Cookware and bakeware
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. Some utensils are considered both cookware and bakeware.
The choice of material for cookware and bakeware items has a significant effect on the item's performance (and cost), particularly in terms of thermal conductivity and how much food sticks to the item when in use. Some choices of material also require special pre-preparation of the surface—known as seasoning—before they are used for food preparation.
Both the cooking pot and lid handles can be made of the same material, but will mean that when picking up or touching either of these parts oven gloves will need to be worn. In order to avoid this, handles can be made of non-heat-conducting materials, for example bakelite, plastic or wood. It is best to avoid hollow handles because they are difficult to clean or to dry.
A good cooking pot design has an 'overcook edge' which is what the lid lies on. The lid has a dripping edge that avoids condensation fluid from dripping off when handling the lid (taking it off and holding it 45°) or putting it down.
- 1 History
- 2 Cookware materials
- 3 Types of cookware and bakeware
- 4 List of cookware and bakeware
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 Further reading
The history of cooking vessels before the development of pottery is minimal due to the limited archaeological evidence. The earliest pottery vessels, dating from ±400 BP, were discovered in 19,600Xianrendong Cave, Jiangxi, China. The pottery may have been used as cookware, manufactured by hunter-gatherers. Harvard University archaeologist Ofer Bar-Yosef reported that "When you look at the pots, you can see that they were in a fire." It is also possible to extrapolate likely developments based on methods used by latter peoples. Among the first of the techniques believed to be used by stone age civilizations were improvements to basic roasting. In addition to exposing food to direct heat from either an open fire or hot embers it is possible to cover the food with clay or large leaves before roasting to preserve moisture in the cooked result. Examples of similar techniques are still in use in many modern cuisines.
Of greater difficulty was finding a method to boil water. For people without access to natural heated water sources, such as hot springs, heated stones ("pot boilers") could be placed in a water-filled vessel to raise its temperature (for example, a leaf-lined pit or the stomach from animals killed by hunters). In many locations the shells of turtles or large mollusks provided a source for waterproof cooking vessels. Bamboo tubes sealed at the end with clay provided a usable container in Asia, while the inhabitants of the Tehuacan Valley began carving large stone bowls that were permanently set into a hearth as early as 7,000 BC.
According to Frank Hamilton Cushing, Native American cooking baskets used by the Zuni (Zuñi) developed from mesh casings woven to stabilize gourd water vessels. He reported witnessing cooking basket use by Havasupai in 1881. Roasting baskets covered with clay would be filled with wood coals and the product to be roasted. When the thus fired clay separated from the basket, it would become a usable clay roasting pan in itself. This indicates a steady progression from use of woven gourd casings to waterproof cooking baskets to pottery. Other than in many other cultures, Native Americans used and still use the heat source inside the cookware. Cooking baskets are filled with hot stones and roasting pans with wood coals. Native Americans would form a basket from large leaves to boil water, according to historian and novelist Louis L'Amour. As long as the flames did not reach above the level of water in the basket, the leaves would not burn through.
The development of pottery allowed for the creation of fireproof cooking vessels in a variety of shapes and sizes. Coating the earthenware with some type of plant gum, and later glazes, converted the porous container into a waterproof vessel. The earthenware cookware could then be suspended over a fire through use of a tripod or other apparatus, or even be placed directly into a low fire or coal bed as in the case of the pipkin. Ceramics conduct heat poorly, however, so ceramic pots must cook over relatively low heats and over long periods of time. However, most ceramic pots will crack if used on the stovetop, and are only intended for the oven.
The development of bronze and iron metalworking skills allowed for cookware made from metal to be manufactured, although adoption of the new cookware was slow due to the much higher cost. After the development of metal cookware there was little new development in cookware, with the standard Medieval kitchen utilizing a cauldron and a shallow earthenware pan for most cooking tasks, with a spit employed for roasting.
By the 17th century, it was common for a Western kitchen to contain a number of skillets, baking pans, a kettle and several pots, along with a variety of pot hooks and trivets. Brass or copper vessels were common in Asia and Europe, whilst iron pots were common in the American colonies. Improvements in metallurgy during the 19th and 20th centuries allowed for pots and pans from metals such as steel, stainless steel and aluminium to be economically produced.
Pottery has been used to make cookware from before dated history. Pots and pans made with this material are durable (some could last a lifetime or more)and are inert and non-reactive. Heat is also conducted evenly in this material. They can be used for both cooking on stove-tops and for baking in the oven.
Metal pots are made from a narrow range of metals because pots and pans need to conduct heat well, but also need to be chemically unreactive so that they do not alter the flavor of the food. Most materials that are conductive enough to heat evenly are too reactive to use in food preparation. In some cases (copper pots, for example), a pot may be made out of a more reactive metal, and then tinned or clad with another.
Aluminium is a lightweight metal with very good thermal conductivity. It is resistant to many forms of corrosion. Aluminium is commonly available in sheet, cast, or anodized forms, and may be physically combined with other metals (see below).
Sheet aluminium is spun or stamped into form. Due to the softness of the metal it may be alloyed with magnesium, copper, or bronze to increase its strength. Sheet aluminium is commonly used for baking sheets, pie plates, and cake or muffin pans. Deep or shallow pots may be formed from sheet aluminium.
Cast aluminium can produce a thicker product than sheet aluminium, and is appropriate for irregular shapes and thicknesses. Due to the microscopic pores caused by the casting process, cast aluminium has a lower thermal conductivity than sheet aluminium. It is also more expensive. Accordingly, cast aluminium cookware has become less common. It is used, for example, to make Dutch ovens lightweight and bundt pans heavy duty, and used in ladles and handles and woks to keep the sides at a lower temperature than the center.
Anodized aluminium has had the naturally occurring layer of aluminium oxide thickened by an electrolytic process to create a surface that is hard and non-reactive. It is used for sauté pans, stockpots, roasters, and Dutch ovens.
Uncoated and un-anodized aluminium can react with acidic foods to change the taste of the food. Sauces containing egg yolks, or vegetables such as asparagus or artichokes may cause oxidation of non-anodized aluminium.
Aluminium exposure has been suggested as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Association states that "studies have failed to confirm any role for aluminum in causing Alzheimer's." The link remains controversial.
Copper provides the highest thermal conductivity among non-noble metals and is therefore fast heating with unparalleled heat distribution (see: Copper in heat exchangers). Pots and pans are formed from copper sheets of various thicknesses, with those in excess of 2.5 mm considered commercial (or extra-fort) grade. Between 1mm and 2.5 mm wall thickness is considered utility (fort) grade, with thicknesses below 1.5 mm often requiring tube beading or edge rolling to reinforce structural rigidity in circular configurations. Less than 1mm wall thickness is generally considered decorative, with exception made for the case of .75 - 1mm planished copper, which is work-hardened by hammering and therefore expresses performance and strength characteristic of thicker material.
Copper thickness of less than .25mm is, in the case of cookware, referred to as foil and must be formed to a more structurally rigid metal to produce a serviceable vessel. Such applications of copper are purely aesthetic and do not materially contribute to cookware performance.
Copper is reactive with acidic foods which can result in corrosion, the byproducts of which can foment copper toxicity. In certain circumstances, however, unlined copper is recommended and safe, for instance in the preparation of meringue, where copper ions prompt proteins to denature (unfold) and enable stronger protein bonds across the sulfur contained in egg whites. Unlined copper is also used in the making of preserves, jams and jellies. Copper does not store ("bank") heat, and so thermal flows reverse almost immediately upon removal from heat. This allows precise control of consistency and texture while cooking sugar and pectin-thickened preparations. Alone, fruit acid would be sufficient to cause leaching of copper byproducts, but naturally occurring fruit sugars and added preserving sugars buffer copper reactivity. Unlined pans have thereby been used safely in such applications for centuries.
The use of tin dates back many centuries and is the original lining for copper cookware. Although the patent for canning in sheet tin was secured in 1810 in England, legendary French chef Auguste Escoffier experimented with a solution for provisioning the French army while in the field by adapting the tin lining techniques used for his cookware to more robust steel containers (then only lately introduced for canning) which protected the cans from corrosion and soldiers from lead solder and botulism poisoning.
Tin linings sufficiently robust for cooking are wiped onto copper by hand, producing a .25–45-mm-thick lining. Decorative copper cookware, i.e., a pot or pan less than 1mm thick and therefore unsuited to cooking, will often be electroplate lined with tin. Should a wiped tin lining be damaged or wear out the cookware can be re-tinned, usually for much less cost than the purchase price of the pan. Tin presents a smooth crystalline structure and is therefore relatively non-stick in cooking applications. As a relatively soft metal abrasive cleansers or cleaning techniques can accelerate wear of tin linings. Wood, silicone or plastic implements are to preferred over harder stainless steel types.
For a period following the second world war, pure nickel was electroplated as a lining to copper cookware. Nickel had the advantage of being harder and more thermally efficient than tin, with a higher melting point. Despite its hardness nickel's wear characteristics were similar to that of tin, as nickel would be plated only to a thickness of <20 microns, and often even less owing to nickel's tendency to plate somewhat irregularly, requiring milling to produce an even cooking surface, albeit sticky compared to tin and silver. Copper cookware with aged or damaged nickel linings is eligible for retinning, or possibly replating with nickel, although this service is difficult if not impossible to find in the US and Europe in the early 21st century. Nickel linings began to fall out of favor in the 1980s owing to the isolation of nickel as an allergen.
Silver is also applied to copper by means of electroplating, and provides an interior finish that is at once smooth, more durable than either tin or nickel, relatively non-stick and extremely thermally efficient. Copper and silver bond extremely well owing to their shared high electro-conductivity. Lining thickness varies widely by maker, but averages between 7–10 microns. The disadvantages of silver are expense and the tendency of sulfurous foods, especially brassicas, to discolor. Worn silver linings on copper cookware can be restored by stripping and re-electroplating.
Copper cookware lined with a thin layer of stainless steel is available from most modern European manufacturers. Stainless steel is 25 times less thermally conductive than the copper lining, and is sometimes critiqued for compromising the efficacy of copper as the base metal. Among the advantages of stainless steel are its durability and corrosion resistance, and although relatively sticky and subject to food residue adhesions, stainless steel is tolerant of most abrasive cleaning techniques and metal implements. Stainless steel forms a pan's structural element when bonded to copper and is irreparable in the event of wear or damage.
Using modern metal bonding techniques, such as cladding, copper is frequently incorporated into cookware constructed of primarily dissimilar metal, such as stainless steel, often as an enclosed diffusion layer (see Coated and Composite Cookware below).
Cast iron cookware is slow to heat, but once at temperature provides even heating. Cast iron can also withstand very high temperatures, making cast iron pans ideal for searing. Being a reactive material, cast iron can have chemical reactions with high acid foods such as wine or tomatoes. In addition, some foods (such as spinach) cooked on bare cast iron will turn black.
Cast iron is a porous material that rusts easily. As a result, it typically requires seasoning before use. Seasoning creates a thin layer of oxidized fat over the iron that coats and protects the surface, and prevents sticking.
Enameled cast iron cookware was developed in the 1920s. In 1934, the French company Cousances designed the enameled cast iron Doufeu to reduce excessive evaporation and scorching in cast iron Dutch ovens. Modeled on old braising pans in which glowing charcoal was heaped on the lids (to mimic two-fire ovens), the Doufeu has a deep recess in its lid which instead is filled with ice cubes. This keeps the lid at a lower temperature than the pot bottom. Further, little notches on the inside of the lid allow the moisture to collect and drop back into the food during the cooking. Although the Doufeu (literally, "gentlefire") can be used in an oven (without the ice, as a casserole pan), it is chiefly designed for stove top use.
Stainless steel is an iron alloy containing a minimum of 11.5% chromium. Blends containing 18% chromium with either 8% nickel, called 18/8, or with 10% nickel, called 18/10, are commonly used for kitchen cookware. Stainless steel's virtues are resistance to corrosion, non-reactivity with either alkaline or acidic foods, and resistance to scratching and denting. Stainless steel's drawbacks for cooking use is that it is a relatively poor heat conductor and its non-magnetic property, although recent developments have allowed the production of magnetic 18/10 alloys, and which thereby provides compatibility with induction cooktops, which require magnetic cookware. Since the material does not adequately spread the heat itself, stainless steel cookware is generally made as a cladding of stainless steel on both sides of an aluminum or copper core to conduct the heat across all sides, thereby reducing "hot spots", or with a disk of copper or aluminum on just the base to conduct the heat across the base, with possible "hot spots" at the sides. In so-called "tri-ply" cookware, the central aluminum layer is obviously non-magnetic, and the interior 18/10 layer need not be magnetic, but the exterior 18/10 layer must be magnetic to be compatible with induction cooktops.
Carbon steel cookware can be rolled or hammered into relatively thin sheets of dense material, which provides robust strength and improved heat distribution. Carbon steel accommodates high, dry heat for such operations as dry searing. Carbon steel does not conduct heat efficiently, but this may be an advantage for larger vessels, such as woks and paella pans, where one portion of the pan is intentionally kept at a different temperature than the rest. Like cast iron, carbon steel must be seasoned before use, usually by rubbing a fat or oil on the cooking surface and heating the cookware on the stovetop or in the oven. With proper use and care, seasoning oils polymerize on carbon steel to form a low-tack surface, well-suited to browning, Maillard reactions and easy release of fried foods. Carbon steel will easily rust if not seasoned and should be stored seasoned to avoid rusting. Carbon steel is traditionally used for crêpe and fry pans, as well as woks.
Non-stick pans were first created in 1893
Steel or aluminum cooking pans can be coated with a substance such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in order to minimize food sticking to the pan surface.
There are advantages and disadvantages to such a coating. Coated pans are easier to clean than most non-coated pans, and require little or no additional oil or fat to prevent sticking.
On the other hand, some sticking is needed to cause sucs to form, so a non-stick pan cannot be used where a pan sauce is desired. And non-stick pans must not be overheated (see below). Nonstick coatings tend to degrade over time. In order to preserve the coating, it is important never to use metal implements or harsh scouring pads or chemical abrasives when cleaning.
There is some risk in the use of PTFE-based coatings. Although decomposition of the coating does not occur at normal cooking temperatures (below 260 °C (500 °F)], at 350 °C (662 °F) the material decomposes and emits toxic fumes.
The main difference in coating quality is due to the formulas of the liquid coating, the thickness of each layer and the number of layers used. Higher-quality non-stick cookware use powdered ceramic or titanium mixed with the non-stick material to strengthen them and to make them more resistant to abrasion and deterioration. Some non-stick coatings contain hardening agents. Some coatings are high enough in quality that they pass the strict standards of the National Sanitation Foundation for approval for restaurant use.
Coated and composite cookware
Enameled cast iron
Enameled cast iron cooking vessels are made of cast iron covered with a porcelain surface. This creates a piece that has the heat distribution and retention properties of cast iron combined with a non-reactive, low-stick surface.
Enamel over steel
The enamel over steel technique creates a piece that has the heat distribution of carbon steel and a non-reactive, low-stick surface. Such pots are much lighter than most other pots of similar size, are cheaper to make than stainless steel pots, and do not have the rust and reactivity issues of cast iron or carbon steel. Enamel over steel is ideal for large stockpots and for other large pans used mostly for water-based cooking. Because of its light weight and easy cleanup, enamel over steel is also popular for cookware used while camping.
Clad aluminium or copper
Cladding is a technique for fabricating pans with a layer of efficient heat conducting material, such as copper or aluminum, covered on the cooking surface by a non-reactive material such as stainless steel, and often covered on the exterior aspect of the pan ("dual-clad") as well. Some pans feature a copper or aluminum interface layer that extends over the entire pan rather than just a heat-distributing disk on the base. Generally, the thicker the interface layer, especially in the base of the pan, the more improved the heat distribution. Claims of thermal efficiency improvements are, however, controversial, owing in particular to the limiting and heat-banking effect of stainless steel on thermal flows.
Aluminum is typically clad on both the inside and the exterior pan surfaces, providing both a stainless cooking surface and a stainless surface to contact the cooktop. Copper of various thicknesses is often clad on its interior surface only, leaving the more attractive copper exposed on the outside of the pan (see Copper above).
Some cookware uses a dual-clad process, with a thin stainless layer on the cooking surface, a thick core of aluminum to provide structure and improved heat diffusion, and a foil layer of copper on the exterior to provide the "look" of a copper pot at a lower price.
Other non-metallic cookware
- Glazed ceramics, such as porcelain, provide a nonstick cooking surface. Historically some glazes used on ceramic articles contained levels of lead, which can possess health risks; although this is not a concern with the vast majority of modern ware. Some pottery can be placed on fire directly.
- Borosilicate glass is safe at oven temperatures. The clear glass also allows for the food to be seen during the cooking process. However, it cannot be used on a stovetop, as it cannot cope with stovetop temperatures.
- Glass ceramic is used to make products such as Corningware and Pyroflam, which have many of the best properties of both glass and ceramic cookware. While Pyrex can shatter if taken between extremes of temperature too rapidly, glass-ceramics can be taken directly from deep freeze to the stove top. Their very low coefficient of thermal expansion makes them less prone to thermal shock.
- a natural stone can be used to diffuse heat for indirect grilling or baking, as in a baking stone or pizza stone, or the French pierrade.
- Silicone bakeware is light, flexible and able to withstand sustained temperatures of 360 °C (675 °F). It melts around 500 °C (930 °F), depending upon the fillers used. Its flexibility is advantageous in removing baked goods from the pan. This rubbery material should not to be confused with the silicone resin used to make hard, shatterproof children's dishware, which is not suitable for baking.
Types of cookware and bakeware
The size and shape of a cooking vessel is typically determined by how it will be used. Cooking vessels are typically referred to as "pots" and "pans," but there is great variation in their actual shapes. Most cooking vessels are roughly cylindrical.
- Braising pans and roasting pans (also known as braisers and roasters) are large, wide and shallow, to provide space to cook a roast (chicken, beef or pork). They typically have two loop or tab handles, and may have a cover. Roasters are usually made of heavy gauge metal so that they may be used safely on a cooktop following roasting in an oven. Unlike most other cooking vessels, roasters are usually rectangular or oval. There is no sharp boundary between braisers and roasters – the same pan, with or without a cover, can be used for both functions. In Europe, a clay roaster is still popular because it allows roasting without adding grease or liquids. This helps preserve flavor and nutrients. Having to soak the pot in water for 15 minutes before use is a notable drawback.
- Casserole pans (for making casseroles) resemble roasters and Dutch ovens, and many recipes can be used interchangeably between them. Depending on their material, casseroles can be used in the oven or on the stovetop. Casseroles are commonly made of glazed ceramics or Pyrex.
- Dutch ovens are heavy, relatively deep pots with a heavy lid, designed to re-create oven conditions on the stovetop or campfire. They can be used for stews, braised meats, soups and a large variety of other dishes that benefit from low heat, slow cooking. Dutch ovens are typically made from cast iron or Natural Clay and are sized by volume.
- A Wonder Pot is an Israeli invention that acts as a Dutch oven but is made of aluminium. It consists of three parts: an aluminium pot shaped like a Bundt pan, a hooded cover perforated with venting holes, and a thick, round, metal disc with a centre hole that is placed between the Wonder Pot and the flame to disperse heat.
- Frying pans, frypans or skillets provide a large flat heating surface and shallow sides, and are best for pan frying. Frypans with a gentle, rolling slope are sometimes called omelette pans. Grill pans are frypans that are ribbed, to let fat drain away from the food being cooked. Frypans and grill pans are generally sized by diameter (20–30 cm).
- Spiders are skillets with three thin legs to keep them above an open fire. Ordinary flat-bottomed skillets are also sometimes called spiders, though the term has fallen out of general use.
- Griddles are flat plates of metal used for frying, grilling and making pan breads such as pancakes, injera, tortillas, chapatis and crepes. Traditional iron griddles are circular, with a semicircular hoop fixed to opposite edges of the plate and rising above it to form a central handle. Rectangular griddles that cover two stove burners are now also common, as are griddles that have a ribbed area that can be used like a grill pan. Some have multiple square metal grooves enabling the contents to have a defined pattern, similar to a waffle maker. Like frypans, round griddles are generally measured by diameter (20–30 cm).
- Both griddles and frypans can be found in electric versions. These may be permanently attached to a heat source, similar to a hot plate.
- Saucepans (or just "pots") are vessels with vertical sides about the same height as their diameter, used for simmering or boiling. Saucepans generally have one long handle. Larger pots of the same shape generally have two handles close to the sides of the pot (so they can be lifted with both hands), and are called sauce-pots or soup pots (3–12 litres). Saucepans and saucepots are measured by volume (usually 1–8 l). While saucepots often resemble Dutch ovens in shape, they do not have the same heat capacity characteristics. Very small saucepans used for heating milk are referred to as milk pans, such saucepans usually have a lip for pouring the heated milk.
- Ironically, the saucepan is not the ideal vessel to use for making sauces. It is more efficient to use saucepans with sloping sides, called Windsor pans, or saucepans with rounded sides, called sauciers. These provide quicker evaporation than straight sided pans, and make it easier to stir a sauce while reducing.
- Sauté pans, used for sautéing, have a large surface area and low sides to permit steam to escape and allow the cook to toss the food. The word "sauté" comes from the French verb "sauter", meaning to jump. Saute pans often have straight vertical sides, but may also have flared or rounded sides.
- Stockpots are large pots with sides at least as tall as their diameter. This allows stock to simmer for extended periods of time without reducing too much. Stockpots are typically measured in volume (6-36 l). Stock pots come in a large variety of sizes to meet any need from cooking for a family to preparing food for a banquet. A specific type of stockpot exists for lobsters, and an all-metal stockpot usually called a caldero is used in Hispanic cultures to cook rice.
- Woks are wide, roughly bowl-shaped vessels with one or two handles at or near the rim. This shape allows a small pool of cooking oil in the centre of the wok to be heated to a high temperature using relatively little fuel, while the outer areas of the wok are used to keep food warm after it has been fried in the oil. In the Western world, woks are typically used only for stir-frying, but they can actually be used for anything from steaming to deep frying.
- Cake tins (or cake pans in the US) include square pans, round pans, and speciality pans such as angel food cake pans and springform pans often used for baking cheesecake. Another type of cake pan is a muffin tin, which can hold multiple smaller cakes.
- Sheet pans, cookie sheets, and Swiss roll tins are bakeware with large flat bottoms.
- Pie pans are flat-bottomed flare-sided tins specifically designed for baking pies.
List of cookware and bakeware
- Cookie sheet
- Double boiler
- Dutch oven
- Food processor
- Griddle (also called Tava or Tawa)
- Pressure cooker
- Roasting rack
- Saucier (described in current article)
- Soufflé dish
- Food storage
- Gastronorm sizes (standard sizes of container)
- Kitchenware Brands
- List of food preparation utensils
- Vacuum filler
- Wu, X.; Zhang, C.; Goldberg, P.; Cohen, D.; Pan, Y.; Arpin, T.; Bar-Yosef, O. (2012). "Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China". Science. 336 (6089): 1696–1700. doi:10.1126/science.1218643. PMID 22745428.
- Zielinski (6 February 2013). "Stone Age Stew? Soup Making May Be Older Than We'd Thought". NPR. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Tannahill pg 13
- Tannahill p. 14–16
- Online Reader - Project Gutenberg
- Tannahill pg 16, 96
- Beard pg 174-175
- Williams1986, pp. 8–9 Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Williams_8" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease". Facts about dementia. Alzheimer's Society. Retrieved October 14, 2005.
- Bondy, SC (January 2016). "Low levels of aluminum can lead to behavioral and morphological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease and age-related neurodegeneration.". Neurotoxicology. 52: 222–9. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2015.12.002. PMID 26687397.
- Kandimalla, R; Vallamkondu, J; Corgiat, EB; Gill, KD (March 2016). "Understanding Aspects of Aluminum Exposure in Alzheimer's Disease Development.". Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland). 26 (2): 139–54. doi:10.1111/bpa.12333. PMID 26494454.
- "Myth 4: Drinking out of aluminum cans or cooking in aluminum pots and pans can lead to Alzheimer's disease". Alzheimer Myths. Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- Yegambaram, M; Manivannan, B; Beach, TG; Halden, RU (2015). "Role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease: a review.". Current Alzheimer research. 12 (2): 116–46. doi:10.2174/1567205012666150204121719. PMC . PMID 25654508.
- Hoare, W.E. (1959). Hot Tinning (2nd ed.). Greenford, England: Tin Research Institute. p. 82.
- Houlihan, Thayer & Klien 2003 "...a generic non-stick frying pan preheated on a conventional, electric stovetop burner reached 736 °F in three minutes and 20 seconds..."
- Williams1986, pp. 9–10
- Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia: [Four Volumes] - Ken Albala - Google Books
- Beard, James (1975). The Cooks' Catalogue. et al. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-011563-7.
- Houlihan, Jane; Thayer, Kris; Klien, Jennifer (May 2003). "Canaries in the Kitchen: Teflon Toxicosis". Environmental Working Group. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- Williams, Chuck (1986). The Williams-Sonoma Cookbook and Guide to Kitchenware. Random House. ISBN 0-394-54411-0.