Dead Cities

Coordinates: 36°20′3″N 36°50′39″E / 36.33417°N 36.84417°E / 36.33417; 36.84417
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Ancient Villages of Northern Syria
UNESCO World Heritage Site
View of Serjilla
LocationLimestone Massif, Syria
CriteriaCultural: (iii)(iv)(v)
Inscription2011 (35th Session)
Area12,290 ha (30,400 acres)
Coordinates36°20′3″N 36°50′39″E / 36.33417°N 36.84417°E / 36.33417; 36.84417
Dead Cities is located in Syria
Dead Cities
Location of Dead Cities in Syria
Dead Cities is located in West and Central Asia
Dead Cities
Dead Cities (West and Central Asia)

The Dead Cities (Arabic: المدن الميتة) or Forgotten Cities (Arabic: المدن المنسية) are a group of 700 abandoned settlements in northwest Syria between Aleppo and Idlib. Around 40 villages grouped in eight archaeological parks situated in north-western Syria provide an insight into rural life in Late Antiquity and during the Byzantine period. Most of the villages, which date from the 1st to 7th centuries, were abandoned between the 8th and 10th centuries. The settlements feature the well-preserved architectural remains of dwellings, pagan temples, churches, cisterns, bathhouses etc. Important dead cities include the Church of Saint Simeon Stylites, Serjilla and al Bara.

The Dead Cities are situated in an elevated area of limestone known as Limestone Massif. These ancient settlements cover an area 20–40 km (12–25 mi) wide and some 140 km (87 mi) long.[1] The Massif includes three groups of highlands: the first is the northern group of Mount Simeon and Mount Kurd; the second middle group is the group of Harim Mountains; the third southern group is the group of Zawiya Mountain.


The location of Dead Cities in the northwestern parts of Syria

Chris Wickham, in the authoritative survey of the post-Roman world, "Framing the Early Middle Ages" (2006) argues that these were settlements of prosperous peasants which have few or no specifically urban features. The impressive remains of domestic architecture are the result of the prosperity of peasants who benefited from a strong international trade in olive oil at the end of Antiquity.

Another argument is that these were prosperous cities that flourished because they were located along major trade routes in the Byzantine Empire, and not merely prosperous peasant settlements. After conquest by the Arabs, the trade routes changed, and as a result these towns lost the majority of the business which fostered their economies. On this view, settlers eventually abandoned their towns and headed for other cities that were flourishing under the Arabs and the Umayyads as increasing urbanisation took its toll.

The ancient villages of the Dead Cities illustrate the transition from the ancient pagan world of the Roman Empire to Byzantine Christianity.

The Dead Cites were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011, under the name of "Ancient Villages of Northern Syria".[2]

Before the Syrian Civil War most sites had become easily accessible, the majority of the dead cities were well-preserved and tourists could access the sites quite freely, though some of the Dead Cities are quite difficult to reach without a guide (there is a guidebook by Abdallah Hadjar with a detailed map that is useful for finding the lesser known sites; The Church of St Simeon Stylites and Other Archaeological Sites in the Mountains of Simeon and Halaqa.

Archeological sites[edit]

Dead cities and archeological sites in Limestone Massif include Church of Saint Simeon Stylites, Serjilla, Bara, Basufan, Barisha, Qalb Loze, Barad, Cyrrhus, Turmanin, Banabil, Kafr Aruq, Kafr Dariyan, Babuline, Hazarin, Jarada, Maghara, Shinan, Farkya, Ein Laruz, Ebla, Deir Sunbul, Al-Dana, Sarmada and Al-Dana.[3][4]

Mount Simeon, Mount Kurd and Mount Ḥalqa[edit]

Image Coordinates Governorate Notes
(Arabic: براد)
36°23′8″N 36°53′57″E / 36.38556°N 36.89917°E / 36.38556; 36.89917 (Barad, Syria) Aleppo An ancient settlement, located 32 km (20 mi) west of Aleppo, has many old basilicas; for example, the Saint Julianus Maronite monastery (399-402 AD) where the shrine of Saint Maron is located, and a basilica at the northern part of the village built in 561.
Barjaka or Burj Suleiman village
(Arabic: برجكة)
36°19′25.80″N 36°53′35.71″E / 36.3238333°N 36.8932528°E / 36.3238333; 36.8932528 (Barjaka) Aleppo Located 26 km (16 mi) northwest of Aleppo. The site has remnants of an old hermit tower and a well-preserved chapel from the 6th century.
(Arabic: باصوفان)
36°20′26.69″N 36°52′33.11″E / 36.3407472°N 36.8758639°E / 36.3407472; 36.8758639 (Basufan) Aleppo
(Arabic: بطوطة)
36°18′21″N 36°53′14″E / 36.30583°N 36.88722°E / 36.30583; 36.88722 (Batuta) Aleppo Village founded in the 4th century CE. By the 6th century, it had two churches and more than twelve other stone buildings.
(Arabic: بازيهر)
36°19′7″N 36°52′29″E / 36.31861°N 36.87472°E / 36.31861; 36.87472 (Baziher) Aleppo
Benastur Monastery
(Arabic: بنستور)
36°18′12.00″N 36°55′23.00″E / 36.3033333°N 36.9230556°E / 36.3033333; 36.9230556 (Benastur) Aleppo
Churches of Sheikh Suleiman village
(Arabic: كنائس شيخ سليمان)
36°16′24.00″N 36°54′36.00″E / 36.2733333°N 36.9100000°E / 36.2733333; 36.9100000 (Sheikh Suleiman) Aleppo Located 28 km (17 mi) west of Aleppo, is notable for its three ancient churches: a ruined church located at the centre of the village, a well-preserved southern basilica which was built in 602, and the Church of the Virgin Mary which belongs to the late fifth century and is considered one of the most beautiful churches in northern Syria.[5] There is a hermit tower in the northern side of the village.
Church of Saint Simeon Stylites (Deir Semaan)
(Arabic: دير سمعان)
36°19′35.00″N 36°50′01.00″E / 36.3263889°N 36.8336111°E / 36.3263889; 36.8336111 (Deir Semaan) Aleppo One of the most celebrated ecclesiastical monuments in Syria and among the oldest standing Christian churches in the world. It is located about 35 km (22 mi) northwest of Aleppo.
(Arabic: سيروس – نبي هوري)
36°44′39″N 36°57′33″E / 36.74417°N 36.95917°E / 36.74417; 36.95917 (Cyrrhus) Aleppo An ancient city located 65 km (40 mi) north of Aleppo, is the site of Saints Cosmas and Damian Church (commonly known as Nabi Houri church), as well as a Roman amphitheatre and two old Roman bridges.
Deir Amman churches
(Arabic: دير عمان)
36°12′8″N 36°49′18″E / 36.20222°N 36.82167°E / 36.20222; 36.82167 (Deir Amman) Aleppo
Deir Mishmish Church
(Arabic: كنيسة دير مشمش)
36°27′47″N 36°55′1″E / 36.46306°N 36.91694°E / 36.46306; 36.91694 (Deir Mishmish) Aleppo
Deir Turmanin
(Arabic: دير ترمانين)
36°14′30″N 36°49′24″E / 36.24167°N 36.82333°E / 36.24167; 36.82333 (Deir Turmanin) Idlib The ruins of the Byzantine monastery of Deir Turmanin are built around a paved courtyard containing two cisterns, a sarcophagus and several tombs. They include a building that housed the monks' dormitories, and the large basilica built around 480 AD.
Fafertin Church
(Arabic: كنيسة فافرتين)
36°19′13.79″N 36°54′26.41″E / 36.3204972°N 36.9073361°E / 36.3204972; 36.9073361 (Fafertin) Aleppo A half-ruined Late Roman basilica dates to 372 AD; it is located 22 km (14 mi) northwest of Aleppo. According to the Aleppine historian Abdallah Hajjar, Fafertin Basilica is among the oldest dated churches in the world.[6]
Kafr Kira settlement in Burj Heidar village
(Arabic: كفر كيرا في برج حيدر)
West Church, Burj Haidar (برج حيدر), Syria - Nave colonnades, view from southwest 36°20′36.05″N 36°54′09.08″E / 36.3433472°N 36.9025222°E / 36.3433472; 36.9025222 (Kafr Kira) Aleppo Located 24 km (15 mi) northwest of Aleppo, has many half-ruined Christian structures dating back to the fourth and sixth centuries.
Kafr Lab
(Arabic: كفر لاب)
36°20′08.09″N 36°53′26.79″E / 36.3355806°N 36.8907750°E / 36.3355806; 36.8907750 (Kafr Lab) Aleppo
Kafr Lusein
(Arabic: كفر لوسين)
36°15′19.88″N 36°42′42.03″E / 36.2555222°N 36.7116750°E / 36.2555222; 36.7116750 (Kafr Lusein) Aleppo
Kafr Nabu
(Arabic: كفر نابو)
36°21′36.54″N 36°54′28.88″E / 36.3601500°N 36.9080222°E / 36.3601500; 36.9080222 (Kafr Nabu) Aleppo Located 29 km (18 mi) west of Aleppo, is an Assyrian settlement of the ninth century BC and the site of a Roman temple which was converted into a church. There are also well-preserved residential buildings from the fifth and sixth centuries.
Kalota Castle and churches
(Arabic: كالوطة)
East Church, Kalota, Syria - Nave looking east 36°21′18.22″N 36°56′33.51″E / 36.3550611°N 36.9426417°E / 36.3550611; 36.9426417 (Kalota) Aleppo Located 20 km northwest of Aleppo. The castle was originally built as a Roman temple during the 2nd century AD. After converting to Christianity, the temple was turned into a basilica within the 5th century.[7] As a result of the wars between the Hamadanids and the Byzantine Empire, the church was turned into a castle during the 10th century.[8] There are two well-preserved churches near the castle: the eastern church built in 492 and the western church of the 6th century.
Kharab Shams Basilica
(Arabic: خرب شمس)
36°20′22.0″N 36°56′34.0″E / 36.339444°N 36.942778°E / 36.339444; 36.942778 (Kharab Shams Basilica) Aleppo One of the oldest best-preserved Christian structures in the Levant dates to the fourth century CE.[9] The Byzantine church is located 21 km (13 mi) northwest of Aleppo.
Kimar, near Basuta village
(Arabic: كيمار)
East Church, Kimar, Syria - View of apse from west 36°25′25.3″N 36°53′45.4″E / 36.423694°N 36.895944°E / 36.423694; 36.895944 (Kimar) Aleppo Located 35 km (22 mi) northwest of Aleppo, is a fifth-century CE village of the Late Roman and Byzantine eras; it has many well-preserved churches, towers and old water cisterns.
Mushabbak Basilica
(Arabic: المشبك)
36°15′17.00″N 36°53′01.00″E / 36.2547222°N 36.8836111°E / 36.2547222; 36.8836111 (Mushabbak Basilica) Aleppo A well-preserved church from the second half of the fifth century (around 470), is located 25 km (16 mi) west of Aleppo, near the town of Daret A'zzeh.
(Arabic: قاطورة)
36°18′02.71″N 36°49′48.34″E / 36.3007528°N 36.8300944°E / 36.3007528; 36.8300944 (Qatura) Aleppo
(Arabic: رفادة)
36°18′57″N 36°49′19″E / 36.31583°N 36.82194°E / 36.31583; 36.82194 (Refade) Idlib
(Arabic: سرجبلا)
36°14′17″N 36°42′59″E / 36.23806°N 36.71639°E / 36.23806; 36.71639 (Sargible) Idlib
Set al-Roum
(Arabic: ست الروم)
36°18′37″N 36°50′3″E / 36.31028°N 36.83417°E / 36.31028; 36.83417 (Set al-Roum) Aleppo
Sheikh Barakat
(Arabic: الشيخ بركات)
36°16′40″N 36°49′18″E / 36.27778°N 36.82167°E / 36.27778; 36.82167 (Sheikh Barakat) Aleppo
Sinkhar historic settlement
(Arabic: سنخار)
36°17′52.00″N 36°54′30.00″E / 36.2977778°N 36.9083333°E / 36.2977778; 36.9083333 (Sinhar) Aleppo Locally known as Simkhar, is located 24 km (15 mi) northwest of Aleppo in an isolated valley. The village was inhabited between the second and seventh centuries. Its Basilica is among the oldest churches in Syria and dates back to the fourth century, while the nearby chapel is sixth century.
Sugane village
(Arabic: صوغانة)
36°26′11.5″N 36°55′40.0″E / 36.436528°N 36.927778°E / 36.436528; 36.927778 (Sugane) Aleppo Located 40 km (25 mi) northwest of Aleppo, is home to two half-ruined churches and old water cisterns.
Surqaniya village
(Arabic: سرقانيا)
6th c. CE Church, Surqaniya (سرقانيا), Syria - South and west façades 36°18′59.00″N 36°54′02.00″E / 36.3163889°N 36.9005556°E / 36.3163889; 36.9005556 (Surqanya) Aleppo Located 23 km (14 mi) northwest of Aleppo, preserves the remains of an old Byzantine settlement with a half-ruined sixth-century chapel.
Taladah Church and Monastery
(Arabic: تل عادة)
36°15′5″N 36°48′4″E / 36.25139°N 36.80111°E / 36.25139; 36.80111 (Taladah) Idlib
(Arabic: تقلا)
36°19′09.96″N 36°50′51.03″E / 36.3194333°N 36.8475083°E / 36.3194333; 36.8475083 (Taqla) Aleppo
(Arabic: زرزيتا)
Tower and porch, Zarzita (زرزيتا), Syria - View from southwest 36°17′34.24″N 36°48′03.48″E / 36.2928444°N 36.8009667°E / 36.2928444; 36.8009667 (Zarzita) Aleppo

Harim Mountains (Mount Bārīshā and Mount Aʻlā)[edit]

Image Coordinates Governorate Notes
(Arabic: البريج)
36°11′58.26″N 36°40′52.24″E / 36.1995167°N 36.6811778°E / 36.1995167; 36.6811778 (al-Breij) Idlib
(Arabic: الكفير)
36°11′13.52″N 36°34′03.64″E / 36.1870889°N 36.5676778°E / 36.1870889; 36.5676778 (al-Kfeir) Idlib Located in the mountainous region of Mount Aʻlā, less than two kilometers from Qalb Loze
Bab Al-Hawa
(Arabic: باب الهوا)
36°12′19.42″N 36°43′31.37″E / 36.2053944°N 36.7253806°E / 36.2053944; 36.7253806 (Bab Al-Hawa) Idlib Located 50 km (31 mi) west of Aleppo on the Turkish border, is the site of several fourth-century churches and a well-preserved historical gate from the sixth century AD.
(Arabic: بابسقا)
36°12′53.17″N 36°41′23.17″E / 36.2147694°N 36.6897694°E / 36.2147694; 36.6897694 (Babisqa) Idlib
(Arabic: باموقا)
36°12′02.23″N 36°38′18.40″E / 36.2006194°N 36.6384444°E / 36.2006194; 36.6384444 (Bamuqa) Idlib
(Arabic: بنابل)
36°12′01.99″N 36°33′41.31″E / 36.2005528°N 36.5614750°E / 36.2005528; 36.5614750 (Banabil) Idlib
(Arabic: بانقوسا)
36°5′54″N 36°37′36″E / 36.09833°N 36.62667°E / 36.09833; 36.62667 (Banqusa) Idlib
(Arabic: باقرحا)
36°12′22.91″N 36°39′35.87″E / 36.2063639°N 36.6599639°E / 36.2063639; 36.6599639 (Baqirha) Idlib
(Arabic: باريشا)
36°09′58″N 36°38′10″E / 36.16611°N 36.63611°E / 36.16611; 36.63611 (Barisha) Idlib
Barish al-Shamali
(Arabic: باريش الشمالي)
36°11′00.37″N 36°34′50.53″E / 36.1834361°N 36.5807028°E / 36.1834361; 36.5807028 (Barish al-Shamali) Idlib
(Arabic: باشكوح)
36°11′39.76″N 36°37′54.20″E / 36.1943778°N 36.6317222°E / 36.1943778; 36.6317222 (Bashkuh) Idlib
(Arabic: باشمشلي)
36°11′44″N 36°35′37″E / 36.19556°N 36.59361°E / 36.19556; 36.59361 (Bashmishli) Idlib
(Arabic: بعودا)
36°12′54.63″N 36°41′51.14″E / 36.2151750°N 36.6975389°E / 36.2151750; 36.6975389 (Bauda, North) Idlib Located just a few kilometers from the Turkish border on the far northeastern edge of Jebel Barisha.
(Arabic: بحيو)
36°09′09.10″N 36°34′45.24″E / 36.1525278°N 36.5792333°E / 36.1525278; 36.5792333 (Behyo) Idlib Village in northwestern Syria, built in the 5th and 6th centuries. Archaeological remains include two churches, olive presses, villas and other dwellings.
(Arabic: بيتر)
36°11′35.73″N 36°34′50.01″E / 36.1932583°N 36.5805583°E / 36.1932583; 36.5805583 (Beitar) Idlib
(Arabic: بشندلايا)
36°08′37.80″N 36°33′24.21″E / 36.1438333°N 36.5567250°E / 36.1438333; 36.5567250 (Bshendlaya - Rashadiya) Idlib
(Arabic: بنصرة)
36°1′1″N 36°25′13″E / 36.01694°N 36.42028°E / 36.01694; 36.42028 (Binsira) Idlib
Burj Aizarara
(Arabic: برج عيزارارا)
36°08′48.18″N 36°40′33.54″E / 36.1467167°N 36.6759833°E / 36.1467167; 36.6759833 (Burj Aizarara) Idlib
(Arabic: داحس)
36°10′49.06″N 36°37′48.84″E / 36.1802944°N 36.6302333°E / 36.1802944; 36.6302333 (Dahis) Idlib
(Arabic: الدانا)
36°12′47″N 36°46′14″E / 36.21306°N 36.77056°E / 36.21306; 36.77056 (Dana, North) Idlib Located north of Idlib, 38 kilometers west of Aleppo, and just east of the border with Turkey.
(Arabic: ديروني)
Monastery, Deirouni (ديروني), Syria - West and south façades of chapel 36°12′40.19″N 36°39′36.82″E / 36.2111639°N 36.6602278°E / 36.2111639; 36.6602278 (Deirouni) Idlib
Deir Qeita
(Arabic: دير قيتا)
36°12′54.43″N 36°39′57.35″E / 36.2151194°N 36.6659306°E / 36.2151194; 36.6659306 (Deir Qeita) Idlib
Deir Seita
(Arabic: دير سيتا)
36°06′01.23″N 36°38′40.67″E / 36.1003417°N 36.6446306°E / 36.1003417; 36.6446306 (Deir Seita) Idlib
(Arabic: الفاسوق)
36°1′6″N 36°27′5″E / 36.01833°N 36.45139°E / 36.01833; 36.45139 (Fasuq) Idlib
Kafr Aqab
(Arabic: كفر عقاب)
36°1′54″N 36°26′47″E / 36.03167°N 36.44639°E / 36.03167; 36.44639 (Kafr Aqab) Idlib
Kafr Aruq
(Arabic: كفر عروق)
36°7′14″N 36°39′21″E / 36.12056°N 36.65583°E / 36.12056; 36.65583 (Kafr Aruq) Idlib
Kafr Dariyan
(Arabic: كفر دريان)
36°10′18.00″N 36°40′11.00″E / 36.1716667°N 36.6697222°E / 36.1716667; 36.6697222 (Kafr Dariyan) Idlib
Khirbet al-Khatib
(Arabic: خربة الخطيب)
36°12′49″N 36°38′17″E / 36.21361°N 36.63806°E / 36.21361; 36.63806 (Khirbet al-Khatib) Idlib
(Arabic: كسيبجة)
36°12′30″N 36°42′20″E / 36.20833°N 36.70556°E / 36.20833; 36.70556 (Kseibjeh) Idlib
(Arabic: كوكانية)
36°06′53.12″N 36°36′24.74″E / 36.1147556°N 36.6068722°E / 36.1147556; 36.6068722 (Kukaniyeh) Idlib
(Arabic: معصراتة)
36°9′46″N 36°33′4″E / 36.16278°N 36.55111°E / 36.16278; 36.55111 (Ma'suratah) Idlib
(Arabic: ماعز)
36°08′44.69″N 36°40′01.46″E / 36.1457472°N 36.6670722°E / 36.1457472; 36.6670722 (Maaz) Idlib
Qalb Loze
(Arabic: قلب لوزة)
36°10′9″N 36°34′50″E / 36.16917°N 36.58056°E / 36.16917; 36.58056 (Qalb Loze) Idlib
(Arabic: قرقبيزة)
36°10′30.29″N 36°35′07.93″E / 36.1750806°N 36.5855361°E / 36.1750806; 36.5855361 (Qarqbizeh) Idlib
(Arabic: صرفود)
36°11′11.70″N 36°41′17.99″E / 36.1865833°N 36.6883306°E / 36.1865833; 36.6883306 (Sarfud) Idlib
(Arabic: سرمدا)
36°10′57.48″N 36°43′52.38″E / 36.1826333°N 36.7312167°E / 36.1826333; 36.7312167 (Sarmada) Idlib

Mount Zāwiya[edit]

Image Coordinates Governorate Notes
(Arabic: الدانا)
35°42′12.84″N 36°41′15.75″E / 35.7035667°N 36.6877083°E / 35.7035667; 36.6877083 (al-Dana, South) Idlib A modern village on far eastern edge of Jebel al-Zawiyeh and Jebel Riha.
(Arabic: بابولين)
35°32′16″N 36°40′43″E / 35.53778°N 36.67861°E / 35.53778; 36.67861 (Babuline) Idlib
(Arabic: بارة)
35°41′17.42″N 36°31′51.34″E / 35.6881722°N 36.5309278°E / 35.6881722; 36.5309278 (Bara, Syria) Idlib
(Arabic: بشيلا)
35°39′19.68″N 36°31′34.92″E / 35.6554667°N 36.5263667°E / 35.6554667; 36.5263667 (Bashila) Idlib
(Arabic: بترسا)
35°39′56.15″N 36°32′38.82″E / 35.6655972°N 36.5441167°E / 35.6655972; 36.5441167 (Batrasa) Idlib
(Arabic: بعودا)
35°40′13.78″N 36°34′08.50″E / 35.6704944°N 36.5690278°E / 35.6704944; 36.5690278 (Bauda, South) Idlib Located on the side of the road between the two major sites of Bara and Serjilla.
Deir Sunbul
(Arabic: دير سنبل)
35°41′52.21″N 36°36′14.35″E / 35.6978361°N 36.6039861°E / 35.6978361; 36.6039861 (Deir Sunbul, Idlib) Idlib
(Arabic: دللوزة)
35°41′45.52″N 36°34′57.04″E / 35.6959778°N 36.5825111°E / 35.6959778; 36.5825111 (Dellozeh) Idlib
(Arabic: ابلا)
35°47′52.8″N 36°47′52.8″E / 35.798000°N 36.798000°E / 35.798000; 36.798000 (Ebla) Idlib One of the earliest kingdoms in Syria. Its remains constitute a tell located about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of Aleppo near the village of Mardikh.
Ein Laruz
(Arabic: عين لاروز)
35°41′1″N 36°26′24″E / 35.68361°N 36.44000°E / 35.68361; 36.44000 (Ein Laruz) Idlib
(Arabic: فركيا)
35°43′26.84″N 36°36′02.49″E / 35.7241222°N 36.6006917°E / 35.7241222; 36.6006917 (Farkya) Idlib
(Arabic: حزارين)
35°35′56″N 36°31′39″E / 35.59889°N 36.52750°E / 35.59889; 36.52750 (Hazarin) Idlib
(Arabic: جرادة)
35°43′26.43″N 36°42′56.05″E / 35.7240083°N 36.7155694°E / 35.7240083; 36.7155694 (Jarada) Idlib
(Arabic: مغارة)
35°44′03.43″N 36°35′12.27″E / 35.7342861°N 36.5867417°E / 35.7342861; 36.5867417 (Maghara) Idlib
(Arabic: مجليا)
35°40′17.26″N 36°32′28.87″E / 35.6714611°N 36.5413528°E / 35.6714611; 36.5413528 (Majliya) Idlib
(Arabic: الموزرة)
35°39′23″N 36°26′22″E / 35.65639°N 36.43944°E / 35.65639; 36.43944 (Mozra) Idlib
Qasr al-Banat
(Arabic: قصر البنات)
35°42′33.97″N 36°41′06.35″E / 35.7094361°N 36.6850972°E / 35.7094361; 36.6850972 (Qasr al-Banat) Idlib
(Arabic: ربيعة)
35°39′19.62″N 36°34′48.88″E / 35.6554500°N 36.5802444°E / 35.6554500; 36.5802444 (Rabiaa) Idlib
(Arabic: رويحة)
35°44′16.88″N 36°41′41.57″E / 35.7380222°N 36.6948806°E / 35.7380222; 36.6948806 (Ruweiha) Idlib
(Arabic: سرجيلا)
35°40′17.55″N 36°35′05.51″E / 35.6715417°N 36.5848639°E / 35.6715417; 36.5848639 (Serjilla) Idlib
(Arabic: شنان)
35°44′7″N 36°36′42″E / 35.73528°N 36.61167°E / 35.73528; 36.61167 (Shinan) Idlib
(Arabic: شنشراح)
35°38′24.88″N 36°34′08.41″E / 35.6402444°N 36.5690028°E / 35.6402444; 36.5690028 (Shinshirah) Idlib
Wadi Martahun
(Arabic: وادي مرتحون)
35°40′30.13″N 36°30′55.15″E / 35.6750361°N 36.5153194°E / 35.6750361; 36.5153194 (Wadi Martahun) Idlib

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Burns, Ross., Monuments of Syria: An Historical Guide, p.109
  2. ^ UNESCO. "Ancient Villages of Northern Syria". Retrieved 2011-10-30.
  3. ^ "Syria Photo Guide". Archived from the original on 2017-05-14. Retrieved 2017-02-22.
  4. ^ "الخارطة التفاعلية للمواقع الأثرية المتضررة". Archived from the original on July 15, 2020. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  5. ^ "Walking through the ruins". Jamahir News (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 2012-03-08.
  6. ^ "Aleppo Fafertin Church". Retrieved 2013-06-10.
  7. ^ "Aleppo: Kalota village". Archived from the original on 2016-08-23. Retrieved 2013-06-10.
  8. ^ "Kalota Church". Qenshrin. Retrieved 2013-06-10.
  9. ^ "Kharab Shams in history". 2008-12-13. Retrieved 2013-06-10.

External links[edit]

Media related to Dead cities at Wikimedia Commons