Jump to content

Edwin Hubble

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Edwin Hubble
Portrait by Johan Hagemeyer, 1931
Edwin Powell Hubble

(1889-11-20)November 20, 1889
DiedSeptember 28, 1953(1953-09-28) (aged 63)
Alma mater
Known for
Grace Burke Sr.
(m. 1924)
Scientific career
Military career
BranchUnited States Army
Years of service1918
Unit86th Division, 2nd Battalion, 343 Infantry Regiment
Battles/warsWorld War I

Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953)[1] was an American astronomer. He played a crucial role in establishing the fields of extragalactic astronomy and observational cosmology.[2][3]

Hubble proved that many objects previously thought to be clouds of dust and gas and classified as "nebulae" were actually galaxies beyond the Milky Way.[4] He used the strong direct relationship between a classical Cepheid variable's luminosity and pulsation period[5][6] (discovered in 1908 by Henrietta Swan Leavitt[7]) for scaling galactic and extragalactic distances.[8][9]

Hubble provided evidence that the recessional velocity of a galaxy increases with its distance from Earth, a property now known as Hubble's law, although it had been proposed two years earlier by Georges Lemaître.[10] The Hubble law implies that the universe is expanding.[11] A decade before, the American astronomer Vesto Slipher had provided the first evidence that the light from many of these nebulae was strongly red-shifted, indicative of high recession velocities.[12][13]

Hubble's name is most widely recognized for the Hubble Space Telescope, which was named in his honor, with a model prominently displayed in his hometown of Marshfield, Missouri.

Early life and education[edit]

Edwin Hubble was born in 1889 to Virginia Lee Hubble (née James) (1864–1934)[14] and John Powell Hubble, an insurance executive, in Marshfield, Missouri, and moved to Wheaton, Illinois, in 1900.[15] In his younger days, he was noted more for his athletic prowess than his intellectual abilities, although he did earn good grades in every subject except spelling. Edwin was a gifted athlete, playing baseball, football, and running track in both high school and college. He won seven first places and a third place in a single high school track and field meet in 1906, and he played a variety of positions on the basketball court from center to shooting guard. Hubble led the University of Chicago's basketball team to their first Big Ten Conference title in 1907.[16]

Undergraduate studies[edit]

Hubble's studies at the University of Chicago were concentrated on mathematics, astronomy and philosophy, which resulted in a bachelor of science degree by 1910. For a year he was also a student laboratory assistant for the physicist Robert Millikan, a future Nobel Prize winner.[17] Hubble also became a member of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. A Rhodes Scholar, he spent three years at The Queen's College, Oxford studying jurisprudence instead of science (as a promise to his dying father),[18] and later added studies in literature and Spanish,[18] eventually earning his master's degree.[19]

In 1909, Hubble's father moved his family from Chicago to Shelbyville, Kentucky, so that the family could live in a small town, ultimately settling in nearby Louisville. His father died in the winter of 1913, while Edwin was still in England. In the following summer, Edwin returned home to care for his mother, two sisters, and younger brother, along with his brother William. The family moved once more to Everett Avenue, in Louisville's Highlands neighborhood, to accommodate Edwin and William.[20]

Hubble was also a dutiful son, who despite his intense interest in astronomy since boyhood, acquiesced to his father's request to study law, first at the University of Chicago and later at Oxford. In this time, he also took some math and science courses. After the death of his father in 1913, Edwin returned to the Midwest from Oxford but did not have the motivation to practice law. Instead, he proceeded to teach Spanish, physics and mathematics at New Albany High School in New Albany, Indiana, where he also coached the boys' basketball team. After a year of high-school teaching, he entered graduate school with the help of his former professor from the University of Chicago to study astronomy at the university's Yerkes Observatory, where he received his Ph.D. in 1921. His dissertation was titled "Photographic Investigations of Faint Nebulae".[21] In Yerkes, he had access to one of the most powerful telescopes in the world at the time, which had an innovative 26 inch (61 cm) reflector.[17]

Doctoral studies[edit]

Hubble's identity card in the American Expeditionary Forces.

After the United States declared war on Germany in 1917, Hubble rushed to complete his Ph.D. dissertation so he could join the military. Hubble volunteered for the United States Army and was assigned to the newly created 86th Division, where he served in 2nd Battalion, 343 Infantry Regiment. He rose to the rank of Major,[22] and was found fit for overseas duty on July 9, 1918, but the 86th Division never saw combat. After the end of World War I, Hubble spent a year at Cambridge University, where he renewed his studies of astronomy.[23]


In 1919, Hubble was offered a staff position at the Carnegie Institution for Science's Mount Wilson Observatory, near Pasadena, California, by George Ellery Hale, the founder and director of the observatory. Hubble remained on staff at Mount Wilson until his death in 1953. Shortly before his death, Hubble became the first astronomer to use the newly completed giant 200-inch (5.1 m) reflector Hale Telescope at the Palomar Observatory near San Diego, California.

Hubble also worked as a civilian for U.S. Army at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland during World War II as the Chief of the External Ballistics Branch of the Ballistics Research Laboratory during which he directed a large volume of research in exterior ballistics which increased the effective firepower of bombs and projectiles. His work was facilitated by his personal development of several items of equipment for the instrumentation used in exterior ballistics, the most outstanding development being the high-speed clock camera, which made possible the study of the characteristics of bombs and low-velocity projectiles in flight. The results of his studies were credited with greatly improving design, performance, and military effectiveness of bombs and rockets. For his work there, he received the Legion of Merit award.[24]


Universe goes beyond the Milky Way galaxy[edit]

The 100-inch (2.5 m) Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory that Hubble used to measure galaxy distances and a value for the rate of expansion of the universe.

Edwin Hubble's arrival at Mount Wilson Observatory, California, in 1919 coincided roughly with the completion of the 100-inch (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope, then the world's largest. At that time, the prevailing view of the cosmos was that the universe consisted entirely of the Milky Way Galaxy.

Using the Hooker Telescope at Mount Wilson, Hubble identified Cepheid variables, a standard candle discovered by Henrietta Leavitt.[7] Comparing their apparent luminosity to their intrinsic luminosity gives their distance from Earth.[25][26] Hubble found Cepheids in several nebulae, including the Andromeda Nebula and Triangulum Nebula. His observations, made in 1924, proved conclusively that these nebulae were much too distant to be part of the Milky Way and were, in fact, entire galaxies outside our own; thus today they are no longer considered nebulae.

This was first hypothesized as early as 1755 when Immanuel Kant's General History of Nature and Theory of the Heavens appeared. Hubble's hypothesis was opposed by many in the astronomy establishment of the time, in particular by Harvard University–based Harlow Shapley. Despite the opposition, Hubble, then a thirty-five-year-old scientist, had his findings first published in The New York Times on November 23, 1924,[27] then presented them to other astronomers at the January 1, 1925, meeting of the American Astronomical Society.[28] Hubble's results for Andromeda were not formally published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal until 1929.[29]

Hubble's classification scheme

Hubble's findings fundamentally changed the scientific view of the universe. Supporters state that Hubble's discovery of nebulae outside of our galaxy helped pave the way for future astronomers.[30] Although some of his more renowned colleagues simply scoffed at his results, Hubble ended up publishing his findings on nebulae. This published work earned him an award titled the American Association Prize and five hundred dollars from Burton E. Livingston of the Committee on Awards.[16]

Hubble also devised the most commonly used system for classifying galaxies, grouping them according to their appearance in photographic images. He arranged the different groups of galaxies in what became known as the Hubble sequence.[31]

Redshift increases with distance[edit]

Hubble went on to estimate the distances to 24 extra-galactic nebulae, using a variety of methods. In 1929 Hubble examined the relationship between these distances and their radial velocities as determined from their redshifts. All of his estimated distances are now known to be too small, by up to a factor of about 7. This was due to factors such as the fact that there are two kinds of Cepheid variables or confusing bright gas clouds with bright stars.[32] However, his distances were more or less proportional to the true distances, and combining his distances with measurements of the redshifts of the galaxies by Vesto Slipher, and by his assistant Milton L. Humason, he found a roughly linear relationship between the distances of the galaxies and their radial velocities (corrected for solar motion),[11] a discovery that later became known as Hubble's law.

This meant that the greater the distance between any two galaxies, the greater their relative speed of separation. If interpreted that way, Hubble's measurements on 46 galaxies lead to a value for the Hubble constant of 500 km/s/Mpc, which is much higher than the currently accepted values of 74 km/s/Mpc[33][34] (cosmic distance ladder method) or 68 km/s/Mpc[35][36] (CMB method) due to errors in their distance calibrations.

Yet the reason for the redshift remained unclear. Georges Lemaître predicted on theoretical grounds based on Einstein's equations for general relativity the redshift-distance relation, and published observational support for it, two years before the discovery of Hubble's law.[37] Although he used the term "velocities" in his paper (and "apparent radial velocities" in the introduction), he later expressed doubt about interpreting these as real velocities. In 1931 he wrote a letter to the Dutch cosmologist Willem de Sitter expressing his opinion on the theoretical interpretation of the redshift-distance relation:[32]

"Mr. Humason and I are both deeply sensible of your gracious appreciation of the papers on velocities and distances of nebulae. We use the term 'apparent' velocities to emphasize the empirical features of the correlation. The interpretation, we feel, should be left to you and the very few others who are competent to discuss the matter with authority."

Today, the "apparent velocities" in question are usually thought of as an increase in proper distance that occurs due to the expansion of the universe. Light traveling through an expanding metric will experience a Hubble-type redshift, a mechanism somewhat different from the Doppler effect (although the two mechanisms become equivalent descriptions related by a coordinate transformation for nearby galaxies).

In the 1930s, Hubble was involved in determining the distribution of galaxies and spatial curvature. These data seemed to indicate that the universe was flat and homogeneous, but there was a deviation from flatness at large redshifts. According to Allan Sandage,

"Hubble believed that his count data gave a more reasonable result concerning spatial curvature if the redshift correction was made assuming no recession. To the very end of his writings, he maintained this position, favouring (or at the very least keeping open) the model where no true expansion exists, and therefore that the redshift "represents a hitherto unrecognized principle of nature."[38]

There were methodological problems with Hubble's survey technique that showed a deviation from flatness at large redshifts. In particular, the technique did not account for changes in luminosity of galaxies due to galaxy evolution. Earlier, in 1917, Albert Einstein had found that his newly developed theory of general relativity indicated that the universe must be either expanding or contracting. Unable to believe what his own equations were telling him, Einstein introduced a cosmological constant (a "fudge factor") to the equations to avoid this "problem". When Einstein learned of Hubble's redshifts, he immediately realized that the expansion predicted by general relativity must be real, and in later life, he said that changing his equations was "the biggest blunder of [his] life." In fact, Einstein apparently once visited Hubble and tried to convince him that the universe was expanding.[39]

Hubble also discovered the asteroid 1373 Cincinnati on August 30, 1935. In 1936 he wrote The Observational Approach to Cosmology and The Realm of the Nebulae which explained his approaches to extra-galactic astronomy and his view of the subject's history.

In December 1941, Hubble reported to the American Association for the Advancement of Science that results from a six-year survey with the Mt. Wilson telescope did not support the expanding universe theory. According to a Los Angeles Times article reporting on Hubble's remarks, "The nebulae could not be uniformly distributed, as the telescope shows they are, and still fit the explosion idea. Explanations which try to get around what the great telescope sees, he said, fail to stand up. The explosion, for example, would have had to start long after the earth was created, and possibly even after the first life appeared here."[40][41] (Hubble's estimate of what we now call the Hubble constant would put the Big Bang only 2 billion years ago.)

Personal life[edit]

Hubble married Grace Lillian (Burke) Leib (1889–1980), daughter of John Patrick and Luella (Kepford) Burke, on February 26, 1924.

Hubble was raised as a Protestant Christian but some of his later statements suggest uncertainty.[42][43][44]

Health issues and death[edit]

Hubble had a heart attack in July 1949 while on vacation in Colorado. He was cared for by his wife and continued on a modified diet and work schedule. He died of cerebral thrombosis (a blood clot in his brain) on September 28, 1953, in San Marino, California. No funeral was held for him, and his wife never revealed his burial site.[45][46][47]

Hubble's papers comprising the bulk of his correspondence, photographs, notebooks, observing logbooks, and other materials, are held by the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. They were donated by his wife Grace Burke Hubble upon her death in 1980.[48]


Accusations concerning Lemaître's priority[edit]

In 2011, the journal Nature reported claims that Hubble had played a role in the redaction of key parts of the translation of Lemaître's 1927 paper, which stated what is now called Hubble's Law and also gave observational evidence for it. Historians quoted in the article were skeptical that the redactions were part of a campaign to ensure Hubble retained priority. However, the observational astronomer Sidney van den Bergh published a paper[49] suggesting that while the omissions may have been made by a translator, they may still have been deliberate.

In November 2011, the astronomer Mario Livio reported in Nature that documents in the Lemaître archive demonstrated that the redaction had indeed been carried out by Lemaître himself, who apparently saw little point in including scientific content which had already been reported by Hubble.[37] This, however, does not detract from the fact that Lemaître published[50] in French, without such omissions, two years prior to Hubble.

Attempt at obtaining the Nobel Prize[edit]

At the time, the Nobel Prize in Physics did not recognize work done in astronomy. Hubble spent much of the later part of his career attempting to have astronomy considered an area of physics, instead of being its own science. He did this largely so that astronomers—including himself—could be recognized by the Nobel Prize Committee for their valuable contributions to astrophysics. This campaign was unsuccessful in Hubble's lifetime, but shortly after his death, the Nobel Prize Committee decided that astronomical work would be eligible for the physics prize.[16] However, the prize is not one that can be awarded posthumously.






On March 6, 2008, the United States Postal Service released a 41-cent stamp honoring Hubble on a sheet titled "American Scientists" designed by artist Victor Stabin.[46] His citation reads:[61]

Often called a "pioneer of the distant stars," astronomer Edwin Hubble (1889–1953) played a pivotal role in deciphering the vast and complex nature of the universe. His meticulous studies of spiral nebulae proved the existence of galaxies other than our own Milky Way. Had he not died suddenly in 1953, Hubble would have won that year's Nobel Prize in Physics.

(Note that the assertion that he would have won the Nobel Prize in 1953 is likely false, although he was nominated for the prize that year.[62])

The other scientists on the "American Scientists" sheet include Gerty Cori, biochemist; Linus Pauling, chemist, and John Bardeen, physicist.

Other notable appearances[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

In the 1980 documentary Cosmos: A Personal Voyage by astronomer Carl Sagan, Hubble's life and work are portrayed on screen in episode 10: "The Edge of Forever".

The play Creation's Birthday, written by Cornell physicist Hasan Padamsee, tells Hubble's life story.[67]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Biography of Edwin Hubble (1889–1953)". NASA. Archived from the original on June 30, 2011. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
  2. ^ Redd, Nola Taylor. "Famous Astronomers | List of Great Scientists in Astronomy". SPACE.com. Perch. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  3. ^ Reese, Riley. "Most Influential Astronomers of All Time". Futurism. Jerrick Ventures LLC. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  4. ^ Hubble, Edwin (December 1926). "Extragalactic nebulae". Astrophysical Journal. 64 (64): 321–369. Bibcode:1926ApJ....64..321H. doi:10.1086/143018.
  5. ^ Udalski, A.; Soszynski, I.; Szymanski, M.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Wozniak, P.; Zebrun, K. (1999). "The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds. IV. Catalog of Cepheids from the Large Magellanic Cloud". Acta Astronomica. 49: 223–317. arXiv:astro-ph/9908317. Bibcode:1999AcA....49..223U.
  6. ^ Soszynski, I.; Poleski, R.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Szewczyk, O.; Ulaczyk, K. (2008). "The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The OGLE-III Catalog of Variable Stars. I. Classical Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud". Acta Astronomica. 58: 163. arXiv:0808.2210. Bibcode:2008AcA....58..163S.
  7. ^ a b Leavitt, Henrietta S. (1908). "1777 variables in the Magellanic Clouds". Annals of Harvard College Observatory. 60: 87. Bibcode:1908AnHar..60...87L.
  8. ^ Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Gibson, Brad K.; Ferrarese, Laura; Kelson, Daniel D.; Sakai, Shoko; Mould, Jeremy R.; Kennicutt, Jr., Robert C.; Ford, Holland C.; Graham, John A.; Huchra, John P.; Hughes, Shaun M. G.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Macri, Lucas M.; Stetson, Peter B. (2001). "Final Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant". The Astrophysical Journal. 553 (1): 47–72. arXiv:astro-ph/0012376. Bibcode:2001ApJ...553...47F. doi:10.1086/320638. S2CID 119097691.
  9. ^ Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F. (2010). "The Hubble Constant". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 48: 673–710. arXiv:1004.1856. Bibcode:2010ARA&A..48..673F. doi:10.1146/annurev-astro-082708-101829. S2CID 119263173.
  10. ^ "Astronomer Sleuth Solves Mystery of Big Cosmos Discovery by Nola Taylor Redd, Space.com, November 14, 2011". Space.com. November 14, 2011.
  11. ^ a b Hubble, Edwin (1929). "A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae". PNAS. 15 (3): 168–173. Bibcode:1929PNAS...15..168H. doi:10.1073/pnas.15.3.168. PMC 522427. PMID 16577160.
  12. ^ Slipher, V. M. (1917). "Nebulæ". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 56 (5). American Philosophical Society: 403–409. ISSN 0003-049X. JSTOR 984028. Retrieved July 9, 2024.
  13. ^ Segal, I.E. (December 1993). "Geometric derivation of the chronometric redshift". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90 (23): 11114–11116. Bibcode:1993PNAS...9011114S. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.23.11114. PMC 47932. PMID 11607440.
  14. ^ "Virginia Lee Hubble (James) (c.1864 – 1934)". May 16, 1864. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
  15. ^ Gale E. Christianson (1996). Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the nebulae. University of Chicago Press. pp. 13–18. ISBN 9780226105215.
  16. ^ a b c Gale E. Christianson (1996). Edwin Hubble: mariner of the nebulae. University of Chicago Press. p. 362. Grace heard that Enrico Fermi and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, both members of the Nobel Committee, had joined their colleagues in unanimously voting Hubble the prize in physics, a rumor later confirmed by the astronomers Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge after speaking with "Chandra.
  17. ^ a b "Edwin Hubble | American astronomer". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  18. ^ a b Michael D. Lemonick (March 29, 1999). "Astronomer Edwin Hubble". The Times. UK. Archived from the original on March 19, 2007. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
  19. ^ The Rhodes Trust. "Rhodes Scholars: Complete List, 1903–2010". The Rhodes Trust. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved May 29, 2011. Hubble, Edwin – The Queen's College, Illinois (1910)
  20. ^ John F. Kielkopf. "Edwin Hubble, Family, and Friends in Louisville 1909–1916".
  21. ^ Hubble, Edwin Powell (1920). Photographic investigations of faint nebulae. Chicago, Ill., The University of Chicago Press. Retrieved September 15, 2016 – via Internet Archive.
  22. ^ "Major Edwin Hubble is Made Lieutenant Colonel". Springfield Missouri Republican. August 11, 1918. p. 6. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  23. ^ Gale E. Christianson (1996). Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae. University of Chicago Press. p. 183. ISBN 9780226105215.
  24. ^ Sharov, Alexander S., Igor D. Novikov "Edwin Hubble, The Discoverer of the Big Bang Universe". Cambridge, UK: The Cambridge University Press (1989) p. 101
  25. ^ A Science Odyssey:People and Discoveries
  26. ^ 1929:Edwin Hubble Discovers the universe is expanding
  27. ^ Sharov, Aleksandr Sergeevich; Novikov, Igor Dmitrievich (1993). Edwin Hubble, the discoverer of the Big Bang universe. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-521-41617-7. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
  28. ^ Marcia Bartusiak (2010). The Day We Found the Universe. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. x–xi. ISBN 9780307276605.
  29. ^ Hubble, E. P. (1929). "A spiral nebula as a stellar system, Messier 31". The Astrophysical Journal. 69: 103. Bibcode:1929ApJ....69..103H. doi:10.1086/143167.
  30. ^ "life in the universe Astronomy Encyclopedia. London: Philip's, 2002. Credo Reference".
  31. ^ David L. Block; Ivacircnio Puerari; Alan Stockton (2000). Toward a new millennium in galaxy morphology. Springer. pp. 146–150. ISBN 9780792361855.
  32. ^ a b Robert P. Kirshner (January 6, 2004). "Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (1): 8–13. Bibcode:2003PNAS..101....8K. doi:10.1073/pnas.2536799100. PMC 314128. PMID 14695886.
  33. ^ Riess, Adam G.; Casertano, Stefano; Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas; Bucciarelli, Beatrice; Lattanzi, Mario G.; MacKenty, John W.; Bowers, J. Bradley; Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Huang, Caroline; Anderson, Richard I. (2018). "Milky Way Cepheid Standards for Measuring Cosmic Distances and Application to Gaia DR2: Implications for the Hubble Constant". The Astrophysical Journal. 861 (2): 126. arXiv:1804.10655. Bibcode:2018ApJ...861..126R. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aac82e. ISSN 0004-637X. S2CID 55643027.
  34. ^ Devlin, Hannah (May 10, 2018). "The answer to life, the universe and everything might be 73. Or 67". the Guardian. Retrieved May 13, 2018.
  35. ^ Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Carron, J.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H. C.; et al. (2020). "Planck 2018 results. VI. Cosmological parameters". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 641: A6. arXiv:1807.06209. Bibcode:2020A&A...641A...6P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833910. S2CID 119335614. Retrieved July 18, 2018.
  36. ^ Scolnic, Dan; Macri, Lucas M.; Yuan, Wenlong; Casertano, Stefano; Riess, Adam G. (March 18, 2019). "Large Magellanic Cloud Cepheid Standards Provide a 1% Foundation for the Determination of the Hubble Constant and Stronger Evidence for Physics Beyond LambdaCDM". The Astrophysical Journal. 876 (1): 85. arXiv:1903.07603. Bibcode:2019ApJ...876...85R. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab1422. S2CID 85528549.
  37. ^ a b Livio, Mario (November 2011). "Lost in translation: Mystery of the missing text solved Mario Livio Nature 479, 171–173 (10 November 2011)". Nature. 479 (7372): 171–173. doi:10.1038/479171a. PMID 22071745. S2CID 203468083.
  38. ^ Sandage, Allan (1989). "Edwin Hubble 1889–1953". The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 83 (6).
  39. ^ Public Broadcasting Station (PBS). "Cosmological Constant". PBS.org. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
  40. ^ "Savant Refutes Theory of Exploding Universe – Mt. Wilson Astronomer Reports Results of Long Searching With 100-Inch Telescope". The Los Angeles Times: 10. December 31, 1941.
  41. ^ Larry Harnisch (December 31, 2011). "Hubble: No Evidence of 'Big Bang' Theory". LA Daily Mirror (WP:NEWSBLOG). (Shows legible photo of the article.)
  42. ^ Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America. Harmony/Rodale. October 11, 2011. ISBN 9781609613204.
  43. ^ Gale E. Christianson (1996). Edwin Hubble: Mariner of the Nebulae. University of Chicago Press. p. 183. ISBN 9780226105215. One morning, while driving north with Grace after the failed eclipse expedition of 1923, he broached Whitehead's idea of a God who might have chosen from a great many possibilities to make a different universe, but He made this one. By contemplating the universe, one might approximate some idea of its Creator. As time passed, however, he seemed even less certain: "We do not know why we are born into the world, but we can try to find out what sort of a world it is — at least in its physical aspects." His life was dedicated to science and the objective world of phenomena. The world of pure values is one which science cannot enter, and science is unconcerned with the transcendent, however, compelling a private revelation or individual moment of ecstasy. He pulled no punches when a deeply depressed friend asked him about his belief: "The whole thing is so much bigger than I am, and I can't understand it, so I just trust myself to it, and forget about it."
  44. ^ Tom Bezzi (2000). Hubble Time. iUniverse. p. 93. ISBN 9780595142477. John terribly depressed, and asked Edwin about his belief. Edwin said, "The whole thing is so much bigger than I am, and I can't understand it, so I just trust myself to it, and forget about it." It was not his nature to speculate. Theories, in his opinion, were an appropriate cocktail conversation. He was essentially an observer, and as he said in The Realm of the Nebulae: "Not until the empirical resources are exhausted, need we pass on to the dreamy realms of speculation." Edwin never exhausted those empirical resources. "I am an observer, not a theoretical man," he attested, and a lightly spoken word in a lecture or in a letter showed that observation was his choice.
  45. ^ Bill Bryson (2010). Short History of Nearly Everything: Special Illustrated Edition. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 9780307885166.
  46. ^ a b Paul Kupperberg (2005). Hubble and the Big Bang. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 45–6. ISBN 9781404203075. World of Physics Hubble.
  47. ^ J. L. Heilbron (2005). The Oxford guide to the history of physics and astronomy, Volume 10. Oxford University Press US. pp. 156–7. ISBN 9780195171983.
  48. ^ "Edwin Powell Hubble Papers: Finding Aid". oac.cdlib.org. Retrieved October 24, 2023.
  49. ^ Bergh, Sidney van den (June 6, 2011). "The Curious Case of Lemaitre's Equation No. 24". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 105 (4): 151. arXiv:1106.1195. Bibcode:2011JRASC.105..151V.
  50. ^ Georges, Lemaître (1927). "Un Univers homogène de masse constante et de rayon croissant rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extra-galactiques". Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles. 47 (A47): 49–59. Bibcode:1927ASSB...47...49L.
  51. ^ "Newcomb Cleveland Prize Recipients". AAAS. Retrieved June 19, 2015.
  52. ^ "Past Recipients of the Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal". Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  53. ^ "Laureates Search". The Franklin Institute Awards. Franklin Institute. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
  54. ^ "Gold Medal Winners" (PDF). RAS. 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
  55. ^ Cudnik, Brian (2012). Faint Objects and How to Observe Them. Springer Verlag. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4419-6756-5.
  56. ^ "Edwin Hubble". www.nasonline.org. Retrieved July 19, 2023.
  57. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved July 19, 2023.
  58. ^ "PLANETARIUM". Edward R. Murrow High School. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  59. ^ Heim, Michael (2007). Exploring Missouri Highways: Trip Trivia. Exploring America's Highway. p. 62. ISBN 9780974435862. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  60. ^ "School Information / School Information". Archived from the original on September 18, 2018. Retrieved September 17, 2018.
  61. ^ "Hubble of the Century Sees Galaxies". Socialbilitty. April 19, 2014. Archived from the original on October 4, 2017. Retrieved July 21, 2017.
  62. ^ Tsumura, Kohji (May 29, 2017). "Verification of the anecdote about Edwin Hubble and the Nobel Prize". arXiv:1705.10125 [physics.hist-ph].
  63. ^ Hubble, Edwin Powell. "Red-shifts in the Spectra of Nebulae." Oxford (1934) https://www.worldcat.org/title/9863838
  64. ^ "Edwin Hubble (1889–1953)". Hall of Famous Missourians. Missouri House of Representatives. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  65. ^ "Edwin Hubble". U.S. Stamp Gallery. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  66. ^ "Edwin Hubble". Indiana Basketball Hall of Fame. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  67. ^ "On stage: Hubble's contentious life and science". Symmetry. November 1, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2016.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]