Common Travel Area

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Common Travel Area
The Common Travel Area
Type Open borders area
Established 1923
Members Ireland (EU)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (EU)
Isle of Man
Bailiwick of Guernsey
Bailiwick of Jersey
Area 121,673.9 sq mi
(315,134 km2)
Population covered ~70 million (2016)

The Common Travel Area (CTA) is an open borders area comprising Ireland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands. Based on legally non-binding arrangements, the CTA's internal borders are subject to minimal or non-existent border controls and can normally be crossed by British and Irish citizens with minimal identity documents, with certain exceptions.[1][2] The maintenance of the CTA involves considerable co-operation on immigration matters between the British and Irish authorities.

In 2014, the British and Irish governments began a trial system of mutual recognition of each other's visas for onward travel within the Common Travel area. As of June 2016 it applies to Chinese and Indian nationals and is limited to certain visa types. Other nationalities and those holding non-qualifying visas still require separate visas to visit both countries and may not avail of a transit visa exception if wishing to transit though the UK to Ireland.

Since 1997, the Irish government has imposed systematic identity checks on air passengers coming from the United Kingdom and selective checks on sea passengers, and occasional checks on land crossings.[3]

History[edit]

1923 agreement[edit]

The Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom in 1922 at a time when systematic passport and immigration controls were becoming standard at international frontiers. Although the British had imposed entry controls in the past – notably during the French Revolution[4] – the imposition of such controls in the 20th century dated from the Aliens Act 1905, before which there was a system of registration for arriving foreigners.[5]

Before the creation of the Irish Free State, British immigration law applied in Ireland as part of the United Kingdom. With the imminent prospect of Irish independence in 1922, the British Home Office was disinclined to impose passport and immigration controls between the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland, which would have meant patrolling a porous and meandering 499 km (310 mi) long[6][7] land border. If, however, the pre-1922 situation were to be continued, the Irish immigration authorities would have to continue to enforce British immigration policy after independence. The Irish Department for Home Affairs was found to be receptive to continuing with the status quo and an informal agreement to this effect was reached in February 1923: each side would enforce the other's immigration decisions and the Irish authorities would be provided with a copy of Britain's suspect-codex (or 'Black Book') of any personae non gratae in the United Kingdom.[8]

The agreement was provided for in UK law by deeming the Irish Free State to be part of the United Kingdom for the purposes of immigration law.[9] It was fully implemented in 1925 when legislation passed in both countries provided for the recognition of the other's landing conditions for foreigners.[10] This may be considered to have been the high point of the CTA – although it was not called that at the time – as it almost amounted to a common immigration area. A foreigner who had been admitted to one state could, unless his or her admission had been conditional upon not entering the other state, travel to the other with only minimal bureaucratic requirements.

The CTA was suspended on the outbreak of war in 1939, and travel restrictions were introduced between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.[11] This meant that travel restrictions even applied to people travelling within the UK if they were travelling from Northern Ireland to elsewhere in the UK.

1952 agreement[edit]

After the war, the Irish re-instated their previous provisions allowing free movement[12] but the British declined to do so pending the agreement of a "similar immigration policy"[13] in both countries. Consequently, the British maintained immigration controls between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain until 1952, to the consternation of Northern Ireland's Unionist population.[14]

No agreement on a similar immigration policy was publicised at the time, but a year after the Irish Minister for Justice referred to the lifting of immigration controls between the two islands as "a matter for the British themselves", the British began referring to the CTA in legislation for the first time.[15] The content of the agreement appears to be that a foreigner would be refused entry to the United Kingdom if they wished to travel onward to Ireland (and vice versa) and is provided for in relevant immigration law.[16][17]

The CTA has meant that Ireland has been required to follow changes in British immigration policy.[18] This was notable in 1962 when Irish law was changed in response to the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, which imposed immigration controls between the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries, while in Ireland the Aliens Order 1962 replaced the state's previous provision exempting all British subjects from immigration control,[19] with one exempting only those born in the United Kingdom. The scope of the Irish provision was much more restrictive than the British legislation as it excluded from immigration control only those British citizens born in the United Kingdom, and imposed immigration controls on those born outside the UK. The latter group would have included individuals who were British citizens by descent or by birth in a British colony. This discrepancy between Britain's and Ireland's definition of a British citizen was not resolved until 1999.[20]

2011 agreement[edit]

2011 marked the first public agreement between the British and Irish governments concerning the maintenance of the CTA. Officially entitled the "Joint Statement Regarding Co-Operation on Measures to Secure the External Common Travel Area Border"[21] it was signed in Dublin on 20 December 2011 by the UK's immigration minister, Damian Green and Ireland's Minister for Justice, Alan Shatter. The two ministers also signed an unpublished memorandum of understanding at the same time.[22]

In common with its unpublished predecessors the 2011 agreement is an unbinding agreement, with its eighth clause stating that the agreement "is not intended to create legally binding obligations, nor to create or confer any right, privilege or benefit on any person or party, private or public".[23]

The agreement commits the two governments to continue their co-operation through the CTA, to align their lists of visa-free countries, to develop "electronic border management system/s",[24] to engage in data sharing to combat the "abuse" of the CTA,[25] and to work toward a "fully-common short stay visit visa".[26]

Border controls[edit]

Entry into the Channel Islands[edit]

Immigration checks are carried out by the Guernsey Border Agency and the Jersey Customs and Immigration Service on passengers arriving in the Channel Islands only from outside the CTA.[27]

Entry into Ireland[edit]

The border at Killeen marked only by a speed sign marked in km/h

In 1997, Ireland changed its immigration legislation to allow immigration officers to examine (i.e. request identity documents from) travellers arriving in the state from elsewhere in the CTA and to refuse them permission to land if they are not entitled to enter.[3] Although this is stated to apply only to people other than Irish and British citizens, both of the latter groups are effectively covered as they may be required to produce identity documents to prove that they are entitled to the CTA arrangements.

Although it is difficult to be exact about the nature of current border checks when entering Ireland from another part of the CTA, fixed controls are maintained only at ports and airports[28] while targeted controls are conducted along the land border in what are referred to as "intelligence driven operations".[29] Air passengers arriving in Ireland from elsewhere in the CTA are no longer segregated from those arriving from outside the CTA;[30] consequently all air passengers must pass through Irish immigration checks, administered by the Garda National Immigration Bureau (GNIB). While British citizens are not required to be in possession of a valid travel document as a condition of entry, they may be required to satisfy immigration officials as to their nationality.

The nature of the Irish controls was described by an Irish High Court judge, Mr Justice Gerard Hogan, in the following terms:

"The practical result of this is that all persons arriving by air from the United Kingdom face Irish immigration controls. While in theory both Irish and British citizens are entitled to arrive here free from immigration control by virtue of the common travel area, increasingly in practice such passengers who arrive by air from the United Kingdom are required to produce their passports (or, at least, some other form of acceptable identity document) in order to prove to immigration officers that they are either Irish or British citizens who can avail of the common travel area. Whatever about anyone else, Joseph Heller certainly would have approved."[30][31]

In 2012, a pilot project was set up to use civilian staff from the Immigration section of the Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service (INIS) to work with GNIB staff at immigration control at Dublin Airport. INIS staff will be responsible for performing all "in-booth" duties (including examining arriving passengers), but will not take part in any matters related to restraint, detention or arrest.[32]

UK Transit Visas required because of CTA[edit]

Normally individuals who would need visas to enter the UK can still transit though the UK to another destination without a visa, but this exemption is not available to those wishing to travel through the UK to Ireland. Travellers wishing to transit though the UK to Ireland must have a valid UK visa (in addition to an Irish visa if necessary) and pass though UK immigration before continuing their journey.

Entry into the Isle of Man[edit]

There are no routine immigration checks on travellers arriving in the Isle of Man from another part of the CTA.[33] As there are currently no scheduled air or ferry services between the Isle of Man and outside the CTA, there are, in effect, no immigration checks in place.[34][35]

The Isle of Man is considered a part of the UK for customs purposes, and so there are no routine customs checks on travellers arriving from the UK.[36]

Entry into the UK[edit]

The UK Border Force does not carry out routine immigration checks on travellers (regardless of nationality) arriving in the UK from another part of the CTA.[36] However, because the Channel Islands have VAT free status, the UK carries out selective customs checks on travellers arriving from there.

Travel within the UK[edit]

There are no border controls between the four countries of the UK, and consequently the land frontiers between England, Scotland and Wales are completely open and unpoliced. However, as in most countries, airlines may require photo identification (e.g. a passport or a driving licence) for internal flights between destinations within the UK.[37][38]

2008 proposal to introduce immigration controls and/or identity checks between Great Britain and the island of Ireland[edit]

In July 2008, the UK Border Agency (the predecessor of UK Visas and Immigration) published a consultation paper on the CTA that envisaged the imposition of immigration controls for non-CTA nationals, and new measures for identity checks of CTA nationals, as well as an advance passenger information system, on all air and sea crossings between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.

While passport controls were proposed to be applied to travellers between Great Britain and the Republic of Ireland, the nature of possible identity controls between Great Britain and Northern Ireland was not clear. This led to controversy because Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom, with a prominent Unionist describing the proposed arrangements as "intolerable and preposterous".[39] The nature of identity checks between Northern Ireland and Great Britain was characterised by the British government as follows:

Section 14 of the Police and Justice Act 2006 introduced a new power that will allow the police to capture passenger, crew and service information on air and sea journeys within the United Kingdom. ... It is expected that this police power will only apply to air and sea routes between Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Passengers will not be required to use passports, but may be required to produce one of several types of documentation, including passports, when travelling, to enable the carrier to the meet the requirements of a police request.

— Liam Byrne, Minister of State for Immigration, Citizenship and Nationality, House of Commons Debate, 14 January 2008.[40]

As far as the land border is concerned, the proposal indicated that the border would be "lightly controlled"[41] and a joint statement in 2008 by both governments confirmed that there are no plans for fixed controls on either side of the border.[42]

On 1 April 2009, an amendment moved by Lord Glentoran in the House of Lords defeated the British Government's proposal and preserved the CTA.[43] The relevant clause was re-introduced by Home Office minister Phil Woolas in the Public Bill Committee in June,[44] but again removed in July after opposition pressure.[45]

Common visa system[edit]

In October 2014, the British and Irish governments signed a memorandum of understanding paving the way for mutually recognised visas allowing visitors to travel to Britain and Ireland on a single visa. Chinese and Indian nationals will be the first to get the benefit of the new system from the end of October 2014. Subject to a review in 2015, it is proposed to extend the system to all countries by the end of that year.[46] The system will replace the Irish visa waiver programme which currently waives the visa requirement for the nationals of 18 countries if they hold valid UK short-stay visas and enter Ireland directly from the UK.

While the CTA has, for most of its history, involved an open or relatively open border, since the Second World War this has not meant that someone who legally entered one part of the CTA was automatically entitled to enter another part. Unlike the Schengen Agreement, the CTA currently provides no mechanism for the mutual recognition of leave to enter and remain, and the UK and Ireland operate separate visa systems with distinct entry requirements. In general, a UK visa will not allow entry to Ireland nor vice versa.

The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man allow entry to holders of UK visas (with some exceptions). Bailiwick of Guernsey and Jersey immigration authorities routinely check non-EEA nationals seeking to enter the UK to ensure they have valid UK permissions.

In July 2011 Ireland introduced a limited pilot visa waiver programme under which the normal requirement for certain nationalities to hold an Irish visa is waived for visitors to the UK who hold valid UK visas.

Nationalities that are visa-free in the UK but not in Ireland
Nationalities that are visa-free in Ireland but not in the UK
Irish visa-waiver nationalities

Freedom of movement[edit]

While British and Irish citizens enjoy the right to live in each other's countries under European Union law, the provisions that apply to them are generally more far reaching than those that apply to other European Economic Area nationals. There now are identity checks at least for air travel, and British and Irish citizens may be requested to produce a valid identity document when crossing the border.

British citizens in Ireland[edit]

Under Irish law, all British citizens – including Manx people and Channel Islanders who are not entitled to take advantage of the European Union's freedom of movement provisions – are exempt from immigration control and immune from deportation.[48] They are entitled to live in Ireland without any restrictions or conditions.[49] They have, with limited exceptions,[50] never been treated as foreigners under Irish law, having never been subject to the Aliens Act 1935 or to any orders made under that Act.[49] British citizens can thus move to Ireland to live, work or retire and unlike other EU citizens, they are not required to demonstrate having sufficient resources or have private health insurance in order to retire. This is due to the fact that British citizens are also entitled to use Irish public services on the same basis as Irish citizens in Ireland.[49]

Irish citizens in Britain[edit]

Before 1949, all Irish citizens were considered under British law to be British subjects.[51] After Ireland left the Commonwealth of Nations in that year, British law was amended to give Irish citizens a similar status to Commonwealth citizens in the United Kingdom, notwithstanding that they had ceased to be such. Thus, much like British citizens in Ireland, Irish citizens in the United Kingdom have never been treated like foreigners. Irish citizens have, however, like Commonwealth citizens, been subject to immigration control in Britain since the enactment of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962. Unlike Commonwealth citizens, Irish citizens have generally not been subject to entry control in the United Kingdom and, if they move to the UK, are considered to have 'settled status' (a status that goes beyond indefinite leave to remain). They may be subject to deportation from the UK upon the same lines as other European Economic Area nationals.[52] In February 2007 the British government announced that a specially lenient procedure would apply to the deportation of Irish citizens compared to the procedure for other European Economic Area nationals.[53][54] As a result, Irish nationals are not routinely considered for deportation from the UK when they are released from prison.[55]

Other European Economic Area nationals[edit]

Nationals of member states of the European Economic Area other than British and Irish nationals have the right to freely enter and reside in the UK and Ireland under European Union law. They are required to carry a valid travel document, a passport or a national identity card, for entering the CTA and for travelling between Ireland and the UK.[56]

Schengen Area[edit]

In 1985, five member states of the then European Economic Community signed the Schengen Agreement on the gradual dropping of border controls between them. This treaty and the implementation convention of 1990 paved the way for the creation of the Schengen Area. Implemented in 1995, by 1997 all European Union member states except the United Kingdom and Ireland had signed the Agreement. The Amsterdam Treaty, which was drafted that year, incorporated Schengen into EU law, while giving Ireland and the UK an opt-out permitting them to maintain systematic passport and immigration controls at their frontiers. If the UK or Ireland were to join Schengen the CTA would come to an end. If one were to join without the other, the joining country would have to exercise border controls vis-à-vis the other thus ending the zone; if both were to join, all the functions of the CTA would be subsumed into the Schengen provisions and the CTA could cease to have any separate existence.[citation needed]

The British government has always refused to lower its border controls as it believes that the island status of the CTA puts the UK in a better position to enforce immigration controls than mainland European countries with "extensive and permeable land borders".[57] While not signing the Schengen Treaty, Ireland has always looked more favourably on joining but has not done so to maintain the CTA and its open border with Northern Ireland,[58] though in 1997 Ireland imposed selective identity and immigration controls on arrivals from the United Kingdom,[3] measures that would not have been permitted if both countries were part of the Schengen Area.

Identification requirements[edit]

Most transport operators permit passengers to travel within the Common Travel Area without a passport, although Ryanair require all passengers to carry a passport or a national identity card. In 2014 a private member's bill was put before the Irish parliament which proposes to prohibit transport operators from requiring the production of a passport for travel within the Common Travel Area (but it was not passed).[59] On some routes carriers only recommend photo ID, mainly inside the United Kingdom. This means they don't really require them but that there might be random police checks. The Irish government in October 2015, started issuing "passport cards" in the same credit card size as the national identity cards of other EU countries.[60]

Travel between the UK and Ireland[edit]

Carrier British and Irish citizens Other EU and EFTA citizens All other nationalities
Aer Lingus[61]
  • Valid passport
  • Driving licence with photo
  • International student card
  • National ID card/Government-issued photo ID cards
  • Health Insurance card with photo/Social security card with photo
  • Bus pass with photo
  • Work ID with photo

Note: British and Irish citizens under the age of 16 do not need photo ID if travelling with their parent/guardian. Unless they could look like being at least 16, then they are recommended to have a document to prove their age.

  • Valid passport (and visa, if applicable)
British Airways[62]
  • Valid passport
  • "Some form of photographic identification, such as a driving licence"
  • Valid passport (and visa, if applicable)
Cityjet[63]
  • Valid passport
  • Driving licence with photograph (Irish citizens only)
  • National ID card / Government-issued photo ID card (Irish citizens only)
  • Children under 16 also need proper identity documents
  • Valid passport (and visa, if applicable)
Flybe[64]
  • Photographic ID which proves nationality (passport or passport card)
  • Valid photo driving licence
  • Children under 18 can use a birth certificate if traveling with parents, otherwise they need above documents.
  • Valid passport (and visa, if applicable)
Irish Ferries[65]
  • Passport
  • Driving licence
  • Bank card
  • School or college photo ID
  • Utility bill
  • Birth certificate
  • Valid passport (and visa, if applicable)
Jet2.com[66]
  • Valid passport or national ID card (refers to Irish passport card)
  • CitizenCard, Driving licence
  • Student ID card, Official Company ID card
  • Armed forces ID card, Government issued ID card
  • Police warrant card/badge, Airport employees security ID pass, Fire Arms certificate
  • Electoral ID card (N Ireland residents)
  • UK Council issued bus pass (Senior Citizens only)
All cards must have a photo.
  • Valid passport (and visa, if applicable)
Ryanair[67]
  • Valid passport (and visa, if applicable)
Stena Line[68]
  • Valid passport
  • Driving licence
  • Citizenship card
  • Utility bill
  • Birth certificate (for children only)
  • Valid passport (and visa, if applicable)

Travel between Northern Ireland and Ireland[edit]

Carrier British and Irish citizens EU, EEA and Swiss citizens All other citizens
Iarnród Éireann[69] Same as domestic. Nothing required for single ride tickets; photo ID for passes.
Bus Éireann[70] Same as domestic. Nothing required for single ride tickets; photo id for passes.

Travel between Northern Ireland and Great Britain[edit]

Carrier British and Irish citizens EU, EEA and Swiss citizens All other citizens
Easyjet[71] Same as any other domestic. Valid passport or photographic I.D, incl. driving licence
British Airways[72] Same as any other domestic. Photographic identification or passport advised
Jet2.com[73]
There is a long list of identity documents that are accepted, same as for UK-Ireland flights
All identity documents must have a photo
British and Irish citizens under the age of 16 do not need photo ID, if accompanied by their guardian. The limit is 14 if unaccompanied.
  • Valid passport (and visa, if applicable)
Stena Line
  • Passport, driving licence, citizenship card, or utility bill
  • Birth certificate for children

These documents are only occasionally checked

Travel between the UK, Isle of Man and Channel Islands[edit]

  • Travel United Kingdom–Guernsey: serviced by Aurigny Air Services, Condor Ferries, Flybe
  • Travel United Kingdom–Jersey: serviced by Aurigny Air Services, British Airways, Condor Ferries, easyJet, Flybe, Citywing
  • Travel United Kingdom–Isle of Man: serviced by British Airways, easyJet, Flybe, Citywing
  • Travel within the Channel Islands and Normandy is serviced by Condor Ferries, Flybe, Manche Îles Express[74] and Sark Shipping[75]

See Template:Airports in the United Kingdom, the British Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories for links to airport articles which have airline lists

Carrier British and Irish citizens EU, EEA and Swiss citizens All other citizens
Aurigny Air Services[76]
  • Valid passport (or up to 6 months out of date)
  • Valid UK photo driving licence (or up to 6 months out of date)
  • Valid Channel Islands photo Driving licence (or up to 6 months out of date)
  • National ID card
  • Company ID card (nationally recognised companies/organisations, including local councils)
  • CPP Guernsey ID card
  • Guernsey 18+ card
  • Photo university/college ID card
  • Under 16 UK Validate card
  • NUS card
  • Citizen card
  • Valid armed forces identity card
  • Valid photo firearm certificate
  • Valid police warrant card/badge
  • Council-issued bus pass (senior citizens only)
  • Valid airport employee security identity pass

Note: Children under the age of 16 travelling with an adult are not required to carry photo ID.

British Airways[77]
  • No photo ID required, although a valid driving licence, Executive Club membership card, passport/national ID card or company ID card is recommended.

Note: Children under the age of 16 do not require ID.

Condor Ferries[78]
  • No passport required, although 'suitable proof of identity' is recommended.
easyJet[79]
  • Valid passport
  • Valid driving licence
  • Valid photo ID
Flybe[64]
  • Valid passport (or up to two years after expiry)
  • Valid photo driving licence
  • Valid photo EU or Swiss national identity card
  • Valid armed forces identity card
  • Valid police warrant card/badge
  • Valid airport employee security identity pass
  • A child on parent' s passport is an acceptable form of ID
  • CitizenCard
  • Valid photo firearm certificate
  • Valid Government-issued identity card
  • SMART card
  • Electoral identity card
  • Photo disabled badge
  • NUS card with photo (National Union of Students)
  • Photo university/college ID card
  • Company ID card of nationally recognised company with photo
  • Council-issued bus pass (senior citizens only)
  • Pension book (only acceptable form of non-photo ID)
  • Young Scot card
Isle of Man Steam Packet Company[80]
  • No passport is required to travel to the Isle of Man but are advised to take a form of identity such as a driving licence, citizenship card or utility bill.
Citywing[81]
  • Passport (valid and up to two years expired)
  • UK photo driving licence
  • Armed forces identity card
  • Police warrant card
  • Council or government-issued bus pass
  • National ID card
  • Valid airport security pass
  • NUS card (National Union of Students)
  • Citizens card

Note: Children under the age of 16 travelling with an adult are not required to carry photographic ID.

Travel between Ireland and the Isle of Man[edit]

Carrier British and Irish citizens EU, EEA and Swiss citizens All other citizens
Aer Lingus[61]
  • Valid passport
  • Driving licence with photo
  • International student card
  • National ID card/Government-issued photo ID card
  • Health Insurance card with photo/Social security card with photo
  • Bus pass with photo
  • Work ID with photo

Note: British and Irish citizens under the age of 16 do not need photo ID if travelling with their parent/guardian.

  • Valid passport (and visa, if applicable)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

polities present on the island of Ireland: Northern Ireland/Tuaisceart Éireann and Ireland/Éire. For further details, see Names of the Irish state

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Common Travel Area between Ireland and the United Kingdom". Citizens Information Board. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 
  2. ^ "British and Irish citizens do not have to produce ID or Passport, Minister for Justice, Dail Debates, Tuesday, 27 November 2012". 
  3. ^ a b c by the Aliens (Amendment) (No. 3) Order 1997 [1]; M. Wallace, Dáil Debates volume 510 columns 1400–1404 (16 November 1999) [2].
  4. ^ See the decision of the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords in Mark v. Mark [2005] UKHL 42 at para 17.
  5. ^ Pellew, Jill (June 1989). "The Home Office and the Aliens Act, 1905". The Historical Journal. Cambridge University Press. 32 (2): 369. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00012206. JSTOR 2639607. 
  6. ^ Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland, 1999
  7. ^ MFPP Working Paper No. 2, "The Creation and Consolidation of the Irish Border" by KJ Rankin and published in association with Institute for British-Irish Studies, University College Dublin and Institute for Governance, Queen's University, Belfast (also printed as IBIS working paper no. 48)
  8. ^ See #References and further reading: Ryan, page 857. The agreement was also, albeit indirectly, referred to in a Dàil debate on 4 June 1925 (Dáil Debates volume 12 columns 317–318).
  9. ^ Aliens Order 1923 (UK).
  10. ^ Respectively by the Aliens Order 1925 (Ireland) [3] and the Aliens Order 1925 (UK).
  11. ^ See #References and further reading: Ryan.
  12. ^ by the Aliens Order 1946 (Ireland) [4].
  13. ^ Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, Geoffrey de Freitas, House of Commons Debates volume 478 columns 842–849 (28 July 1950).
  14. ^ House of Commons Debates volume 446 columns 1158–1166 (28 January 1948), volume 463 column 543 (24 March 1949), and volume 478 columns 842–849 (28 July 1950).
  15. ^ in the Aliens Order 1953 (UK).
  16. ^ The existence of the 1952 agreement was conceded in an Irish parliamentary question on 3 June 1980 (Dáil Debates volume 321 column 1379) [5].
  17. ^ In the UK by section 1(3) of the Immigration Act 1971 (as amended) and by Immigration (Control of Entry through the Republic of Ireland) Order 1972 (as amended) and in Ireland by the Aliens Orders 1946 [6] (as amended; in particular by the Aliens (Amendment) Order 1975 [7]).
  18. ^ #References and further reading: Ryan at p865.
  19. ^ the Aliens (Exemption) Order 1935 (Ireland)
  20. ^ by the Aliens (Exemption) Order 1999 (Ireland), [8] which exempted all (and only) British citizens from immigration control.
  21. ^ "Joint Statement by Mr Damian Green, Minister of State for Immigration the United Kingdom's Home Department And Mr. Alan Shatter, Minister for Justice and Equality Ireland's Department of Justice and Equality Regarding Co-Operation on Measures to Secure the External Common Travel Area Border signed in duplicate at Dublin, on the 20th December, 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  22. ^ "Ireland-UK Accord to Further Secure the Common Travel Area". Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service. The Joint Statement and the accompanying Memorandum of Understanding on visa data exchange was signed by Minister for Justice, Equality and Defence, Alan Shatter, T.D. and UK Immigration Minister, Damien Green, M.P., in Dublin today. 
  23. ^ Clause 8 of the Joint Statement.
  24. ^ Clause 5 of the Joint Statement.
  25. ^ Clause 4 of the Joint Statement.
  26. ^ Clause 3 of the Joint Statement.
  27. ^ http://www.jerseyairport.com/index.asp?NavID=26&SubNavID=32
  28. ^ D. Wallace, Seanad Debates volume 154 columns 106 (4 February 1998) [9].
  29. ^ John O'Donoghue, Dáil Debates volume 12 columns 593–594 (12 February 2002) [10].
  30. ^ a b Pachero v. Minister for Justice [2011] IEHC 491 at para. 18, [2011] 4 IR 698 (29 December 2011).
  31. ^ Butler, Graham (November 2015). "Not a "real" Common Travel Area: Pachero v Minister for Justice and Equality". Irish Jurist Volume 54. Retrieved 15 November 2015. 
  32. ^ "Immigration in Ireland 2011 – a year-end snapshot – major changes and more to follow". Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  33. ^ http://www.gov.im/lib/docs/cso/immigrationintheisleofmanfre.pdf
  34. ^ http://www.iom-airport.com/enquiries/destinations.xml
  35. ^ http://www.gov.im/isleofman/Transport.xml
  36. ^ a b "Entering the UK". 
  37. ^ "Flybe ID Requirements". Retrieved 18 January 2016. 
  38. ^ "easyJet ID Requirements". Retrieved 18 January 2016. 
  39. ^ Sharrock, David (25 October 2007). "New border control will abolish free movement between UK and Ireland". Times Online. London. Retrieved 21 December 2007. 
  40. ^ House of Commons Debates volume 470 Column 1051W (14 January 2008) [11].
  41. ^ "Strengthening the common travel area: a consultation paper". UK Borders Agency. 24 July 2008. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. 
  42. ^ Ford, Richard (25 October 2007). "Britain and Ireland agree to tighten border check". London: The Times. Retrieved 29 August 2008. 
  43. ^ Lord Glentoran (1 April 2009). "Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Bill (HL). Amendment 54 (Report stage)". Hansard of the House of Lords. 
  44. ^ Public Bill Committee (18 June 2009). "Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Bill (Lords): New Clause 3 (Common Travel Area)". Hansard of the House of Commons. 
  45. ^ "UK shelves Irish passport plan". BBC News. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  46. ^ "Minister Fitzgerald and UK Home Secretary launch landmark British-Irish Visa Scheme" (Press release). Dublin: Department of Justice and Equality. 6 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  47. ^ "Visa Waiver Programme – The Short-stay Visa Waiver Programme". Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service. 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  48. ^ Per the provisions of the S.I. No. 97/1999 — Aliens (Exemption) Order, 1999 and Immigration Act 1999.
  49. ^ a b c "Residence rights of UK citizens". 
  50. ^ The only exception being that between 1962 and 1999 those British citizens born outside the United Kingdom were not exempt. See the 1952 agreement
  51. ^ Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, William Ormsby-Gore, House of Common Debates volume 167 column 24 (23 July 1923): "All the people in Ireland are British subjects, and Ireland under the Constitution is under Dominion Home Rule, and has precisely the same powers as the Dominion of Canada, and can legislate, I understand, on matters affecting rights and treaties." [12];
    Hachey, Thomas E.; Hernon, Joseph M.; McCaffrey, Lawrence John (1996). The Irish experience: a concise history (2nd ed.). p. 217. The effect of the [British Nationality Act 1948] was that citizens of Éire, though no longer British subjects, would, when in Britain, be treated as if they were British subjects. 
  52. ^ See Evans.
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  55. ^ Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Justice, Jeremy Wright, House of Commons Debates Column 293W (5 February 2014) [14].
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  81. ^ [20]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]