Fry described Tanton as the "leader of the drive to restrict immigration" starting in the mid-1970s. Fry described those who favored maintaining or increasing immigration numbers as "expansionists" and those who sought to reduce them as ""restrictionists." Fry traced "restrictions roots" to a surprising surge in illegal and legal immigration—the "new immigration"—following the 1964 termination of the Bracero Program and the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.[41]:281–84

Under Lyndon B. Johnson the Immigration Act "officially committed the United States, for the first time, to accepting immigrants of all nationalities on a roughly equal basis" by eliminating "national-origin quotas." According to The Atlantic, the effects of the Immigration Act were at odds with its "original intention" and it "inadvertently changed America". Whereas previously the vast majority of immigrants came to the United States from "northern and western Europe", under the Immigration Act—through the family unification process—non-European immigrants brought family members to the United States in numbers that were not expected. A nativist sentiment emerged at "the prospect of a nonwhite U.S. majority.[42] It was in this context that Tanton as President of Zero Population Growth from 1975–77 attempted to get members to "support immigration restrictions." When they were unwilling, he launched FAIR with seed money in 1979.[41]

In 1982, when Dan Stein was twenty-seven-years old, FAIR—with its small but comfortable headquarters on P Street in Washington, D.C.—had only ten members. At the time it was not widely accepted by either the Republicans or Democrats.[6] Throughout the 1980s FAIR's lobbying efforts on Capital Hill met with more success as did their direct mail campaigns. FAIR received funds from donors such as Cordelia Scaife May (1928–2005) through her Laurel Foundation[43]:283(1928–2005)[44] and the Pioneer Fund which contributed $1.2 million to FAIR in the 1980s and early 1990s.[37]:195[43]:291[41]

Following negative publicity about FAIR receiving funds from Pioneer Fund when they were revealed in a Los Angeles Times article,[41]:282[45] FAIR stopped "receiving grants" from Pioneer that required "public disclosure." The SPLC claimed FAIR continued to "receive private financial support from Pioneer's leaders for several years."[45]

Tanton had wanted FAIR to focus on issues related to Hispanics in the United States, such as "cultural division" and bilingualism. He was unable to convince FAIR's board of directors to shift their focus. However FAIR helped Tanton establish U.S. English as the umbrella organization for "projects pertaining to overpopulation, immigration, and the environment.[41]:281 Through the work of Senator Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa (R-CA) (1906–1992)[46] and Tanton, U.S. English became a well-organized and well-funded official movement resulting in a twenty-two states enacting official language laws to protect English between 1981–97.[41] From 2005–15, Julie Kirchner was FAIR's executive director.[6]

In 1991 historian Eric Hobsbawm explained the rise of FAIR, US English and English first in the United States in the 1980s as part of a larger political phenomenon of xenophobia that "feeds on hostility towards the new mass migrations".[47]:556 He quoted a Czech historian, "Where old social relations become unstable, amid the rise of general insecurity, belonging to a common language and culture may become the only certainty in society, the only value beyond ambiguity and doubt."[47]:537, 555–56[48]:168

FAIR became "the stuff of lore in 2007, with their successful campaign against Bush's proposed Immigration Reform which represented "a systemic overhaul including a path to citizenship for most illegal immigrants."[36] "FAIR rallied talk show hosts...The Center for Immigration Studies published "studies of the bill's perceived flaws" and "Numbers USA jammed the Capitol's phones." FAIR had become the "most important organization [in the United States] fueling the backlash against immigration"[36][49] and Tanton was perceived as the leader. As a result liberal groups who opposed FAIR focused on Tanton who was at that time "in his 32nd year on the board." Tanton was concerned that US birthrates had dropped "below replacement level.[34]:174 In 1986 Tanton wrote memos to FAIR colleagues—which became known as the WITAN memos—predicting a "Latin onslaught" and worried that high Latino birth rates and low US birthrates would lead "the present majority to hand over its political power to a group that is simply more fertile". He was concerned Latinos would "bring with them the tradition of the mordida ['bribe'], the lack of involvement in public affairs." He asked, "What are the differences in educability between Hispanics (with their 50% dropout rate) and Asiatics (with their excellent school records and long tradition of scholarship)?" The memos—which became known as the WITAN memos—were leaked to the press in 1988.[50]:23

He warned that unless Latino immigration was restricted it would ultimately "lead to linguistic, economic, racial and religious "apartheid" in the United States."[51][34]:174 He cautioned, "I've come to the point of view that for European-American society and culture to persist requires a European-American majority, and a clear one at that."[50][52]:203 When the WITAN memos were leaked to the press in 1988,[50] Tanton eventually had to resign from U.S. English.[53] although he denied the accusations.[54]

In 2007 FAIR began holding their signature event, an annual "lobbying and talk-radio extravaganza"[6] of "like-minded talk radio hosts"[55] held in Washington, D.C. Their tenth annual "Hold Their Feet to the Fire" (F2F) radio row broadcast was held in Washington in June, 2016 with "50 talk radio hosts from across the country [broadcasting] live both days, debating immigration policy and interviewing members of Congress, media figures, law enforcement officials, experts, activists, and those who live and work along the southern border."[2]

In 2008, Lou Dobbs a regular F2F attendee broadcast on live television from the event’s rally, commended FAIR. He was fired from CNN in 2009 and hired at Fox the next year, to run a similar show.[56][57]

At the second annual "Hold Their Feet to the Fire" event in 2008 on the theme of immigration that was aired on C-SPAN, Joyce Kaufman responded to callers via the telephone and electronic mail.[58] At the ninth annual "radio row" on June 22 and 23, 2016 fifty talk show hosts from all over the United States broadcast their shows and debated immigration policy." Participants included radio personalities Phil Valentine—who is on Talkers Magazine's Heavy Hundred list,[59] Genesis Communications Network’s Mike Siegel, WCRS's Anne Eller in Greenwood,[60] KID's Neal Larson in Idaho Falls, KIDO's Kevin Miller in Boise, and KMED's Bill Meyer in Oregon.[61][62][63]

In September 2009 two divisive issues—immigration and health care—became "politically linked" when partisan health reform opponents challenged what they perceived as subsidized health care for illegal immigrants.[64] By early September the bipartisan Gang of Six negotiations on a compromise for the health care reform bill,[65] had fallen apart. Senators who had previously "embraced the framework" were convinced by Senate Republican Leader Mitch McConnell that they were being politically unwise. Their rhetoric turned "shrill" and "anti-reform" with one Senator talking about "death panels that would kill grandma."[66] The furor on immigration "escalated" into what The Washington Post called a "proxy war." FAIR's annual "Hold their Feet to the Fire" event" in Washington on September 14 and 15, was described by The Post as a "Capitol Hill lobbying push..[with] 47 conservative radio hosts holding a 'town hall of the airwaves'... [highlighting] the costs of illegal immigration."[64]

America's Voice's Director Frank Sharry said, "conservative activists" had attempted to "intimidate" Congress by "tapping into a thin but vocal vein of populist anger... We didn't call them out last time, we thought we were in a political debate. Now we realize it's part political debate and... part culture war. These talk-show guys and FAIR, this isn't about immigration policy, as much as they think there are way too many Latinos in this country and they want to get rid of a couple of million of them."[64] The SPLC strongly denounced FAIR and its founder. FAIR president Dan Stein stated in The Post article that the SPLC had "decided to engage in unsubstantiated, invidious name-calling, smearing millions of people in this movement who simply want to see the law enforced and, frankly, lower levels of immigration" and that "America's Voice and allied groups were 'juvenile mud throwers who seem unprepared to engage in serious public debate'.[64] The Center for Immigration Studies's Mark Krikorian, said, "Right now there are a lot of members of Congress [congressional Democrats] who might have thought the immigration issue wasn't as hot for opponents as it was a couple of years ago. They were disabused of that notion."[64]

In a 2011 New York Times article a former aide to President Ronald Reagan, Linda Chavez, was cited as saying that 77-year-old Tanton was "the most influential unknown man in America."[35][36] In a 2011 interview published in the New York Times and The Houston Chronicle, FAIR's President Dan Stein said, "Is FAIR responsible for everything [John Tanton] said in his private correspondence? No, I love John, but he's had no significant control over FAIR for years."[36]

During President Obama's tenure, FAIR's President Dan Stein was particularly critical of Eric Holder as Attorney General (2009-2015), calling Holder "the chief dismantler of laws this administration found to be politically inconvenient, notably all those related to immigration enforcement and the law's administration."[67] In 2014 in a FAIR press release, they strongly challenged Holder's lawsuits against Arizona, South Carolina and Alabama, states that opposed sanctuary cities' protecting illegal immigrants.[67]

In an interview with Florida radio host Joyce Kaufman,[68] Stein warned that the United States was at "the verge of 'civil violence' thanks to "Holder and immigration reform advocates". Kaufman shared Stein's concerns that President Obama had "done nothing but destroy everything my country represented."[67]

With the election of President Trump, some of the United States' "most ardent" advocates for reducing immigration levels—such as FAIR, the Center for Immigration Studies, and NumbersUSA—have an opportunity "to dramatically reduce legal immigration". These three groups enjoy "formidable grassroots support" across the United States.[69] By 2017, FAIR alone, had a support network of over 1.3 million people and a $5.5 million annual budget.[6] Some FAIR members and supporters have highly influential roles in the Trump administration including Julie Kirchner (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (ICE)), Jeff Sessions (United States Attorney General),[70] Kris Kobach,[71] Kellyanne Conway (Counselor to the President),[69] Stephen Miller (Senior Advisor to the President),[72] and Lou Barletta.[73][6]

Affiliations[edit]

FAIR has created several affiliated groups in order to maximize its effectiveness. In 1987, FAIR founded the Immigration Reform Law Institute (IRLI) which claims that the rights, privileges, and property of U.S. citizens are threatened by immigration.[3] In 2004, FAIR also established the FAIR Congressional Task Force (FCTF) as a 501(c)(4) organization who believe that promoting public welfare requires drastic restrictions on legal immigration.[4] The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) was spun off from FAIR in 1985.[5]

Criticism[edit]

In December 2007, FAIR was labeled a "hate group" by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) which accused leaders of FAIR of meeting with leaders of the Belgian Nationalist group Vlaams Belang which had been condemned by the Belgian Court of Cassation for violations of the law against racism.[74]

According to SPLC, FAIR and Vlaams Belang share a common notion of Nativism, a political viewpoint that supports restrictions on Immigration. Studies on the association between individuals' perceptions on immigration and Nativism by Sebastian Normandin and D. Schneider reveal that the majority of supporters for Anti-Immigration often believe that the reckless inflow of immigrants to their motherland should be controlled in order to maintain the stability in society.[75][76]

FAIR responded to this charge by stating that there is no factual basis for the accusation; that FAIR has compiled a long record of mainstream credibility and respect on immigration issues and has always opposed discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, or religion; and that the accusation is an "act of desperation, resulting from the SPLC's failure to convince the American people of their viewpoint."[77][78]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Gerald Baumgarten (2000). "Is FAIR Unfair? The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR)" (PDF). Anti Defamation League. Retrieved 20 February 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Nick Fernandez (June 21, 2016). "Hate Group FAIR Hosting Annual Event With Anti-Immigrant Radio Hosts". Media Matters. Retrieved May 6, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "IRLI official webpage". Immigration Reform Law Institute. nd. Retrieved May 3, 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "FAIR Congressional Task Force". FCTF. nd. Retrieved August 28, 2015.  url has security warning
  5. ^ a b DeParle, J. (April 17, 2011). "The Anti-Immigration Crusader]". New York Times. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Tess Owen. "A radical anti-immigration group infiltrated the GOP: Now it's in the White House". Vice News. Retrieved May 3, 2017. 
  7. ^ Federation for American Immigration Reform: About FAIR, fairus.org; accessed February, 2017.
  8. ^ Nixon, Ron (2017-05-03). "Trump’s Immigration Proposals ‘Conspicuously Absent’ From Spending Bill". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-28. 
  9. ^ "Fact-checking Donald Trump’s immigration speech". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-05-28. 
  10. ^ Medina, Jennifer; Bidgood, Jess (2016-11-27). "Cities Vow to Fight Trump on Immigration, Even if They Lose Millions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-28. 
  11. ^ a b Sidney Swensrud, 95, hands on executive who expanded Gulf Oil, New York Times, June 1, 1996; retrieved March 5, 2016.
  12. ^ a b Connor, Roger (March 2, 1980). "U.S.A. Must Stop the Illegal Tide". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 2F. 
  13. ^ "John Tanton is the Mastermind Behind the Organized Anti-Immigration Movement". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. 2002 (106). 2002. Retrieved March 5, 2016. 
  14. ^ a b "Why America Needs an Immigration Time-Out". Federation for American Immigration Reform. Retrieved July 2, 2015. 
  15. ^ FAIR: About FAIR, fairus.org; accessed July 2, 2015.
  16. ^ What is the Coalition for the Future American Worker, americanworker.org; accessed July 2, 2015.
  17. ^ Federation for American Immigration Reform: 7 Principles of True Comprehensive Immigration Reform
  18. ^ Schwartz, J.; Archibold, R.C. (2010-04-27). "A Law Facing a Tough Road Through the Courts". New York Times. 
  19. ^ Beirich, H. (2010-03-20). "Guest Commentary: Don't poison immigration debate". Gadsden Times. 
  20. ^ Toughest Immigration Law Is Signed in Arizona, The New York Times, Archibold, Randal C., April 24, 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  21. ^ General Effective Dates, Arizona State Legislature. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  22. ^ Liptak, Adam; Cushman Jr., Adam H. (June 25, 2012). "Blocking Parts of Arizona Law, Justices Allow Its Centerpiece". The New York Times. Retrieved March 9, 2016. 
  23. ^ Arizona v. United States, No. 11-182
  24. ^ Andrew Cohen "Razing Arizona: Supreme Court Sides With Feds on Immigration", The Atlantic, June 25, 2012; retrieved March 9, 2016.
  25. ^ David G. Savage, "Supreme Court strikes down key parts of Arizona immigration law", Los Angeles Times, June 25, 2012; retrieved March 9, 2016.
  26. ^ Robert Barnes,Supreme Court Rejects Much of Arizona Immigration Law, Washington Post, June 25, 2012; retrieved March 9, 2016.
  27. ^ Tom Cohen and Bill Mears,Supreme Court mostly rejects Arizona immigration law; gov says 'heart' remains, CNN, June 26, 2012; retrieved March 9, 2016.
  28. ^ Supreme Court decision on Arizona's immigration law, cnn.com, June 26, 2012; retrieved March 9, 2016.
  29. ^ Wilson, T.D. (2008). "Research Note: Issues of Production vs. Reproduction/Maintenance Revisited: Towards an Understanding of Arizona's Immigration Policies". Anthropological Quarterly. 81 (3): 713–18. doi:10.1353/anq.0.0026. Retrieved March 5, 2016. 
  30. ^ "Sanctuary Cities: Obstructing Immigration Enforcement". www.fairus.org. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
  31. ^ "IRLI Sues Obama Administration for Records Concerning Illegal Alien Crime Rates". www.fairus.org. Retrieved 2016-11-20. 
  32. ^ Wadsworth, Tim (2016). "Is Immigration Responsible for the Crime Drop? An Assessment of the Influence of Immigration on Changes in Violent Crime Between 1990 and 2000.". Social Science Quarterly. 91.2: 531–53 – via Business Source Complete. 
  33. ^ a b Rick Oltman (September 30, 2016). "A Tribute to Dr. Tanton". U.S. Inc. Retrieved May 4, 2017. 
  34. ^ a b c James Crawford (ed.). "Symbolic Implications of Language Conflict". Language Loyalties: A Source Book on the Official English Controversy. University of Chicago Press. 
  35. ^ a b Jason DeParle (April 17, 2011). "The Anti-Immigration Crusader: the Evolution of a Political Movement, and Its Controversial Leader". The New York Times. One group that Dr. Tanton nurtured, Numbers USA, doomed President George W. Bush's legalization plan [in 2007] ago by overwhelming Congress with ... the group for four years under his umbrella organization, U.S. Inc. restraints ... he saw a new threat emerging: soaring rates of immigration. Time and again, Dr. Tanton urged liberal colleagues in groups like Planned Parenthood and the Sierra Club to seek immigration restraints  paywall
  36. ^ a b c d e Jason DeParle (April 17, 2011). "The Anti-Immigration Crusader: the Evolution of a Political Movement, and Its Controversial Leader". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 4, 2017. 
  37. ^ a b Kathleen R. Arnold (2011). Anti-Immigration in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313375224. 
  38. ^ Heidi Beirich (January 31, 2009), "The Nativist Lobby: Three Faces of Intolerance", Southern Poverty Law Center, retrieved May 4, 2017 
  39. ^ "John Tanton's network of anti-immigrant groups includes these 13 organizations", Southern Poverty Law Center, retrieved May 4, 2017, Population-Environment Balance 1973, joined board in 1980; Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), 1979, founded and funded; U.S. Inc., 1982, founded and funded; American Immigration Control Foundation (AICF) 1983, funded; U.S. English, 1983, founded and funded; Center for Immigration Studies (CIS), 1985, founded and funded; The Social Contract Press, 1990, founded and funded; American Patrol/Voice of Citizens Together 1992, funded; California Coalition for Immigration Reform (CCIR), 1994, funded; ProEnglish 1994, founded and funded; NumbersUSA 1996, founded and funded; Californians for Population Stabilization 1996, funded (founded separately in 1986); ProjectUSA, 1999, funded. 
  40. ^ Joe Holley (March 13, 2008). "Obituaries: William C. Paddock, 86; Fought Famine". Washington Post. Retrieved 20 February 2017. 
  41. ^ a b c d e f Brian N. Fry (November 2013). "Anti-Immigrant Backlash: 1965–2001". In James Ciment, John Radzilowski. American Immigration: An Encyclopedia of Political, Social, and Cultural Change (2 ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-7656-8212-3. 
  42. ^ Tom Gjelten (October 2, 2015). "The Immigration Act That Inadvertently Changed America: Fifty years after its passage, it's clear that the law's ultimate effects are at odds with its original intent". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 3, 2017. 
  43. ^ a b Robert Wald Sussman (October 6, 2014). "Modern Racism and Anti-Immigration Policies". The Myth of Race: The Troubling Persistence of an Unscientific Idea. Harvard University Press. p. 384. ISBN 9780674417311. 
  44. ^ Johnna A. Pro and Marylynne Pitz (January 27, 2005). "Obituary: Cordelia Scaife May – Reclusive Mellon heiress known for her generosity". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 4, 2017. 
  45. ^ a b "Federation for American Immigration Reform". Southern Poverty Law Center. Montgomery, Alabama. Retrieved May 5, 2017. 
  46. ^ "From the Archives: Ex-Sen. Hayakawa Dies; Unpredictable Iconoclast". Los Angeles Times. February 28, 1992. Retrieved May 5, 2017. 
  47. ^ a b Eric Hobsbawm (November 10, 1991). "The Perils of the New Nationalism". The Nation.  Hobswan was citing another author
  48. ^ Ana Celia Zentella (1999). "Language Policy: Planning and US Colonialism: The Puerta Rican Thorn in English-Only's Side". In Thom Huebner, Kathryn Anne Davis, and Joseph Lo Bianco. Sociopolitical Perspectives on Language Policy and Planning in the USA. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 155–73. ISBN 9789027241238. "This volume is the result of a colloquium on socio-political dimensions of language policy and language planning held at the 1997 American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL) Conference." [FAIR's rise to prominence in the 1980s has been of interest to linguists and was discussed within the context of the 1997 American Association of Applied Linguistics colloquim. Zentella cited Hobsbaum] 
  49. ^ Heidi Beirich (December 2007). "Federation for American Immigration Reform's Hate Filled Track Record". Intelligence Report. No. 128. After issuing this report in December 2007, the Southern Poverty Law Center added the Federation for American Immigration Reform to its list of hate groups. 
  50. ^ a b c "Silva Trevino Amicus Brief" (PDF). Latino Justice. June 17, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2017. 
  51. ^ "Memo to WITAN IV Attendees from John Tanton". Southern Poverty Law Center. Intelligence Report. January 20, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2017. 
  52. ^ Neil Foley (2014). "Fortress America". Mexicans in the Making of America. Harvard University. ISBN 978-0-674-04848-5. 
  53. ^ Mark Potok (Spring 2004). "Tanton resignation". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. pp. 59–63. 
  54. ^ Tanton, John (October 30, 1988). "U.S. English – it's being victimized by the 'Big Lie'". Houston Chronicle. p. 5. 
  55. ^ "FAIR annual gathering". The New York Times. April 17, 2011. 
  56. ^ Weiner, Rachel (2009-08-02). "Lou Dobbs A "Publicity Nightmare" For CNN: AP". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2010-04-12. 
  57. ^ Lou Dobbs' new Fox Business show gets a start date and a name, The Huffington Post, March 3, 2011.
  58. ^ "Campaign 2008 and Immigration". C-SPAN. September 10, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2017. 
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