Several methods have been suggested for comparing the greatest chess players in history. There is agreement on a statistical system to rate the strengths of current players, called the Elo system, but disagreement about methods used to compare players from different generations who never competed against each other.
The best-known statistical method was devised by Arpad Elo in 1960 and elaborated on in his 1978 book The Rating of Chessplayers, Past and Present. He gave ratings to players corresponding to their performance over the best five-year span of their career. According to this system the highest ratings achieved were:
- 2725: José Raúl Capablanca
- 2720: Mikhail Botvinnik, Emanuel Lasker
- 2700: Mikhail Tal
- 2690: Alexander Alekhine, Paul Morphy, Vasily Smyslov
Though published in 1978, Elo's list did not include five-year averages for later players Bobby Fischer and Anatoly Karpov. It did list January 1978 ratings of 2780 for Fischer and 2725 for Karpov.
In 1970, FIDE adopted Elo's system for rating current players, so one way to compare players of different eras is to compare their Elo ratings. The best-ever Elo ratings are tabulated below. As of September 2023,[update] there are 133 chess players in history who broke 2700, and 14 of them exceeded 2800.
Table of top 20 rated players of all-time, with date their best ratings were first achieved Rank Rating Player Date Age 1 2882 Magnus Carlsen May 2014 23 years, 5 months 2 2851 Garry Kasparov July 1999 36 years, 2 months 3 2844 Fabiano Caruana October 2014 22 years, 2 months 4 2830 Levon Aronian March 2014 31 years, 4 months 5 2822 Wesley So February 2017 23 years, 3 months 6 2820 Shakhriyar Mamedyarov September 2018 33 years, 4 months 7 2819 Maxime Vachier-Lagrave August 2016 25 years, 9 months 8 (tie) 2817 Viswanathan Anand March 2011 41 years, 2 months 8 (tie) 2817 Vladimir Kramnik October 2016 41 years, 3 months 10 (tie) 2816 Veselin Topalov July 2015 40 years, 3 months 10 (tie) 2816 Hikaru Nakamura October 2015 27 years, 9 months 10 (tie) 2816 Ding Liren November 2018 26 years 13 2810 Alexander Grischuk December 2014 31 years, 1 month 14 2804 Alireza Firouzja December 2021 18 years, 5 months 15 2798 Anish Giri October 2015 21 years, 3 months 16 2795 Ian Nepomniachtchi March 2023 32 years, 7 months 17 2793 Teimour Radjabov November 2012 25 years, 7 months 18 (tie) 2788 Alexander Morozevich July 2008 30 years, 11 months 18 (tie) 2788 Sergey Karjakin July 2011 21 years, 5 months 20 2787 Vassily Ivanchuk October 2007 38 years, 6 months
Average rating over time
The average Elo rating of top players has risen over time. For instance, the average of the top 10 active players rose from 2751 in July 2000 to 2794 in July 2014, a 43-point increase in 14 years. The average rating of the top 100 players, meanwhile, increased from 2644 to 2703, a 59-point increase. Many people believe that this rise is mostly due to an anomaly known as ratings inflation, making it impractical to compare players of different eras.
Elo said it was futile to attempt to use ratings to compare players from different eras and that they could only measure the strength of a player as compared to their contemporaries. He also stated that the process of rating players was in any case rather approximate — he compared it to "the measurement of the position of a cork bobbing up and down on the surface of agitated water with a yard stick tied to a rope and which is swaying in the wind".
Many statisticians besides Elo have devised similar methods to retrospectively rate players. Jeff Sonas' rating system is called "Chessmetrics". This system takes account of many games played after the publication of Elo's book, and claims to take account of the rating inflation that the Elo system has allegedly suffered.[according to whom?]
One caveat is that a Chessmetrics rating takes into account the frequency of play. According to Sonas, "As soon as you go a month without playing, your Chessmetrics rating will start to drop."
Sonas, like Elo, claims that it is impossible to compare the strength of players from different eras, saying:
Of course, a rating always indicates the level of dominance of a particular player against contemporary peers; it says nothing about whether the player is stronger/weaker in their actual technical chess skill than a player far removed from them in time. So while we cannot say that Bobby Fischer in the early 1970s or José Capablanca in the early 1920s were the "strongest" players of all time, we can say with a certain amount of confidence that they were the two most dominant players of all time. That is the extent of what these ratings can tell us.
Nevertheless, Sonas' website does compare players from different eras. Including data until December 2004, the ratings were:
|Rank||1-year peak||5-year peak||10-year peak||15-year peak||20-year peak|
|1||Bobby Fischer, 2881||Garry Kasparov, 2875||Garry Kasparov, 2863||Garry Kasparov, 2862||Garry Kasparov, 2856|
|2||Garry Kasparov, 2879||Emanuel Lasker, 2854||Emanuel Lasker, 2847||Anatoly Karpov, 2820||Anatoly Karpov, 2818|
|3||Mikhail Botvinnik, 2871||José Capablanca, 2843||Anatoly Karpov, 2821||Emanuel Lasker, 2816||Emanuel Lasker, 2809|
|4||José Capablanca, 2866||Mikhail Botvinnik, 2843||José Capablanca, 2813||José Capablanca, 2798||Alexander Alekhine, 2781|
|5||Emanuel Lasker, 2863||Bobby Fischer, 2841||Bobby Fischer, 2810||Alexander Alekhine, 2794||Viktor Korchnoi, 2766|
|6||Alexander Alekhine, 2851||Anatoly Karpov, 2829||Mikhail Botvinnik, 2810||Mikhail Botvinnik, 2789||Vasily Smyslov, 2759|
In 2005, Sonas used Chessmetrics to evaluate historical annual performance ratings and came to the conclusion that Kasparov was dominant for the most years, followed by Karpov and Lasker. He also published the following list of the highest ratings ever attained according to calculations done at the start of each month:
Rank Rating Player 1 2895 Bobby Fischer 2 2886 Garry Kasparov 3 2885 Mikhail Botvinnik 4 2878 Emanuel Lasker 5 2877 José Capablanca 6 2860 Alexander Alekhine 7 2848 Anatoly Karpov 8 2833 Viswanathan Anand 9 2826 Vladimir Kramnik 10 2826 Wilhelm Steinitz
Warriors of the Mind
In contrast to Elo and Sonas's systems, Raymond Keene and Nathan Divinsky's book Warriors of the Mind attempts to establish a rating system claiming to compare directly the strength of players active in different eras, and so determine the strongest player of all time (through December 2004). Considering games played between sixty-four of the strongest players in history, they came up with the following top ten:
These "Divinsky numbers" are not on the same scale as Elo ratings (the last person on the list, Johannes Zukertort, has a Divinsky number of 873, which would be a beginner-level Elo rating). Keene and Divinsky's system has met with limited acceptance, and Warriors of the Mind has been accused of arbitrarily selecting players and bias towards modern players.
Larry Kaufman (2023)
GM Larry Kaufman published an article in 2023 estimating the ratings of chess players throughout history by comparing their games with the choices of top engines, using Chess.com accuracy scores. He considered only world championship matches and tournaments (official or unofficial, and including women's championships), Candidates and Interzonal events, and non-title matches between the world champion and top contenders. In order to avoid the problem that draws show much fewer inaccuracies than decisive games, he only considered decisive games. He gave the following estimated ratings for 47 players at their peak years, on a scale corresponding to Elo ratings in 2023. (In his view, ratings inflated from their introduction in the 1970s until about 2006, when deflation began; by 2023, this had more or less cancelled out the earlier inflation, so that the 1970s ratings and the 2023 ratings are comparable, but those in between are not.)
- Magnus Carlsen, 2858 (peak years 2013–2021)
- Garry Kasparov, 2821 (peak years 1993–2001)
- Bobby Fischer, 2802 (peak years 1970–1972)
- Ian Nepomniachtchi, 2786 (peak years 2020–2022)
- Vladimir Kramnik, 2785 (peak years 2000–2007)
- Viswanathan Anand, 2780 (peak years 2007–2014)
- Veselin Topalov, 2773 (peak years 2005–2009)
- Anatoly Karpov, 2746 (peak years 1974–1984)
- Mikhail Tal, 2711 (peak years 1958–1960)
- Vasily Smyslov, 2687 (peak years 1953–1957)
- Boris Spassky, 2681 (peak years 1965–1970)
- Tigran Petrosian, 2675 (peak years 1963–1969)
- Judit Polgár, 2669 (peak years 1998–2005)
- Paul Keres, 2663 (peak years 1956–1965)
- Mikhail Botvinnik, 2659 (peak years 1948–1955)
- Viktor Korchnoi, 2658 (peak years 1974–1981)
- Samuel Reshevsky, 2655 (peak years 1953–1961)
- Vasyl Ivanchuk, 2654 (peak years 1990–1992)
- Reuben Fine, 2651 (peak years 1932–1949)
- Hou Yifan, 2651 (peak years 2011–2016)
- Alexander Alekhine, 2648 (peak years 1927–1934)
- José Raúl Capablanca, 2633 (peak years 1921–1931)
- Susan Polgar, 2616 (peak years 1990–1996)
- Emanuel Lasker, 2596 (peak years 1907–1914)
- Maia Chiburdanidze, 2585 (peak years 1978–1988)
- David Bronstein, 2582 (peak years 1950–1954)
- Ju Wenjun, 2566 (peak years 2018–2023)
- Harry Nelson Pillsbury, 2554 (peak years 1897–1898)
- Nona Gaprindashvili, 2529 (peak years 1969–1975)
- Xie Jun, 2522 (peak years 1991–1999)
- Max Euwe, 2500 (peak years 1935–1938)
- Wilhelm Steinitz, 2458 (peak years 1872–1886)
- Akiba Rubinstein, 2454 (peak years 1908–1912)
- Efim Bogoljubow, 2414 (peak years 1928–1934)
- Paul Morphy, 2411 (peak years 1857–1859)
- Siegbert Tarrasch, 2402 (peak years 1893–1908)
- Alla Kushnir, 2396 (peak years 1965–1972)
- Géza Maróczy, 2362 (peak years 1905–1907)
- Johannes Zukertort, 2262 (peak years 1872–1886)
- Elisaveta Bykova, 2254 (peak years 1958–1960)
- Louis Paulsen, 2232 (peak years 1861–1862)
- Adolf Anderssen, 2214 (peak years 1861–1866)
- Vera Menchik, 2155 (peak year 1929)
- Mikhail Chigorin, 2144 (peak years 1889–1893)
- Howard Staunton, 1976 (peak years 1843–1851)
- Louis de la Bourdonnais, 1859 (peak year 1834)
- Alexander McDonnell, 1704 (peak year 1834)
(Morphy's top four opponents averaged 2021 over the years 1857–1859. The games at the 2020–21 Candidates averaged 2777, and those at the 2019 Women's Candidates averaged 2530. The level of the reference engine is roughly 3400.)
In some cases, Kaufman offered caveats. La Bourdonnais and Morphy usually played much faster than their opponents, essentially playing rapid rather than classical by today's standards, and so their true strengths were likely about 100 points higher than their games suggest. There were not enough non-handicap games against roughly matched opposition to judge the earlier French players François-André Danican Philidor and Alexandre Deschapelles (moreover, Philidor did not play by the modern rules, as then a player could not have two queens). According to Rod Edwards' Edo ratings, Deschapelles and La Bourdonnais were almost exactly tied in 1821, the one year when both were active. Chigorin is likely underrated because of his predilection for gambit play, which increases the number of inaccuracies; similarly, Euwe and Bogoljubow are likely underrated because of most of their games considered were against Alekhine, who tended to play extremely sharp openings. Menchik's games that were considered were against stronger opposition, so she is somewhat underrated (her real strength probably passed 2200). There were too few decisive games assessed to judge Fabiano Caruana (because his 2018 title match against Carlsen had all classical games drawn), but Kaufman suggests that "he might well be number two of all time, based on peak FIDE rating and the deflation since Kasparov's peak".
Kaufman finds that the quality of play rose steadily by about 2.5 Elo points per year from 1900 to 2023 (though the rate may have increased in the most recent years due to the advent of the Internet and strong chess engines); the rate was greater in the 19th century. Correcting for this leads to a list comparing players relatively according to their time, rather than the above list which compares them absolutely. The following list is valid for 2017 (the midpoint of Carlsen's peak):
- Bobby Fischer, 2917
- Garry Kasparov, 2871
- José Raúl Capablanca, 2868
- Alexander Alekhine, 2864
- Emanuel Lasker, 2862
- Magnus Carlsen, 2858
- Mikhail Tal, 2856
- Harry Nelson Pillsbury, 2853
- Vasily Smyslov, 2842
- Reuben Fine, 2842
- Anatoly Karpov, 2841
- Mikhail Botvinnik, 2823
- Vladimir Kramnik, 2819
- Paul Morphy, 2809
- Boris Spassky, 2805
- Samuel Reshevsky, 2805
- Paul Keres, 2804
- Tigran Petrosian, 2803
- Wilhelm Steinitz, 2803
- Veselin Topalov, 2798
- Viswanathan Anand, 2796
Again, Kaufman considers that this somewhat underrates Morphy because of his fast play and the much higher rate of improvement per year before 1900; Kaufman writes "he might have rivaled Fischer for the top spot if we could properly correct for these factors." Finally, Kaufman provided a third list reducing the adjustment for earlier players to 2 Elo points per year rather than 2.5, which Kaufman estimated "should make the list a fairly accurate estimate of how these players would, in fact, rate in 2017 if born around 1987":
- Bobby Fischer, 2894
- Garry Kasparov, 2861
- Magnus Carlsen, 2858
- Mikhail Tal, 2827
- Anatoly Karpov, 2822
- Alexander Alekhine, 2821
- José Raúl Capablanca, 2821
- Vladimir Kramnik, 2812
- Vasily Smyslov, 2811
- Emanuel Lasker, 2809
- Reuben Fine, 2804
- Viswanathan Anand, 2793
- Veselin Topalov, 2793
- Harry Nelson Pillsbury, 2793
- Mikhail Botvinnik, 2790
- Boris Spassky, 2780
- Tigran Petrosian, 2777
- Paul Keres, 2776
- Samuel Reshevsky, 2775
- Wilhelm Steinitz, 2734
- Paul Morphy, 2729
Morphy is similarly again underrated in Kaufman's view, and Kaufman estimates that he should be somewhere between fourth to nineteenth place on the above list if the factors affecting him could be corrected for. Fischer focused solely on chess and might be overrated compared to the others, whereas Reshevsky and Lasker were not full-time professionals and could be underrated.
Moves played compared with computer choices
The idea of this approach is to compare the moves played by humans to top engine moves, with the rationale that players more likely to choose these moves are also stronger.
A computer-based method of analyzing chess abilities across history came from Matej Guid and Ivan Bratko at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 2006. A similar project was conducted for World Champions in 2007–08 using Rybka 2.3.2a (then-strongest chess program) and a modified version of Guid and Bratko's program "Crafty". CAPS (Computer Aggregated Precision Score) is a system created by Chess.com that compares players from different eras by finding the percentage of moves that matches that of a chess engine.
In 2017, Jean-Marc Alliot of the Toulouse Computer Science Research Institute (IRIT) presented a new method, based on a Markovian interpretation of a chess game. Starting with those of Wilhelm Steinitz, all 26,000 games played since then by chess world champions have been processed by a supercomputer using the Stockfish chess engine (rated above 3310 Elo).
These predictions have proven not only to be extremely close to the actual results when players have played concrete games against one another, but to also fare better than those based on Elo scores. The results demonstrate that the level of chess players has been steadily increasing. Magnus Carlsen (in 2013) tops the list, while Vladimir Kramnik (in 1999) is second, Bobby Fischer (in 1971) is third, and Garry Kasparov (in 2001) is fourth.
Many prominent players and chess writers have offered their own rankings of players.
Bobby Fischer (1964 and 1970)
In 1964, Bobby Fischer listed his top 10 in Chessworld magazine: Morphy, Staunton, Steinitz, Tarrasch, Chigorin, Alekhine, Capablanca, Spassky, Tal, and Reshevsky. He considered Morphy to be "perhaps the most accurate", writing: "In a set match he would beat anyone alive today."
Irving Chernev (1974)
In 1974, popular chess author Irving Chernev published an article titled Who were the greatest? in the English magazine CHESS. He followed this up with his 1976 book The Golden Dozen, in which he ranked his all-time top twelve: 1. Capablanca, 2. Alekhine, 3. Lasker, 4. Fischer, 5. Botvinnik, 6. Petrosian, 7. Tal, 8. Smyslov, 9. Spassky, 10. Bronstein, 11. Rubinstein, and 12. Nimzowitsch.
Miguel Quinteros (1992)
In a 1992 interview GM Miguel Quinteros gave the opinion: "I think Fischer was and still is the greatest chess player of all time. [...] During his absence other good chess players have appeared. But no one equals Fischer's talent and perfection."
Viswanathan Anand (2000, 2008 and 2012)
When interviewed in 2008 shortly after Fischer's death, he ranked Fischer and Kasparov as the greatest, with Kasparov a little ahead by virtue of being on top for so many years.
In 2012, Anand stated that he considered Fischer the best player and also the greatest, because of the hurdles he faced.
Chess Informant readers (2001)
Svetozar Gligorić reported in his book Shall We Play Fischerandom Chess? (Batsford, 2002):
At the beginning of 2001 a large poll for the "Ten Greatest Chess Players of the 20th Century, selected by Chess Informant readers" resulted in Fischer having the highest percentage of votes and finishing as No. 1, ahead of Kasparov, Alekhine, Capablanca, Botvinnik, Karpov, Tal, Lasker, Anand and Korchnoi.
David Edmonds and John Eidinow (2004)
BBC award-winning journalists, from their book Bobby Fischer Goes to War: How the Soviets Lost the Most Extraordinary Chess Match of All Time (HarperCollins, 2004):
Fischer, some will maintain, was the outstanding player in chess history, though there are powerful advocates too for Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, and Kasparov. Many chess players will dismiss such comparisons as meaningless, akin to the futile attempt to grade the supreme musicians of all time. But the manner in which Fischer stormed his way to Reykjavik, his breathtaking dominance at the Palma de Majorca Interzonal, the trouncings of Taimanov, Larsen, and Petrosian—all this was unprecedented. There never has been an era in modern chess during which one player has so overshadowed all others.
Vladimir Kramnik (2005 and 2011)
In a 2005 interview, Vladimir Kramnik (World Champion from 2000 to 2007) did not name a greatest player, but stated: "The other world champions had something 'missing'. I can't say the same about Kasparov: he can do everything."
In an interview in 2011, Vladimir Kramnik said about Anand: "I always considered him to be a colossal talent, one of the greatest in the whole history of chess", "I think that in terms of play Anand is in no way weaker than Kasparov", and "In the last 5–6 years he's made a qualitative leap that's made it possible to consider him one of the great chess players".
Leonard Barden (2008)
Levon Aronian (2012, 2015, and 2022)
In a 2022 interview after the 5th round of the first leg in FIDE Grand Prix 2022, when asked if he thought that in the future Garry Kasparov or Magnus Carlsen would be considered the 'GOAT' (Greatest Of All Time), Levon Aronian stated that "I kind of feel that Magnus will be the greatest for a long long time, because for me he is probably already the greatest but it is still continuing. It will take a long time to beat his achievements."
Magnus Carlsen (2012, 2015, 2020 and 2021)
In December 2015 he said he would like to play Fischer and Kasparov at their peak performance.
In January 2020, Carlsen said, "Kasparov had 20 years uninterrupted as the world No 1. And I would say for very few of those years was there any doubt that he was the best player. He must be considered as the best in history." He made a similar claim in 2021, saying "Garry Kasparov, in my opinion, the greatest player there's ever been..."
Hikaru Nakamura (2021)
In 2021, Hikaru Nakamura published a youtube video entitled "Hikaru's Hot Takes on the Ten Best Chess Players of All Time" in which he reviewed a chess.com article on "The 10 Best Chess Players Of All Time." In this video he suggested that it was unfair to exclude Paul Morphy and Viswanathan Anand from the 10 greatest players of all time. Hikaru stated that Bobby Fischer should "obviously be number 3" and that Garry Kasparov and Magnus Carlsen should be at number 1 and number 2 respectively with the caveat that Kasparov is only number 1 due to his time as number 1 in the world being greater than Carlsen's. At the end of the video, Hikaru said he "can live with" the top 5 as: Kasparov, Carlsen, Fischer, Capablanca and Karpov but he would put from 6 through 10: Anand, Kramnik, Botvinnik, Lasker, Morphy.
World Champions by world title reigns
The table below organises the world champions in order of championship wins. (For the purpose of this table, a successful defence counts as a win, even if the match was drawn.) The table is made more complicated by the split between the "Classical" and FIDE world titles between 1993 and 2006.
|José Raúl Capablanca||1||1||6||6|
- Arpad E. Elo, The Rating of Chessplayers, Past and Present, Arco, 1978. ISBN 0-668-04721-6.
- Arpad Emre Elo – 100th anniversary, Chessbase, 2003
- World Top chess players and Statistics at FIDE.com
- "ChessBase News | Rating inflation – its causes and possible cures". Chessbase.com. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Chess Life, 1962.
- "Arpad Emre Elo – 100th anniversary". 30 August 2003.
- The Greatest Chess Player of All Time – Part I, Jeff Sonas, at Chessbase
- About the Chessmetrics Rating System Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, by Jeff Sonas
- "Peak Average Ratings: 1 year peak range". Archived from the original on 9 March 2012.
- "Peak Average Ratings: 5 year peak range". Archived from the original on 9 March 2012.
- "Peak Average Ratings: 10 year peak range". Archived from the original on 9 March 2012.
- "Peak Average Ratings: 15 year peak range". Archived from the original on 9 March 2012.
- "Peak Average Ratings: 20 year peak range". Archived from the original on 9 March 2012.
- Sonas, J. (2005). "The Greatest Chess Player of All Time – Part IV". Chessbase. Part IV gives links to the 3 earlier parts
- Sonas, J. (2005). "The Greatest Chess Player of All Time – Part II". Chessbase.
- Warriors of the Mind, Raymond Keene and Nathan Divinsky, (1989)
- "Divinsky-Keene rankings". Archived from the original on 26 November 2009.
- Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280049-3.
- Winter, Edward (1996). Chess Explorations. Cadogan. ISBN 1-85744-171-0.
- Kaufman, Larry (4 September 2023). "Accuracy, Ratings, and GOATs". Chess.com. Retrieved 7 September 2023.
Correction: There was one error, I missed Capa's match with Kostic in 1919 due to Kostic's first name being given inconsistently. Fixing this raises Capa to 2633 in the absolute list, to 2868 (third place) in the list where number 1 in 1900 = Carlsen, and to 2821 (shared sixth place) in the list of where they would be if age 30 now. Probably there are other similar data errors I haven't caught., especially among the players of long ago.
- Computers choose: who was the strongest player?, Chessbase, 2006
- "Compare the World Champions!", by Charles Sullivan, TrueChess, 2007
- (DanielRensch), Daniel Rensch (3 January 2017). "Who Was The Best World Chess Champion In History?". Chess.com. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Who is the master?, ICGA Journal, 39–1, April 2017
- Bobby Fischer, "The Ten Greatest Masters in History", Chessworld, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1964), pp. 56–61.
- "Fischer's Top 10". Archived from the original on 6 February 2009.
- the Even More Complete Chess Addict, by Mike Fox and Richard James, 1993, pp. 129–30
- CHESS magazine, November 1970, p. 70
- CHESS magazine, April 1974, pp. 201–202
- Twelve Great Chess Players and Their Best Games, Irving Chernev, 1995 (reprint of 1976 edition).
- Seirawan, Yasser; Stefanovic, George (1992). "Belgrade; Interview with GM Miguel Quinteros". No Regrets • Fischer–Spassky 1992. International Chess Enterprises. p. 255. ISBN 1-879479-09-5.
- "The Grandmaster on his ten greatest chess players". Archived from the original on 20 November 2003.
- "He (Fischer) and Kasparov were the greatest in history, but I judge Kasparov as a little ahead. Fischer was a phenomenon from 1970 to 1972 while Kasparov was on top for many years." – Morelia-Linares Super-GM starts today Archived 6 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Chessbase, 15 February 2008
- Anand takes a dig at Kasparov, Viswanathan Anand, The Hindu
- Gligorić, Svetozar (2002). Shall We Play Fischerandom Chess?. B.T. Batsford Ltd. p. 8. ISBN 0-7134-8764-X.
- Edmonds, David; Eidinow, John (2004). Bobby Fischer Goes to War. HarperCollins Publishers Inc. p. 310. ISBN 0-06-051024-2.
- "The most important interviews by GM Vladimir Kramnik, World Chess Champion 2000–2007". Kramnik.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- "Vladimir Kramnik on Chess, Anand, Topalov, and his future". 31 August 2011. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Most experts place him (Fischer) the second or third best ever, behind Kasparov but probably ahead of Karpov." – Obituary of Bobby Fischer, Leonard Barden, The Guardian, 19 January 2008
- "Aronian names Alekhine best player of all time". WhyChess. 22 August 2012. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGdywyQlo2E "Well, in my opinion Garry is the strongest player of all time"
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bqK_eEA-9GQ The Soviet School of Trash Talking
- "Magnus Carlsen: – Jeg tar verdensrekorden – VG Nett om Sjakk". Vg.no. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Chess prodigy Magnus Carlsen: 'Bobby Fischer is my dream opponent'., 2015-12-16, CNN
- Magnus Carlsen: ‘You need to be very fortunate to be No 1 in fantasy football’, The Guardian, 10 January 2020
- Magnus Carlsen ranks Garry Kasparov, chess24 YouTube channel, 6 May 2021
- "Hikaru's Hot Takes on the Ten Best Chess Players of All Time - YouTube". YouTube.
- "The 10 Best Chess Players of All Time".
- Media related to Chess players at Wikimedia Commons