Maron

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For other uses, see Maron (disambiguation).
"Maroun" redirects here. For other uses, see Maroun (disambiguation).
"Marun" redirects here. For the villages in Iran, see Marun, Iran and Marun, Khuzestan.
Saint Moroun
St. Maron.jpg
Russian Orthodox icon of Saint Maron
Born Unknown
Died 410 AD[1]
Kefar-Nabo, Ol-Yambos, Syria Prima province, Byzantine Empire
(modern Syria)
Venerated in Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Major shrine Maronite Church
Feast February 14[2][3](Eastern Orthodox Church)
February 9 (Maronite Church[4] [5])

Moroun (also Maron or Maro; Syriac: ܡܪܘܢ‎, Morōn; Arabic: مارون‎‎; Latin: Maron; Greek: Μάρων) was a 4th-century Syriac Christian monk whose followers, after his death, founded a religious Christian movement that became known as the Maronite Church.[6] The religious community which grew from this movement are the modern Maronites.

Saint Maroun is often portrayed in a black monastic habit with a hanging stole, accompanied by a long crosier staffed by a globe surmounted with a cross. His feast day in the Maronite Church is February 9.[4][5]

Life[edit]

Maron, born in the middle of the 4th century in Syria, was a priest who later became a hermit, retiring to a mountain of Taurus in the region of Cyrrhus, near Antioch. His holiness and miracles attracted many followers, and drew attention throughout the empire. John Chrysostom wrote to him around AD 405 expressing his great love and respect, and asking Maron to pray for him.[5] Maron and Chrysostom are believed to have studied together in the great Christian learning center at Antioch, which at the time was the third largest city in the Roman Empire.[7]

Maron embraced a life of quiet solitude in the mountains north-west of Aleppo.[8] He was known for his simplicity and his extraordinary desire to discover God’s presence in all things.[7]

Maron is considered the Father of the spiritual and monastic movement now called the Maronite Church.[5]

Monastic spirituality[edit]

Maron's way was deeply monastic with emphasis on the spiritual and ascetic aspects of living. For Maroun, all was connected to God and God was connected to all. He did not separate the physical and spiritual world and actually used the physical world to deepen his faith and spiritual experience with God.[5] He was able to free himself from the physical world by his passion and fervour for prayer and enter into a mystical relationship of love with God.

He lived his life in the open air next to a temple he had transformed to a church. He spent his time in prayer and meditation exposed to the forces of nature such as sun, rain, hail and snow. Theodoret of Cyrrhus wrote that this was a new type of asceticism that soon enjoyed wide acceptance in Syria and Lebanon. His Religious History, written about 440, mentions fifteen men and three women who followed this practice, many of them trained or guided by Maron.[8]

Missionary[edit]

Saint Maroun was a mystic who started this new ascetic-spiritual method that attracted many people in Syria and Lebanon to become his disciples. Accompanying his deeply spiritual and ascetic life, he was a zealous missionary with a passion to spread the message of Christ by preaching it to all he met. He sought not only to cure the physical ailments that people suffered, but had a great quest for nurturing and healing the "lost souls" of both non-Christians and Christians of his time.

This missionary work came to fruition when in the mountains of Syria, Saint Maroun was able to convert a temple into a Christian church.[7] This was to be the beginning of the conversion to Christianity in Syria which would then influence and spread to Lebanon. After his death in the year 410, his spirit and teachings lived on through his disciples.

His burial place is a debated issue. Some Lebanese sources, such as Giuseppe Simone Assemani and Maronite bishop Yusef al-Dibs believe he was buried in Arethusa or modern-day al-Rastan along the Orontes River in Syria, while others, like Jesuit priest Henri Lammens, claim he is buried in Brad village to the north of Aleppo.[9]

The Maronite movement reached Lebanon when Saint Maroun's first disciple, Abraham of Cyrrhus, who was called the Apostle of Lebanon, realized that there were many non-Christians in Lebanon and so he set out to convert them to Christianity by introducing them to the way of Saint Maroun.[8] The followers of Saint Maroun, both monks and laity, for emphasizing the mia-thelite union of Christ's will with God's, were accused by Byzantium of monothelitism. However, Maronite historians argue that they have always remained in full orthodox communion with Rome.[10] Saint Maroun's feast day is celebrated on February 9.[11]

Veneration[edit]

Saint Maroun was known for his gift for healing.[12][13]

Patronages[edit]

Notable recognitions[edit]

On 23 February 2011, Pope Benedict XVI unveiled a statue of Saint Maroun on the outer wall of Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican and imparted his Apostolic Blessing. The 15 feet tall statue was commissioned by the Maronite Church to the Spanish sculptor Marco Augusto Dueñas. The saint appears in the sculpture holding a miniature, Maronite style church; the sculpture also features an inscription in Syriac reading: The righteous will flourish like a palm tree, they will grow like a cedar of Lebanon. The statue occupied the last available niche in the outer perimeter of Saint Peter's Basilica.[14]

In June 2012, an impressionist painting of Saint Maroun, as well as several icons based on images from the 5th-century Syriac Rabboula manuscript including the Crucifixion, the Marian icon of the "Mother of Light" and the Evangelists, was donated, installed and was solemnly attended by Cardinal Donald Wuerl at the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington D.C,[15] and was formally dedicated on September 23, 2012.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Divine Office for Lent". World Digital Library. Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  2. ^ (in Greek) Menaion of Venice, 1889
  3. ^ (in Greek) Ορθόδοξος Συναξαριστής
  4. ^ a b "Saint Maroun, Father of the Maronite Catholic community". Saint of the Month Archive. International Catholic Stewardship Council. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Who is Saint Maron?". St. Elias Maronite Catholic Church. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  6. ^ Saint Maroun. Opus Libani. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. Archived August 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ a b c [http://catholicstewardship.com/saint-of-the-month/60-saint-maroun-father-of-the-maronite-catholic-community "Saint Maroun, Father of the Maronite Catholic community", International Catholic Stewardhip Council
  8. ^ a b c El-Hāyek, Elias. "Struggle for Survival: The Maronites of the Middle Ages", Conversion and Continuity, (Michael Gervers and Ramzi Jibran Bikhazi, eds.), Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1990, ISBN 9780888448095
  9. ^ Moosa, Matti. The Maronites in History. Gorgias Press LLC, 2005. ISBN 1593331827.
  10. ^ 'Monks and Monasteries of the Near East', Jules Leroy, 2004, p.106
  11. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  12. ^ "St. Maron, Healer of Bodies and Souls", Institute for Traditional Medicine
  13. ^ "St Maroun - The gift of blessing and curing", Maronite history Project
  14. ^ Rome Reports news agency staff (February 24, 2011). "New Statue in Saint Peter’s includes words in Syriac, blessed by Pope". Rome reports. Retrieved December 22, 2011. 
  15. ^ http://www.mecn.org/2011/08/new-maronite-chapel-in-washington/

External links[edit]