||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (April 2015)|
|Coral snake (Micrurus sp.)|
Coral snakes are a large group of elapid snakes that can be subdivided into two distinct groups, Old World coral snakes and New World coral snakes. There are 16 species of Old World coral snake in three genera (Calliophis, Hemibungarus and Sinomicrurus), and over 65 recognized species of New World coral snakes in three genera (Leptomicrurus, Micruroides, and Micrurus). Genetic studies have found that the most basal lineages are Asian, indicating that the group originated in the Old World.
- 1 North American coloration patterns
- 2 Behavior
- 3 Distribution
- 4 Danger to humans
- 5 Old World
- 6 New World
- 7 Mimicry
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
North American coloration patterns
Coral snakes in North America are most notable for their red, yellow/white, and black colored banding. (However, several nonvenomous species have similar coloration, including the scarlet snake, genus Cemophora; some of the kingsnakes and milk snakes, genus Lampropeltis; and the shovelnose snakes, genus Chionactis.) In some regions, the order of the bands distinguishes between the non-venomous mimics and the venomous coral snakes, quite a few mnemonics all along the lines of "Red and yellow, kill a fellow. Red and black, venom lack." Instead of poetry, remembering that yellow touches both other colors can indicate a cause for caution. However, this reliably applies only to coral snakes native to North America: Micrurus fulvius (Eastern or common coral snake), Micrurus tener (Texas coral snake), and Micruroides euryxanthus (Arizona coral snake), found in the southern and western United States. Coral snakes found in other parts of the world can have distinctly different patterns, have red bands touching black bands, have only pink and blue banding, or have no banding at all.
Most species of coral snake are small in size. North American species average around 3 feet (91 cm) in length, but specimens of up to 5 feet (150 cm) or slightly larger have been reported. Aquatic species have flattened tails acting as a fin, aiding in swimming.
Coral snakes vary widely in their behavior, but most are very elusive, fossorial snakes which spend the vast majority of their time buried beneath the ground or in the leaf litter of a rainforest floor, coming to the surface only when it rains or during breeding season. Some species, like Micrurus surinamensis, are almost entirely aquatic and spend most of their lives in slow-moving bodies of water that have dense vegetation.
Like all elapid snakes, coral snakes possess a pair of small hollow fangs to deliver their venom. Unlike some other elapids, the fangs are positioned at the front of the mouth. The fangs are fixed in position rather than retractable, and rather than being directly connected to the venom duct, they have a small groove through which the venom enters the base of the fangs. Because the fangs are relatively small and inefficient for venom delivery, rather than biting quickly and letting go (like vipers), coral snakes tend to hold onto their prey and make chewing motions when biting. The venom takes time to take full effect.
Coral snakes are not aggressive or prone to biting and account for less than one percent of the number of snake bites each year in the United States.The life span of coral snakes in captivity is about 7 years.
New World coral snakes exist in the southern range of many temperate U.S. states. Coral snakes are found in scattered localities in the southern coastal plain from North Carolina to Louisiana, including all of Florida. They can be found in pine and scrub oak sandhill habitats in parts of this range but sometimes inhabit hardwood areas and pine flatwoods that undergo seasonal flooding.
There is controversy about the classification of the very similar Texas coral snake as a separate species. Its habitat, in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and sometimes in Oklahoma due to floods in the Red River, is separated from the eastern habitat by the Mississippi River. The coral snake population is most dense in the southeast United States, but coral snakes have been spotted as far north as Kentucky.
The Arizona coral snake, clearly a separate species and genus, is found in central and southern Arizona, extreme southwestern New Mexico and southward to Sinaloa in western Mexico. It occupies arid and semiarid regions in many different habitat types including thornscrub, desert-scrub, woodland, grassland and farmland. It is found in the plains and lower mountain slopes from sea level to 5800 feet (1768 m); often found in rocky areas.
Danger to humans
New World coral snakes possess one of the most potent venoms of any North American snake. However, relatively few bites are recorded due to their reclusive nature and the fact they generally inhabit sparsely populated areas. According to the American National Institutes of Health, there are an average of 15–25 coral snake bites in the United States each year.
When confronted by humans, coral snakes will almost always attempt to flee, and bite only as a last resort. In addition, coral snakes have short fangs (proteroglyph dentition) that cannot penetrate thick leather clothing. Any skin penetration however, is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Coral snakes have a powerful neurotoxin that paralyzes the breathing muscles; mechanical or artificial respiration, along with large doses of antivenom, are often required to save a victim's life. There is usually only mild pain associated with a bite, but respiratory failure can occur within hours.
The bite of a coral snake may soon[when?] be more dangerous, in part because bites are so uncommon. Production of coral snake antivenom in the United States ceased because it is not profitable. According to Pfizer, the owner of the company that used to make Coralmyn, it would take over $5–$10 million to put toward researching a new synthetic antivenom.[clarification needed] The cost was too large for the small number of cases presented each year. The American antivenom stock expired in 2008, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has extended the expiration date every year through at least 2013. Foreign pharmaceutical manufacturers have produced other coral snake antivenoms, but the costs of licensing them in the United States have stalled availability (see above). Instituto Bioclon is developing a coral snake antivenom. In 2013, Pfizer was reportedly working on a new batch of antivenom but had not announced when it would become available.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Calliophis|
Species in this genus are:
- Calliophis beddomei M.A. Smith, 1943 – Beddome's coral snake (India)
- Calliophis bibroni (Jan, 1858) – Bibron's coral snake (India)
- Calliophis bivirgatus (F. Boie, 1827) – blue Malaysian coral snake (Indonesia, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand)
- Calliophis castoe E.N. Smith, Ogale, Deepak & Giri, 2012 – Castoe’s coral snake (India)
- Calliophis gracilis Gray, 1835 – spotted coral snake (Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore)
- Calliophis haematoetron E.N. Smith, Manamendra-Arachchi & Somweera, 2008 – blood-bellied coral snake (Sri Lanka)
- Calliophis intestinalis (Laurenti, 1768) – banded Malaysian coral snake (Indonesia, Malaysia)
- Calliophis maculiceps (Günther, 1858) – speckled coral snake (Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos)
- Calliophis melanurus (Shaw, 1802) – Indian coral snake (India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka)
- Calliophis nigrescens (Günther, 1862) – black coral snake (India)
|Wikispecies has information related to: Hemibungarus|
Species in this genus are:
Species in this genus are:
- Sinomicrurus hatori (Takahashi, 1930) (Taiwan)
- Sinomicrurus japonicus (Günther, 1868) – Japanese coral snake (Ryukyu Islands)
- Sinomicrurus kelloggi (Pope, 1928) – Kellogg's coral snake (Vietnam, Laos, China)
- Sinomicrurus macclellandi (J.T. Reinhardt, 1844) – Macclelland's coral snake (India, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan)
- Sinomicrurus sauteri (Steindachner, 1913) (Taiwan)
- Leptomicrurus collaris (Schlegel, 1837) – Guyana blackback coral snake (northern South America)
- Leptomicrurus narduccii (Jan, 1863) - Andean blackback coral snake
|Wikispecies has information related to: Micruroides|
- Micruroides euryxanthus (Kennicott, 1860) – Arizona coral snake (lowland regions from Arizona to Sinaloa, Mexico)
|Wikispecies has information related to: Micrurus|
- Micrurus alleni K.P. Schmidt, 1936 – Allen's coral snake (eastern Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama)
- Micrurus altirostris (Cope, 1860) (Brazil, Uruguay, and northeastern Argentina)
- Micrurus ancoralis (Jan, 1872) - regal coral snake (southeastern Panama, western Colombia, and western Ecuador)
- Micrurus annellatus (W. Peters, 1871) – annellated coral snake (southeastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, Bolivia, and western Brazil)
- Micrurus averyi K.P. Schmidt, 1939 - black-headed coral snake
- Micrurus bernadi (Cope, 1887) (Mexico)
- Micrurus bocourti (Jan, 1872) – Ecuadorian coral snake (western Ecuador to northern Colombia)
- Micrurus bogerti Roze, 1967 – Bogert's coral snake (Oaxaca)
- Micrurus browni K.P. Schmidt & H.M. Smith, 1943 – Brown's coral snake (Quintana Roo to Honduras)
- Micrurus camilae Renjifo & Lundberg, 2003 (Colombia)
- Micrurus catamayensis Roze, 1989 – Catamayo coral snake (Catamayo Valley of Ecuador)
- Micrurus clarki K.P. Schmidt, 1936 – Clark's coral snake (southeastern Costa Rica to western Colombia)
- Micrurus corallinus (Merrem, 1820) - painted coral snake
- Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858) - Brazilian coral snake
- Micrurus diana Roze, 1983
- Micrurus diastema (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854) - variable coral snake
- Micrurus diastema aglaeope (Cope, 1859)
- Micrurus diastema alienus (F. Werner, 1903)
- Micrurus diastema affinis (Jan, 1858)
- Micrurus diastema apiatus (Jan, 1858)
- Micrurus diastema diastema (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854)
- Micrurus diastema macdougalli Roze, 1967
- Micrurus diastema sapperi (F. Werner, 1903)
- Micrurus dissoleucus (Cope, 1860) - pygmy coral snake
- Micrurus distans (Kennicott, 1860) - West Mexican coral snake
- Micrurus dumerilii (Jan, 1858)
- Micrurus elegans (Jan, 1858) - elegant coral snake
- Micrurus ephippifer (Cope, 1886) - Oaxacan coral snake
- Micrurus filiformis (Günther, 1859) - slender coral snake
- Micrurus frontalis (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854) – southern coral snake (Brazil to northeastern Argentina)
- Micrurus frontifasciatus (F. Werner, 1927) - Bolivian coral snake
- Micrurus fulvius (Linnaeus, 1766) – eastern coral snake (U.S. coastal plains of North Carolina to Louisiana)
- Micrurus hemprichii (Jan, 1858) - Hemprich's coral snake
- Micrurus hippocrepis (W. Peters, 1862) - Mayan coral snake
- Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem, 1820) - Caatinga coral snake
- Micrurus isozonus (Cope, 1860) - Venezuela coral snake
- Micrurus langsdorffi (Wagler, 1824) - Langsdorff's coral snake
- Micrurus laticollaris (W. Peters, 1870) - Balsan coral snake
- Micrurus latifasciatus K.P. Schmidt, 1933 - broad-ringed coral snake
- Micrurus lemniscatus (Linnaeus, 1758) - South American coral snake (most of low lying areas of South America)
- Micrurus limbatus Fraser, 1964 - Tuxtlan coral snake
- Micrurus margaritiferus Roze, 1967 - speckled coral snake
- Micrurus medemi Roze, 1967
- Micrurus mertensi K.P. Schmidt, 1936 - Merten's coral snake
- Micrurus mipartitus (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854) - redtail coral snake
- Micrurus multifasciatus (Jan, 1858) - many-banded coral snake
- Micrurus multiscutatus Rendahl & Vestergren, 1940 - Cauca coral snake
- Micrurus nebularis Roze, 1989 - cloud forest coral snake
- Micrurus nigrocinctus (Girard, 1854) – Central American coral snake (Yucatan and Chiapas to Colombia as well as western Caribbean islands)
- Micrurus nigrocinctus babaspul Roze, 1967
- Micrurus nigrocinctus coibensis K.P. Schmidt, 1936
- Micrurus nigrocinctus divaricatus (Hallowell, 1855)
- Micrurus nigrocinctus mosquitensis K.P. Schmidt, 1933
- Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus (Girard, 1854)
- Micrurus nigrocinctus ovandoensis K.P. Schmidt & H.M. Smith, 1943
- Micrurus nigrocinctus wagneri Mertens, 1941
- Micrurus nigrocinctus yatesi Dunn, 1942
- Micrurus nigrocinctus zunilensis K.P. Schmidt, 1932
- Micrurus pacaraimae Morato de Carvalho, 2002
- Micrurus pachecogili Campbell, 2000
- Micrurus paraensis da Cunha & Nascimento, 1973
- Micrurus peruvianus K.P. Schmidt, 1936 - Peruvian coral snake
- Micrurus petersi Roze, 1967 - Peters' coral snake
- Micrurus proximans H.M. Smith & Chrapliwy, 1958 - Nayarit coral snake
- Micrurus psyches (Daudin, 1803) - Carib coral snake
- Micrurus putumayensis Lancini, 1962 - Putumayo coral snake
- Micrurus pyrrhocryptus (Cope, 1862)
- Micrurus remotus Roze, 1987
- Micrurus renjifoi Lamar, 2003
- Micrurus ruatanus (Günther, 1895) - Roatán coral snake
- Micrurus sangilensis Nicéforo-María, 1942 - Santander coral snake
- Micrurus scutiventris (Cope, 1869)
- Micrurus silviae Di-Bernardo et al., 2007
- Micrurus spixii (Wagler, 1824) - Amazon coral snake
- Micrurus spurelli (Boulenger, 1914)
- Micrurus steindachneri (F. Werner, 1901) - Steindachner's coral snake
- Panamanian coral snake, Micrurus stewarti Barbour & Amaral, 1928
- Micrurus stuarti Roze, 1967 - Stuart's coral snake
- Aquatic coral snake, Micrurus surinamensis (Cuvier, 1817)
- Micrurus tamaulipensis Lavin-Murcio & Dixon, 2004 (Sierra Madre Oriental in Tamaulipas)
- Micrurus tener (Baird & Girard, 1853) – Texas coral snake (Texas and Louisiana south to Morelos and Guanajuato)
- Micrurus tricolor Hoge, 1956
- Micrurus tschudii (Jan, 1858) - desert coral snake
New World coral snakes serve as models for their Batesian mimics, false coral snakes, snake species whose venom is less toxic, as well as for many nonvenomous snake species that bear superficial resemblances to them. The role of coral snakes as models for Batesian mimics is supported by research showing that coral snake color patterns deter predators from attacking snake-shaped prey, and that in the absence of coral snakes, species hypothesized to mimic them are indeed attacked more frequently. Species that appear similar to coral snakes include:
- Cemophora coccinea
- Chionactis palarostris
- Erythrolamprus aesculapii
- Erythrolamprus bizona
- Erythrolamprus ocellatus, Tobago false coral
- Lampropeltis pyromelana
- Lampropeltis triangulum, milk snake, including the following subspecies and others:
- Lampropeltis triangulum amaura
- Lampropeltis triangulum annulata
- Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli
- Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides
- Lampropeltis triangulum gaigeae
- Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis
- Lampropeltis triangulum hondurensis
- Lampropeltis triangulum multistrata
- Lampropeltis triangulum syspila
- Lampropeltis zonata
- Oxyrhopus petola
- Pliocercus elapoides, variegated false coral snake
- Rhinocheilus lecontei tessellatus
- Slowinski, J. B. and Keogh J. S. (April 2000). "Phylogenetic Relationships of Elapid Snakes Based on Cytochrome b mtDNA Sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15 (1): 157–164. doi:10.1006/mpev.1999.0725. PMID 10764543.
- Slowinski, J. B., Boundy, J. and Lawson, R. (June 2001). "The Phylogenetic Relationships of Asian Coral Snakes (Elapidae: Calliophis and Maticora) Based on Morphological and Molecular Characters". Herpetologica 57 (2): 233–245. JSTOR 3893186.
- Eastern Coral Snake (Micrurus fulvius), Savannah River Ecology Library.
- Coral Snakes: Rear fanged? Grooved fangs? Primitive?
- Eastern Coral Snake
- "Coral Snakes: Micrurus f. fulvius". Retrieved 24 November 2009.
- Coral Snakes: Colors, Bites, Farts & Facts, Live Science.
- "Eastern Coral Snake". Animals national Geographic.
- University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology, Snakes of Georgia and South Carolina
- Western Connecticut State University
- Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
- "Snake bites: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Nlm.nih.gov. 2010-01-13. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
- Breen, David (12 October 2013). "Risk from coral-snake bites grows as antivenin dwindles". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
- "Antivenom Shortages – Cost of Antivenom Production Creates Shortages". Popular Mechanics. 2010-05-10. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
- "Our Products – Coralmyn". Bioclon.com.mx. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
- Brodie III, Edmund D. (1993). "Differential avoidance of coral snake banded patterns by free-ranging avian predators in Costa Rica". Evolution 47 (1): 227–235. doi:10.2307/2410131.
- Brodie III, Edmund D., Moore, Allen J. (1995). "Experimental studies of coral snake mimicry: do snakes mimic millipedes?". Animal Behavior 49 (2): 534–6. doi:10.1006/anbe.1995.0072.
- Pfennig, David W., Harcombe, William R., Pfennig, Karin S. (2001). "Frequncy-dependent Batesian mimicry". Nature 410 (6826): 323. doi:10.1038/35066628. PMID 11268195.
- Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III., Containing the Colubridæ (Opisthoglyphæ and Proteroglyphæ)... Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, Printers.) London. xiv + 727 pp. + Plates I.- XXV. (Elaps, 28 species, pp. 411–433 + Plate XX.)
- Roze, J.A. 1996. Coral Snakes of the Americas: Biology, Identification, and Venoms. Krieger. Malabar, Florida. 340 pp. ISBN 978-0894648472.
- Tanaka G. D., Furtado Md. F. D., Portaro F. C. V., Sant'Anna O. A. & Tambourgi D. V. (2010). "Diversity of Micrurus Snake Species Related to Their Venom Toxic Effects and the Prospective of Antivenom Neutralization". PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4(3): e622. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000622