Visa requirements for Irish citizens

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Visa requirements for Irish citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Ireland. As of 2022, Irish citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 187 countries and territories, ranking the Irish passport 6th in terms of travel freedom (tied with the Dutch, French, Portuguese, and Swedish passports) according to the Henley Passport Index.[1] Since Brexit and as of 2023, Irish citizens are the only nationality in the world with the right to live and work in both the European Union and the United Kingdom.

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for Irish citizens
  Ireland
  Freedom of movement (European Union / European Economic Area / Switzerland / Common Travel Area)
  Visa not required / ESTA / eTA / eVisitor
  Visa on arrival
  eVisa
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required prior to arrival

Visa requirements[edit]

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees) Reciprocity
 Afghanistan Visa required
 Albania Visa not required[2] 90 days X
 Algeria Visa required[3]
 Andorra Visa not required[4]
 Angola eVisa[5][6] 30 days
  • 30 days extendable once.[7]
  • Visitors who have been granted an online pre-visa or have requested a pre-visa from an Angolan consulate abroad are issued a visa upon arrival at the country's border crossings.[7]
  • Maximum total stay of 90 days within a one-year period.[8]
  • Visitors must have a return/onward ticket and a hotel reservation confirmation.[9]
  • International Certificate of Vaccination required.[7]
X
 Antigua and Barbuda Visa not required[10] 1 month
 Argentina Visa not required[11] 90 days
 Armenia Visa not required[12] 180 days X
 Australia eVisitor[13] 90 days
  • eVisitor, if granted, allows 90 day stay per visit for 12 months.
  • eVisitor is issued free of charge.
 Austria Freedom of movement[14]
 Azerbaijan eVisa[15] 30 days[16] X
 Bahamas Visa not required[17] 3 months
  • Extension of stay is possible.
 Bahrain eVisa / Visa on arrival[18] 3 months
  • Visa on arrival is single entry, subject to a fee.
  • Multiple entry visa available on arrival for 1 month stay.
  • Irish citizens can also apply for eVisas as an alternative.
X
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[19] 30 days
  • Visitors can apply to extend their stay when in the country.
X
 Barbados Visa not required[20] 6 months
  • Visitors must have proof of onward travel, whereby their final destination is their country of residence or origin.
 Belarus Visa not required[21] 30 days
  • Travellers must arrive via Minsk International Airport to avail of visa-free access.
  • Travellers must also depart from Minsk International Airport, to a destination outside of Belarus and Russia.
  • Visa on arrival is not available to tourists travelling from Russia.
  • Irish citizens are allowed to stay without a visa for 15 days in the regions of Brest and Grodno
X
 Belgium Freedom of movement[22]
 Belize Visa not required[23]
 Benin eVisa / Visa on arrival[24][25] 30 days / 8 days
  • Must have an international vaccination certificate.
X
 Bhutan Visa required[26]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
  • Visitors are required to book with a registered tour operator in Bhutan.
 Bolivia Visa not required[27] 90 days
  • 90 days within any year period
X
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa not required[28] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6-month period
X
 Botswana Visa not required[29] 90 days
  • Extension to the visa-free period must be applied for in advance.
 Brazil Visa not required[30] 90 days
  • Extension of stay is possible.
X
 Brunei Visa not required[31] 90 days
 Bulgaria Freedom of movement[32]
 Burkina Faso Visa on arrival[33] 1 month X
 Burundi Visa on arrival[34] 1 month X
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[35] 30 days
  • Visa is also obtainable online.[36]
  • Visitors are not permitted to make day-trips to Cambodia (except in certain circumstances).
X
 Cameroon Visa required[37]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Canada Visa not required[38] 6 months
 Cape Verde Visa not required[41] 30 days
  • Must register online at least five days prior to arrival.[42]
X
 Central African Republic Visa required[43]
 Chad Visa required[44]
  • Visitors holding an 'entry authorisation' letter can pick up a visa on arrival.
 Chile Visa not required[45] 90 days
  • Visitors are issued an immigration card on arrival and will be prevented from leaving Chile without it.
X
 China Visa required[46]
 Colombia Visa not required[48] 90 days
  • Visitors may only enter Colombia for up to 180 days in any calendar year.
X
 Comoros Visa on arrival[49] 45 days X
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[50]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[51]
 Costa Rica Visa not required[52] 90 days
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[53] 3 months X
 Croatia Freedom of movement[54]
 Cuba Tourist Card required[55] 30 days
 Cyprus Freedom of movement[56]
 Czech Republic Freedom of movement[57]
 Denmark Freedom of movement[58]
 Djibouti eVisa[59] 31 days X
 Dominica Visa not required[60] 6 months
 Dominican Republic Visa not required[61] X
 Ecuador Visa not required[62] 90 days[63]
  • Extension of stay is possible.
X
 Egypt eVisa / Visa on arrival[64][65] 30 days X
 El Salvador Visa not required[66] 3 months
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[67]
 Eritrea Visa required[68]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Estonia Freedom of movement[69]
 Eswatini Visa not required[70] 30 days[63]
  • Extension of stay possible for a maximum of 90 days in total.
 Ethiopia eVisa / Visa on arrival[71] up to 90 days X
 Fiji Visa not required[74] 4 months
 Finland Freedom of movement[75]
 France Freedom of movement[76] Freedom of movement
 Gabon eVisa / Visa on arrival[77] 90 days X
 Gambia Visa not required[78] 90 days X
 Georgia Visa not required[79] 1 year X
 Germany Freedom of movement[80]
 Ghana Visa required[81]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 Greece Freedom of movement[82]
 Grenada Visa not required[83] 3 months[63]
  • Beginning on 1 December 2020, all travellers to Grenada will be required to complete an online application in order to receive a Pure Safe Travel Authorization Certificate to enter Grenada.[84]
 Guatemala Visa not required[85] 90 days
 Guinea eVisa[86] 90 days X
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[87] 90 days X
 Guyana Visa not required[88] 3 months X
 Haiti Visa not required[89] 90 days X
 Honduras Visa not required[90] 3 months
 Hungary Freedom of movement[91]
 Iceland Freedom of movement[92]
 India e-Visa[93] 60 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive via 26 designated airports[Note 1] or 3 designated seaports.[Note 2][94]
  • An Indian e-Tourist Visa can only be obtained twice in one calendar year.[citation needed]
X
 Indonesia Visa on arrival[95] 30 days
  • Not available at all entry points.
X
 Iran eVisa[96] 30 days[97]
  • A visa on arrival is only available at Qeshm, Kish, Mashhad, Isfahan, Shiraz, Tabriz and Tehran.
  • Extension of stay is possible.
  • Women will be refused entry if not wearing Islamic head cover, scarf, long sleeves or stockings.
  • All foreigners must report to the Iranian police within 8 days of arrival.
  • Visa on arrival excludes all reporters, journalists, photographers and cameramen, who must obtain a visa prior to entering Iran.
  • A visa on arrival for business travellers is available if holding a letter of invitation from a government agency which is issued at least 2 days prior to arrival.
X
 Iraq Visa on arrival[98][99] 60 days
  • Irish citizens can obtain a visa on arrival at Iraq's airports, land and sea crossings for 60 days, for a fee of US$75.
  • Visa not required for up to 30 days to Iraqi Kurdistan.
  • On 15 March 2021 the Iraqi government lifted pre-arrival visa requirements, allowing Irish citizens to apply for visa on arrival in any entry point.[100]
 Israel Visa not required[101] 3 months
  • Extension of stay is possible.
 Italy Freedom of movement[102]
 Jamaica Visa not required[103] 90 days X
 Japan Visa not required[104] 90 days
  • Irish citizens may apply for an extension of stay with the Ministry of Justice for up to 6 months.
 Jordan Free visa on arrival[105] 6 months
  • A free visa on arrival may be obtained only when travel is organised through an authorised tour operator in Jordan. The tour group must not consist of less than 5 people and there must be a minimum 2 night stay in Jordan. A return ticket must be presented to avail of this visa option.
  • All other passengers who are not travelling as part of a tour group may obtain a visa on arrival, subject to a fee. The visa on arrival has a maximum validity of 6 months.
  • Visa fees may be waived for those in possession of a Jordan Pass depending on the length of their visit to the kingdom.[106]
X
 Kazakhstan Visa not required[107] 30 days X
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[108] 3 months X
 Kiribati Visa not required[109] 30 days
 North Korea Visa required[110]
 South Korea Electronic travel authorization[111] 90 days
 Kuwait eVisa / Visa on arrival[112] 3 months X
 Kyrgyzstan Visa not required[113] 60 days X
 Laos eVisa / Visa on arrival[114][115] 30 days
  • Visa on arrival is available at Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane international airports, the 4 Thai-Lao Friendship Bridges,[Note 3] 13 border crossings,[Note 4] and Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane.[116] Visa on arrival facilities will be gradually phased out starting in January 2020.[117]
  • eVisa may be used to enter Laos through Wattay International Airport and the First Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge.[citation needed]
  • The Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou border crossings are open only to visa holders.[citation needed]
  • Visa on arrival is extendable up to 60 days.[citation needed]
X
 Latvia Freedom of movement[118]
 Lebanon Free visa on arrival[119] 1 month
  • Free visa on arrival can be granted whenever a telephone number and address in Lebanon is provided.
  • Visa can be extended for an additional two months.
X
 Lesotho Visa not required[120] 90 days
 Liberia Visa required[121]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival, subject to conditions.
 Libya Visa required[122]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
  • Passengers arriving in Libya must hold a non-objection form issued by the Libyan Immigration Authorities.
  • All travellers arriving in Libya for tourism must convert $1000 USD in freely convertible currency, or debit the amount from a credit card upon arrival in the country.
 Liechtenstein Freedom of movement[123]
 Lithuania Freedom of movement[124]
 Luxembourg Freedom of movement[125]
 Madagascar eVisa / Visa on arrival[126] 90 days X
 Malawi eVisa / Visa on arrival[127][128] 90 days
  • A residence permit must be obtained for those wishing to stay beyond 90 days.
X
 Malaysia Visa not required[129] 3 months
  • If no return ticket is held, one must be purchased at the border or entry will be refused.
 Maldives Free visa on arrival[130] 30 days[63] X
 Mali Visa required[131]
 Malta Freedom of movement[132]
 Marshall Islands Visa not required[133] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period
X
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[134] X
 Mauritius Visa not required[135] 90 days
  • 180 days maximum stay in any one calendar year.
X
 Mexico Visa not required[136] 180 days
 Micronesia Visa not required[137] 30 days
  • Extension of stay is possible.
X
 Moldova Visa not required[138] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
X
 Monaco Visa not required[139]
 Mongolia Visa on arrival[140] 30 days X
 Montenegro Visa not required[141] 90 days X
 Morocco Visa not required[142] 90 days X
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[143] 30 days
  • Not available at all entry points.
  • Extension of stay is possible.
X
 Myanmar eVisa[144] 28 days X
 Namibia Visa not required[145] 3 months X
 Nauru Visa required[146]
  • Visa requirement waived for holders of an Entry Permit letter.
X
   Nepal Visa on arrival[147] 90 days
  • Extension of stay is possible of up to 150 days.
  • Business travellers can obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 5 years, subject to a fee and a license issued by the Ministry of Industry.
X
 Netherlands Freedom of movement[148] (European Netherlands)
 New Zealand Electronic Travel Authority[149] 3 months
  • May enter using eGate.[150]
  • International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy must be paid upon requesting an Electronic Travel Authority.[151]
  • Holders of an Australian Permanent Resident Visa or Resident Return Visa may be granted a New Zealand Resident Visa on arrival permitting indefinite stay (pursuant to the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement), subject to meeting character requirements and obtaining an Electronic Travel Authority prior to departure.[152] Such travellers are not required to pay the International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy.[151]
X
 Nicaragua Visa not required[153] 90 days
  • Tourist card must be obtained on arrival, subject to a fee.
  • Extension of stay is possible.
 Niger Visa required[154]
 Nigeria Visa required[155]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
 North Macedonia Visa not required[156] 90 days X
 Norway Freedom of movement[157]
 Oman Visa not required / eVisa[158] 30 days
  • A visa waiver is in place for travellers who are arriving directly from the Emirate of Dubai who have a visa or an entrance stamp from Dubai, whereby the visa must be valid for 21 days at least upon arrival in Oman.
  • A visa waiver is in place for travellers who are arriving directly from Qatar, whereby the visa must state as being valid for Oman and must be valid for at least one month on arrival.
X
 Pakistan Online Visa[159]
  • Online Visa eligible.[160]
  • Electronic Travel Authorization to obtain a visa on arrival for business purposes.[161]
X
 Palau Free visa on arrival[162] 30 days
  • Extension is possible for a fee.
X
 Panama Visa not required[163] 90 days
 Papua New Guinea eVisa / Free visa on arrival[164] 60 days X
 Paraguay Visa not required[165] 90 days X
 Peru Visa not required[166] 183 days X
 Philippines Visa required[167] 30 days
  • A visa is available for a maximum stay of 59 days.
  • Extension of stay is only possible for those who obtained a visa on arrival, to a maximum of 1 year.
X
 Poland Freedom of movement[168]
 Portugal Freedom of movement[169]
 Qatar Visa not required[170] 30 days
  • Visa waiver available for Irish citizens with a 30 day extension available.
X
 Romania Freedom of movement[171]
 Russia eVisa[172] 16 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive and departure via 29 checkpoints[173]
  • Visa waiver available for passengers arriving by cruise only who are staying in Russia for a maximum of 72 hours.
X
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[174] 30 days X
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[175] 3 months
  • Extension of stay is possible.
 Saint Lucia Visa not required[176] 6 weeks
  • Extension of stay is possible.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[177] 1 month
  • Extension of stay is possible.
 Samoa Visa not required[178] 60 days
  • Extension of stay is possible.
 San Marino Visa not required[179]
 São Tomé and Príncipe Visa not required[180] 15 days X
 Saudi Arabia eVisa / Visa on arrival[181][182] 90 days X
 Senegal Visa not required[183] 90 days X
 Serbia Visa not required[184] 90 days
  • Irish citizens may stay in Serbia for 90 days within any 6-month period.
  • Extension is possible.
X
 Seychelles Free Visitor's Permit on arrival[185] 3 months[63]
  • Irish citizens can extend their stay for three months, up to a maximum of 12 months.
  • Visitor's permit is issued free of charge, subject to documentation being provided at the entry point.
 Sierra Leone Visa on arrival[186] X
 Singapore Visa not required[187] 90 days
  • Extension of stay possible.
 Slovakia Freedom of movement[188]
 Slovenia Freedom of movement[189]
 Solomon Islands Free Visitor's permit on arrival[190] 3 months
  • 3 months within a year period
 Somalia Visa on arrival[191] X
 South Africa Visa not required[192] 90 days
  • Extension of stay possible for an additional 90 days.
X
 South Sudan Electronic Visa[193]
  • Obtainable online[194]
  • Printed visa authorization must be presented at the time of travel[194]
X
 Spain Freedom of movement[195]
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[196] 30 days
  • Extension of stay possible for an additional 150 days for Irish citizens.
X
 Sudan Visa required[197]
 Suriname eVisa[198] X
 Sweden Freedom of movement[199]
 Switzerland Freedom of movement[200]
 Syria Visa required[201]
 Tajikistan Visa on arrival[202] 45 days
  • Visa also available online. E-visa holders can enter through all border points.[203]
X
 Tanzania eVisa / Visa on arrival[204][205] 3 months X
 Thailand Visa not required[206] 30 days
  • ACMECS Single Visa issued by Cambodia and Thailand are valid for 90 days from the date of issue and are valid for a stay of 60 days in Thailand.
  • Extension of stay is possible.
  • Maximum two visits annually if not arriving by air.
X
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[207] 90 days
  • Irish and British citizens, unlike other EU citizens, must pay a $30 visa fee on arrival.[208]
X
 Togo Visa on arrival[209] 7 days
  • Extension of stay possible for an additional 90 days, subject to a fee.
X
 Tonga Free visa on arrival[210] 31 days
  • Extension of stay for a further 5 months is possible.
X
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa not required[211]
 Tunisia Visa not required[212] 3 months X
 Turkey Visa not required[213] 90 days X
 Turkmenistan Visa required[214]
  • Pre-approved visa can be picked up on arrival.
X
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[215] 1 month[63] X
 Uganda Free visa on arrival[216]
  • Irish Citizens are not required to apply for an eVisa and are granted a fee-free visa on arrival.[217]
  • An East Africa Tourist Visa issued by Kenya or Rwanda can also be used for entry.[218]
X
 Ukraine Visa not required[219] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period.
 United Arab Emirates Free visa on arrival[220] 30 days
  • Extension of stay is possible for a further 30 days with a fee.
X
 United Kingdom Freedom of movement[221]
 United States Visa Waiver Program[222] 90 days
  • ESTA required if arriving by air or cruise ship.[223]
  • ESTA is valid for two years when issued.
  • Holders of non-biometric passports must obtain a visa for the United States as they are ineligible to apply for an ESTA.
  • Leaving the United States and re-entering from Canada or Mexico will not reset the original 90 day maximum stay. You can only reset the timer by leaving North America.
 Uruguay Visa not required[224] 90 days
  • Extension of stay is possible for a further 90 days.
X
 Uzbekistan Visa not required[225] 30 days X
 Vanuatu Visa not required[226] 30 days[63]
  Vatican City Visa not required[227]
 Venezuela Visa not required[228] 90 days
  • Extension of stay is possible for a further 90 days.
X
 Vietnam eVisa[229] 30 days
  • A single entry eVisa is available.[230]
  • Fee payable.
X
 Yemen Visa required[231]
 Zambia Visa not required[232] 90 days
  • For those travelling to Zambia for business, the maximum stay is 30 days in any one-year period.
  • Tourists are allowed 90 days in any one-year period.
X
 Zimbabwe eVisa / Visa on arrival[233] 3 months
  • For those travelling to Zimbabwe for business, a visa on arrival can also be issued for a maximum stay of 30 days.
X

Territories and disputed areas[edit]

Visa requirements for Irish citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas, partially recognized countries and restricted zones:

Europe
Africa
Asia
Caribbean and North Atlantic
Oceania
South America
  • Bandera Provincia Galápagos.svg Galápagos — Online pre-registration is required. Transit Control Card must also be obtained at the airport prior to departure.[332]
South Atlantic and Antarctica

Non-ordinary passports[edit]

Holders of diplomatic or official passports of Ireland have additional visa-free access to Kuwait. Holders of diplomatic or service passports of any country have visa-free access to Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Mali and Zimbabwe.

Non-visa restrictions[edit]

Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption. Such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.

Blank passport pages[edit]

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[353] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being valid or available.

Vaccination[edit]

An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers older than nine months to one year[354] to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[355]

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently or has transited for 12 hours in those countries: Algeria, Botswana, Cabo Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Libya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.[356][357]

An increasing number of countries have been imposing additional COVID-19 related health restrictions such as quarantine measures and testing requirements. Many countries increasingly consider the vaccination status of travellers with regard to quarantine requirements or when deciding to allow them entry at all.[358]

Passport validity length[edit]

Very few countries, such as Paraguay, just require a valid passport on arrival.

However many countries and groupings now require only an identity card - especially from their neighbours. Other countries may have special bilateral arrangements that depart from the generality of their passport validity length policies to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[359][360] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[361]

Some countries, such as Japan,[362] Ireland and the United Kingdom,[363] require a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[364] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[365] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru.[366] Philippines,[367] Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[368]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Honduras, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, the Maldives[369] and South Africa.

Criminal record[edit]

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[370] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record while others impose restrictions depending on the type of conviction and the length of the sentence.

Persona non grata[edit]

Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[371]

For example, Azerbaijan bans visits by foreign citizens that have previously entered Azerbaijan through non-Azerbaijani controlled borders. This includes the illegal entry into the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[372] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding Armenian-occupied territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[373] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[374] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.

Israeli stamps[edit]

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[375] Lebanon,[376] Libya,[377] Syria,[378] and Yemen[379] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.[citation needed]

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Biometrics[edit]

A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[380]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[381][382] Argentina,[383] Brunei, Cambodia,[384] China,[385] Ethiopia,[386] Ghana, Guinea,[387] India, Japan,[388][389] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[390] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[391] Mongolia, Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[392] Singapore, South Korea,[393] Taiwan, Thailand,[394] Uganda,[395] the United Arab Emirates and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by domestic legislation),[396][397][398] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[399]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[400] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[401][402]

Common Travel Area[edit]

The Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, together with its Crown Dependencies of Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man make up a Common Travel Area where:

  • No ID is required for travel by land for British or Irish citizens
  • Only photographic ID is required for travel by air or sea for British or Irish citizens (but some airlines - such as Ryanair - may mandate passports for all)

However, there are occasionally checks on coaches and trains moving between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Citizens of third countries must have passports and, if required, visas to travel between the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.

British visas don't enable travel to Ireland for people without agreement with Ireland, and vice versa. Air and sea passengers travelling between the Common Travel Area and the Schengen Area are subject to systematic passport/identity checks.

Right to consular protection in non-EU countries[edit]

As citizens of the European Union, all Irish citizens have the right to seek consular assistance and protection from embassies of fellow EU member states when they are in a non-EU country without an Irish embassy.

See also List of diplomatic missions of Ireland.

Countries with Irish diplomatic missions

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

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Notes
  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammuan
    • Bokeo
  4. ^
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Samliemkham - (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)