William Bradford Shockley Jr.
February 13, 1910
|Died||August 12, 1989 (aged 79)|
|Doctoral advisor||John C. Slater|
William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. He was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. The three scientists were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for "their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".
Partly as a result of Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s, California's Silicon Valley became a hotbed of electronics innovation.
In his later life, while a professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University and afterward, Shockley became widely known for his extreme views on race and his advocacy of eugenics.
Early life and education
Shockley was born to American parents in London on February 13, 1910, and was raised in his family's hometown of Palo Alto, California, from the age of three. His father, William Hillman Shockley, was a mining engineer who speculated in mines for a living and spoke eight languages. His mother, May (née Bradford), grew up in the American West, graduated from Stanford University and became the first female U.S. Deputy mining surveyor. Shockley was homeschooled up to the age of eight, due to his parents' dislike of public schools as well as Shockley's habit of violent tantrums. Shockley learned some physics at a young age from a neighbor who was a Stanford physics professor. Shockley spent two years at Palo Alto Military Academy, then briefly enrolled in the Los Angeles Coaching School to study physics and later graduated from Hollywood High School in 1927.
Shockley earned his Bachelor of Science degree from Caltech in 1932 and a PhD from MIT in 1936. The title of his doctoral thesis was Electronic Bands in Sodium Chloride, a topic suggested by his thesis advisor, John C. Slater.
Shockley was one of the first recruits to Bell Labs by Mervin Kelly, who became director of research at the company in 1936 and focused on hiring solid-state physicists. Shockley joined a group headed by Clinton Davisson in Murray Hill, New Jersey. Executives at Bell Labs had theorized that semiconductors may offer solid-state alternatives to the vacuum tubes used throughout Bell's nationwide telephone system. Shockley conceived a number of designs based on copper-oxide semiconductor materials, and with Walter Brattain unsuccessfully attempted to create a prototype in 1939.
When World War II broke out, Shockley's prior research was interrupted and he became involved in radar research in Manhattan (New York City). In May 1942, he took leave from Bell Labs to become a research director at Columbia University's Anti-Submarine Warfare Operations Group. This involved devising methods for countering the tactics of submarines with improved convoying techniques, optimizing depth charge patterns, and so on. Shockley traveled frequently to the Pentagon and Washington to meet high-ranking officers and government officials.
In 1944, he organized a training program for B-29 bomber pilots to use new radar bomb sights. In late 1944 he took a three-month tour to bases around the world to assess the results. For this project, Secretary of War Robert Patterson awarded Shockley the Medal for Merit on October 17, 1946.
In July 1945, the War Department asked Shockley to prepare a report on the question of probable casualties from an invasion of the Japanese mainland. Shockley concluded:
If the study shows that the behavior of nations in all historical cases comparable to Japan's has in fact been invariably consistent with the behavior of the troops in battle, then it means that the Japanese dead and ineffectives at the time of the defeat will exceed the corresponding number for the Germans. In other words, we shall probably have to kill at least 5 to 10 million Japanese. This might cost us between 1.7 and 4 million casualties including 400,000 to 800,000 killed.
Development of the transistor
Shortly after the war ended in 1945, Bell Labs formed a solid-state physics group, led by Shockley and chemist Stanley Morgan, which included John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, physicist Gerald Pearson, chemist Robert Gibney, electronics expert Hilbert Moore, and several technicians. Their assignment was to seek a solid-state alternative to fragile glass vacuum tube amplifiers. Its first attempts were based on Shockley's ideas about using an external electrical field on a semiconductor to affect its conductivity. These experiments failed every time in all sorts of configurations and materials. The group was at a standstill until Bardeen suggested a theory that invoked surface states that prevented the field from penetrating the semiconductor. The group changed its focus to study these surface states and they met almost daily to discuss the work. The rapport of the group was excellent, and ideas were freely exchanged.
By the winter of 1946 they had enough results that Bardeen submitted a paper on the surface states to Physical Review. Brattain started experiments to study the surface states through observations made while shining a bright light on the semiconductor's surface. This led to several more papers (one of them co-authored with Shockley), which estimated the density of the surface states to be more than enough to account for their failed experiments. The pace of the work picked up significantly when they started to surround point contacts between the semiconductor and the conducting wires with electrolytes. Moore built a circuit that allowed them to vary the frequency of the input signal easily. Finally they began to get some evidence of power amplification when Pearson, acting on a suggestion by Shockley, put a voltage on a droplet of glycol borate placed across a P–n junction.
Bell Labs' attorneys soon discovered Shockley's field effect principle had been anticipated and devices based on it patented in 1930 by Julius Lilienfeld, who filed his MESFET-like patent in Canada on October 22, 1925. Although the patent appeared "breakable" (it could not work) the patent attorneys based one of its four patent applications only on the Bardeen-Brattain point contact design. Three others (submitted first) covered the electrolyte-based transistors with Bardeen, Gibney and Brattain as the inventors.
Shockley's name was not on any of these patent applications. This angered Shockley, who thought his name should also be on the patents because the work was based on his field effect idea. He even made efforts to have the patent written only in his name, and told Bardeen and Brattain of his intentions.
Shockley, angered by not being included on the patent applications, secretly continued his own work to build a different sort of transistor based on junctions instead of point contacts; he expected this kind of design would be more likely to be commercially viable. The point contact transistor, he believed, would prove to be fragile and difficult to manufacture. Shockley was also dissatisfied with certain parts of the explanation for how the point contact transistor worked and conceived of the possibility of minority carrier injection.
On February 13, 1948, another team member, John N. Shive, built a point contact transistor with bronze contacts on the front and back of thin wedge of germanium, proving that holes could diffuse through bulk germanium and not just along the surface as previously thought.: 153 : 145 Shive's invention sparked Shockley's invention of the junction transistor.: 143 A few months later he invented an entirely new, considerably more robust, type of transistor with a layer or 'sandwich' structure. This structure went on to be used for the vast majority of all transistors into the 1960s, and evolved into the bipolar junction transistor. Shockley later described the workings of the team as a "mixture of cooperation and competition". He also said that he kept some of his own work secret until his "hand was forced" by Shive's 1948 advance. Shockley worked out a rather complete description of what he called the "sandwich" transistor, and a first proof of principle was obtained on April 7, 1949.
Meanwhile, Shockley worked on his magnum opus, Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors which was published as a 558-page treatise in 1950. The tome included Shockley's critical ideas of drift and diffusion and the differential equations that govern the flow of electrons in solid state crystals. Shockley's diode equation is also described. This seminal work became the reference text for other scientists working to develop and improve new variants of the transistor and other devices based on semiconductors.
In 1951, he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He was forty-one years old; this was rather young for such an election. Two years later, he was chosen as the recipient of the prestigious Comstock Prize for Physics by the NAS, and was the recipient of many other awards and honors.
The ensuing publicity generated by the "invention of the transistor" often thrust Shockley to the fore, much to the chagrin of Bardeen and Brattain. Bell Labs management, however, consistently presented all three inventors as a team. Though Shockley would correct the record where reporters gave him sole credit for the invention, he eventually infuriated and alienated Bardeen and Brattain, and he essentially blocked the two from working on the junction transistor. Bardeen began pursuing a theory for superconductivity and left Bell Labs in 1951. Brattain refused to work with Shockley further and was assigned to another group. Neither Bardeen nor Brattain had much to do with the development of the transistor beyond the first year after its invention.
Shockley left Bell Labs around 1953 and took a job at Caltech.
Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956.
In 1956, Shockley started Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Mountain View, California, which was close to his elderly mother in Palo Alto, California. The company, a division of Beckman Instruments, Inc., was the first establishment working on silicon semiconductor devices in what came to be known as Silicon Valley.
Shockley recruited brilliant employees to his company, but alienated them by undermining them relentlessly. "He may have been the worst manager in the history of electronics", according to his biographer Joel Shurkin. Shockley was autocratic, domineering, erratic, hard-to-please, and increasingly paranoid. In one well-known incident, he demanded lie detector tests to find the "culprit" after a company secretary suffered a minor cut. In late 1957, eight of Shockley's best researchers, who would come to be known as the "traitorous eight", resigned after Shockley decided not to continue research into silicon-based semiconductors. They went on to form Fairchild Semiconductor, a loss from which Shockley Semiconductor never recovered and which led to its purchase by another company three years later. Over the course of the next 20 years, more than 65 new enterprises would end up having employee connections back to Fairchild.
A group of about thirty colleagues have met on and off since 1956 to reminisce about their time with Shockley as, the group's organizer said in 2002, "the man who brought silicon to Silicon Valley".
Views on race and eugenics
After Shockley left his role as director of Shockley Semiconductor, he joined Stanford University, where he was appointed the Alexander M. Poniatoff Professor of Engineering and Applied Science in 1963, a position which he held until he retired as a professor emeritus in 1975.
In the last two decades of his life, Shockley, who had no degree in genetics, became widely known for his extreme views on race and human intelligence, and his advocacy of eugenics. As described by his Los Angeles Times obituary, "He went from being a physicist with impeccable academic credentials to amateur geneticist, becoming a lightning rod whose views sparked campus demonstrations and a cascade of calumny." He thought his work was important to the future of humanity and he also described it as the most important aspect of his career. He argued that a higher rate of reproduction among purportedly less intelligent people was having a dysgenic effect, and argued that a drop in average intelligence would lead to a decline in civilization. He also claimed that black people were genetically and intellectually inferior to white people. (Shockley's biographer Joel Shurkin notes that for much of Shockley's life in the racially segregated America of the time, he had almost no contact with black people.) In a debate with psychiatrist Frances Cress Welsing M.D. and on Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr., Shockley argued, "My research leads me inescapably to the opinion that the major cause of the American Negro's intellectual and social deficits is hereditary and racially genetic in origin and, thus, not remediable to a major degree by practical improvements in the environment."
Shockley was one of the race theorists who received money from the Pioneer Fund, and at least one donation to him came from its founder, the eugenicist Wickliffe Draper. Shockley's writings and lectures were partly based on the writings of psychologist Cyril Burt. Shockley proposed that individuals with IQs below 100 should be paid to undergo voluntary sterilization. Anthropologist Roger Pearson defended Shockley in a self-published book co-authored with Shockley. In 1973, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee professor Edgar G. Epps argued that "William Shockley's position lends itself to racist interpretations". The Southern Poverty Law Center describes Shockley as a white nationalist who failed to produce evidence for his eugenic theories amidst "near-universal acknowledgement that his work was that of a racist crank". The science writer Angela Saini describes Shockley as having been "a notorious racist".
In Atlanta in 1981, Shockley filed a libel suit against the Atlanta Constitution after a science writer, Roger Witherspoon, compared Shockley's advocacy of a voluntary sterilization program to Nazi human experimentation. The suit took three years to go to trial. Shockley won the suit but he only received one dollar in damages and he did not receive any punitive damages. Shockley's biographer Joel Shurkin, a science writer on the staff of Stanford University during those years, sums this statement up by saying that it was defamatory, but Shockley's reputation was not worth much by the time the trial reached a verdict. Shockley taped his telephone conversations with reporters, transcribed them, and sent the transcripts to the reporters by registered mail. At one point, he toyed with the idea of making the reporters take a simple quiz on his work before he would discuss the subject matter of it with them. His habit of saving all of his papers (including laundry lists) provides abundant documentation on his life for researchers.
Shockley was a candidate for the Republican nomination in the 1982 United States Senate election in California. He ran on a single-issue platform of opposing the "dysgenic threat" that he alleged African-Americans and other groups posed. He came in eighth place in the primary, receiving 8,308 votes and 0.37% of the vote. According to Shurkin, by this time, "His racism destroyed his credibility. Almost no one wanted to be associated with him, and many of those who were willing did him more harm than good."
At age 23 and while still a student, Shockley married Jean Bailey in August 1933. The couple had two sons and a daughter. Shockley separated with her in 1953. He married Emily Lanning, a psychiatric nurse, in 1955; she helped him with some of his theories. Although one of his sons earned a PhD at Stanford University and his daughter graduated from Radcliffe College, Shockley believed his children "represent a very significant regression ... my first wife – their mother – had not as high an academic-achievement standing as I had."
Shockley was an accomplished rock climber, going often to the Shawangunks in the Hudson River Valley. His route across an overhang, known as "Shockley's Ceiling", is one of the classic climbing routes in the area. Several[verification needed] climbing guidebooks changed the route's name to "The Ceiling" in 2020 due to Shockley's eugenics controversies. He was popular as a speaker, lecturer, and amateur magician. He once "magically" produced a bouquet of roses at the end of his address before the American Physical Society. He was also known in his early years for elaborate practical jokes. He had a longtime hobby of raising ant colonies.
Shockley donated sperm to the Repository for Germinal Choice, a sperm bank founded by Robert Klark Graham in hopes of spreading humanity's best genes. The bank, called by the media the "Nobel Prize sperm bank", claimed to have three Nobel Prize-winning donors, though Shockley was the only one to publicly acknowledge his involvement. However, Shockley's controversial views brought the Repository for Germinal Choice a degree of notoriety and may have discouraged other Nobel Prize winners from donating sperm.
Shockley died of prostate cancer in 1989 at the age of 79. At the time of his death, he was estranged from most of his friends and family, except his second wife, the former Emmy Lanning (1913–2007). His children reportedly learned of his death by reading his obituary in the newspaper. Shockley is interred at Alta Mesa Memorial Park in Palo Alto, California.
- National Medal of Merit, for his war work in 1946.
- Comstock Prize in Physics of the National Academy of Sciences in 1953.
- First recipient of the Oliver E. Buckley Solid State Physics Prize of the American Physical Society in 1953.
- Co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in physics in 1956, along with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. In his Nobel lecture, he gave full credit to Brattain and Bardeen as the inventors of the point-contact transistor.
- Holley Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1963.
- Wilhelm Exner Medal in 1963.
- Honorary science doctorates from the University of Pennsylvania, Rutgers University in New Jersey, and Gustavus Adolphus Colleges in Minnesota.
- IEEE Medal of Honor from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in 1980.
- Named by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.
- Listed at No. 3 on the Boston Globe's 2011 MIT150 list of the top 150 innovators and ideas in the 150-year history of MIT.
Shockley was granted over ninety US patents. Some notable ones are:
- US 2502488 Semiconductor Amplifier. April 4, 1950; his first granted patent involving transistors.
- US 2569347 Circuit element utilizing semiconductive material. September 25, 1951; His earliest applied for (June 26, 1948) patent involving transistors.
- US 2655609 Bistable Circuits. October 13, 1953; Used in computers.
- US 2787564 Forming Semiconductive Devices by Ionic Bombardment. April 2, 1957; The diffusion process for implantation of impurities.
- US 3031275 Process for Growing Single Crystals. April 24, 1962; Improvements on process for production of basic materials.
- US 3053635 Method of Growing Silicon Carbide Crystals. September 11, 1962; Exploring other semiconductors.
Prewar scientific articles by Shockley
- Johnson, R. P.; Shockley, W. (March 15, 1936). "An Electron Microscope for Filaments: Emission and Adsorption by Tungsten Single Crystals". Physical Review. American Physical Society (APS). 49 (6): 436–440. Bibcode:1936PhRv...49..436J. doi:10.1103/physrev.49.436. ISSN 0031-899X.
- Slater, J. C.; Shockley, W. (October 15, 1936). "Optical Absorption by the Alkali Halides". Physical Review. American Physical Society (APS). 50 (8): 705–719. Bibcode:1936PhRv...50..705S. doi:10.1103/physrev.50.705. ISSN 0031-899X.
- Shockley, William (October 15, 1936). "Electronic Energy Bands in Sodium Chloride". Physical Review. American Physical Society (APS). 50 (8): 754–759. Bibcode:1936PhRv...50..754S. doi:10.1103/physrev.50.754. ISSN 0031-899X.
- Shockley, W. (October 15, 1937). "The Empty Lattice Test of the Cellular Method in Solids". Physical Review. American Physical Society (APS). 52 (8): 866–872. Bibcode:1937PhRv...52..866S. doi:10.1103/physrev.52.866. ISSN 0031-899X.
- Shockley, William (August 15, 1939). "On the Surface States Associated with a Periodic Potential". Physical Review. American Physical Society (APS). 56 (4): 317–323. Bibcode:1939PhRv...56..317S. doi:10.1103/physrev.56.317. ISSN 0031-899X.
- Steigman, J.; Shockley, W.; Nix, F. C. (July 1, 1939). "The Self-Diffusion of Copper". Physical Review. American Physical Society (APS). 56 (1): 13–21. Bibcode:1939PhRv...56...13S. doi:10.1103/physrev.56.13. ISSN 0031-899X.
Postwar articles by Shockley
- Shockley, W. (1949). "The Theory of p-n Junctions in Semiconductors and p-n Junction Transistors". Bell System Technical Journal. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 28 (3): 435–489. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1949.tb03645.x. ISSN 0005-8580.
- Shockley, W.; Pearson, G. L.; Haynes, J. R. (1949). "Hole Injection in Germanium-Quantitative Studies and Filamentary Transistors". Bell System Technical Journal. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 28 (3): 344–366. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1949.tb03641.x. ISSN 0005-8580.
- Shockley, W. (1951). "Hot Electrons in Germanium and Ohm's Law". Bell System Technical Journal. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 30 (4): 990–1034. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1951.tb03692.x. ISSN 0005-8580.
- Shockley, W. (1954). "Negative Resistance Arising from Transit Time in Semiconductor Diodes". Bell System Technical Journal. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 33 (4): 799–826. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1954.tb03742.x. ISSN 0005-8580.
- Sze, S. M.; Shockley, W. (May 6, 1967). "Unit-Cube Expression for Space-Charge Resistance". Bell System Technical Journal. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 46 (5): 837–842. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1967.tb01716.x. ISSN 0005-8580.
- "On the Statistics of Individual Variations of Productivity in Research Laboratories", Shockley 1957
- On heredity, dysgenics and social issues:
- Shockley 1965, "Is Quality of US Population Declining." U.S. News & World Report, November 22, pp. 68–71
- Shockley 1966, "Possible Transfer of Metallurgical and Astronomical Approaches to Problem of Environment versus Ethnic Heredity" (on an early form of admixture analysis)
- Shockley 1966, "Population Control or Eugenics." In J. D. Roslansky (ed.), Genetics and the Future of Man (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts)
- Shockley 1967, "The Entrenched Dogmatism of Inverted Liberals", manuscript by Shockley from which major portions were read in lectures
- Shockley 1968, "Proposed Research to Reduce Racial Aspects of the Environment-Heredity Uncertainty", proposal read by Shockley before the National Academy of Science on April 24, 1968
- Shockley 1968, "Ten Point Position Statement on Human Quality Problems", revised by Shockley from a talk which he presented on "Human Quality Problems and Research Taboos"
- Shockley 1969, "An Analysis Leading to a Recommendation Concerning Inquiry into Eugenic Legislation", press release by Shockley, Stanford University, April 28, 1969
- Shockley 1970, "A 'Try Simplest Cases' Approach to the Heredity-Poverty-Crime Problem." In V. L. Allen (ed.), Psychological Factors in Poverty (Chicago: Markham)
- Shockley 1979, "Proposed NAS Resolution, drafted October 17, 1970", proposed by Shockley before the National Academy of Sciences
- Shockley 1970, "New Methodology to Reduce the Environment-Heredity Uncertainty About Dysgenics"
- Shockley 1971, "Hardy-Weinberg Law Generalized to Estimate Hybrid Variance for Negro Populations and Reduce Racial Aspects of the Environment-Heredity Uncertainty"
- Shockley 1971, "Dysgenics – A Social Problem Evaded by the Illusion of Infinite Plasticity of Human Intelligence?", manuscript planned for reading at the American Psychological Association Symposium entitled: "Social Problems: Illusion, Delusion or Reality."
- "Models, Mathematics, and the Moral Obligation to Diagnose the Origin of Negro IQ Deficits", W. Shockley, (1971) 
- "Negro IQ Deficit: Failure of a 'Malicious Coincidence' Model Warrants New Research Proposals", Shockley 1971
- "Dysgenics, Geneticity, Raceology: A Challenge to the Intellectual Responsibility of Educators", Shockley 1972a
- "A Debate Challenge: Geneticity Is 80% for White Identical Twins' I.Q.'s", Shockley 1972b
- Shockley 1972, "Proposed Resolution Regarding the 80% Geneticity Estimate for Caucasian IQ", advance press release concerning a paper presented by Shockley
- Shockley 1973, "Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Frequencies Caused by Assortative Mating in Hybrid Populations"
- Shockley 1974, "Eugenic, or Anti-Dysgenic, Thinking Exercises", press release by Shockley dated 1974 May 3
- Shockley 1974, "Society Has a Moral Obligation to Diagnose Tragic Racial IQ Deficits", prepared statement by Shockley to be read during his debate against Roy Innis
- Shockley 1978, "Has Intellectual Humanitarianism Gone Berserk?", introductory statement read by Shockley prior to a lecture given by him at UT Dallas
- Shockley 1979, "Anthropological Taboos About Determinations of Racial Mixes", press release by Shockley on October 16, 1979
- Shockley 1980, "Sperm Banks and Dark-Ages Dogmatism", position paper presented by Shockley in a lecture to the Rotary Club of Chico, California, April 16, 1980
- Shockley 1981, "Intelligence in Trouble", article by Shockley published in Leaders magazine, issue dated 1981 Jun 15
Books by Shockley
- Shockley, William – Electrons and holes in semiconductors, with applications to transistor electronics, Krieger (1956) ISBN 0-88275-382-7
- Shockley, William and Gong, Walter A – Mechanics Charles E. Merrill, Inc. (1966)
- Shockley, William and Pearson, Roger – Shockley on Eugenics and Race: The Application of Science to the Solution of Human Problems, Scott-Townsend (1992) ISBN 1-878465-03-1
- Interview of William Shockley by Lillian Hoddeson on 1974 Sep. 10, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD USA
- Playboy 1980, William Shockley interview with Playboy
- Borrell, Jerry (2001). "They would be gods". Upside. 13 (10): 53 – via ABI/INFORM Global.
- Boyer, Edward J. (August 14, 1989). "Controversial Nobel Laureate Shockley Dies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
- Saxon 1989
- Sparks, Hogan & Linville 1991, pp. 130–132
- "Inventors of the transistor followed diverse paths after 1947 discovery". Bangor Daily News. Associated Press. December 26, 1987. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
Although he has received less publicity in recent years, his views have become, if anything, more extreme. He suggested in an interview the possibility of bonus payments to black people for undergoing voluntary sterilization.
- "Contributors to Proceedings of the I.R.E". Proceedings of the IRE. 40 (11): 1605–1612. 1952. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1952.274003.
- Shurkin 2006, p. 5
- "Palo Alto History". www.paloaltohistory.org. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
In Palo Alto, William's temper improved little at first. But ignoring psychiatric recommendations for more socialization, his parents decided to home school William until age eight. Finally, feeling they were unable to keep him out of a school setting any longer, they sent him to the Homer Avenue School for two years, where his behavior improved dramatically --- he even earned an "A" in comportment in his first year.
- "William Shockley". American Institute of Physics. September 10, 1974. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
- Hiltzik, Michael A. (December 2, 2001). "The Twisted Legacy of William Shockley". Los Angeles Times.
- Moll, John L. (1995). A Biographical Memoir of William Bradford Shockley (PDF). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
- Shurkin 2006, pp. 38–39
- Transistor – Innovation at Bell Labs Encyclopedia Britannica
- Cooper, David Y. (2000). Shockley, William Bradford (13 February 1910–12 August 1989), physicist. American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.1302153.
- Shurkin 2006, p. 48
- Broken Genius p. 65–67
- Dean Barrett, David (2020). 140 days to Hiroshima : the story of Japan's last chance to avert Armageddon. New York. ISBN 978-1-63576-580-9. OCLC 1149147965.
- Shurkin 2006, p. 85
- Giangreco 1997, p. 568
- Newman, Robert P. (1998). "Hiroshima and the Trashing of Henry Stimson". The New England Quarterly. 71 (1): 27. doi:10.2307/366722. JSTOR 366722.
- The Artful Universe by John D. Barrow, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995, p. 239
- Brattain quoted in Crystal Fire p. 127
- Crystal Fire p.132
- CA 272437 "Electric current control mechanism", first filed in Canada on October 22, 1925
- Lilienfeld Archived October 2, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- "William Shockley". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved July 18, 2011.
- Michael Riordan & Lillian Hoddeson (1998). Crystal fire: the invention of the transistor and the birth of the information age. ISBN 978-0-393-31851-7.
- Hoddeson, Lillian; Daitch, Vicki (2002). True genius: the life and science of John Bardeen : the only winner of two Nobel prizes in physics. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 978-0-309-08408-6. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
- Brittain 1984, p. 1695 "an observation that William Shockley interpreted as confirmation of his concept of that junction transistor"
- "Inventors of the transistor followed diverse paths after 1947 discovery". Associated press – Bangor Daily news. December 25, 1987. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
'mixture of cooperation and competition' and 'Shockley, eager to make his own contribution, said he kept some of his own work secret until "my hand was forced" in early 1948 by an advance reported by John Shive, another Bell Laboratories researcher'
- Broken Genius, p 121-122
- "1951 – First grown-junction transistors fabricated". Computer History Museum. 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
- "Comstock Prize".
- ScienCentral, ScienCentral. "Bill Shockley, Part 3 of 3". www.pbs.org.
- Crystal Fire p. 278
- "Transistorized! William Shockley". www.pbs.org. 1999. Retrieved July 10, 2022.
- "Holding On". The New York Times. April 6, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
In 1955, the physicist William Shockley set up a semiconductor laboratory in Mountain View, partly to be near his mother in Palo Alto. ...
- "Two Views of Innovation, Colliding in Washington". The New York Times. January 13, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
The co-inventor of the transistor and the founder of the valley's first chip company, William Shockley, moved to Palo Alto, Calif., because his mother lived there. ...
- SFGATE, Mike Moffitt (August 21, 2018). "How a racist genius created Silicon Valley by being a terrible boss". SFGATE. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
- "Electronics Pioneer William Shockley's Legacy". NPR.org. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
- "Silicon Valley | American Experience | PBS". www.pbs.org. 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2022.
- Crystal Fire p. 247
- Goodheart 2006 "Fed up with their boss, eight lab workers walked off the job on this day in Mountain View, Calif. Their employer, William Shockley, had decided not to continue research into silicon-based semiconductors; frustrated, they decided to undertake the work on their own. The researchers — who would become known as 'the traitorous eight' — went on to invent the microprocessor (and to found Intel, among other companies).
- Gregory Gromov. "A legal bridge spanning 100 years: from the gold mines of El Dorado to the "golden" startups of Silicon Valley".
- Dawn Levy (October 22, 2002). "William Shockley: still controversial, after all these years" (Press release). Stanford University. Archived from the original on April 4, 2005. Retrieved June 14, 2005.
- Crystal Fire p. 277
- Shurkin 2006, p. 52.
- "Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr.: Shockley's Thesis (Episode S0145, Recorded on June 10, 1974)". YouTube. Archived from the original on November 17, 2021. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- Saini, Angela (2019). Superior : the return of race science. Boston. ISBN 978-0-8070-7694-1. OCLC 1091236746.
- Shurkin 2006, p. 221-223.
- Pearson, Roger (1992). Shockley on Eugenics and Race, pg. 15–49. Scott-Townsend Publishers. ISBN 1-878465-03-1
- Epps, Edgar G (February 1973). "Racism, Science, and the I.Q." Integrated Education. 11 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1080/0020486730110105.
- "William Shockley". Southern Poverty Law Center.
- Shurkin 2006, p. 219-220.
- Kessler, Ronald. "Absent at the Creation; How one scientist made off with the biggest invention since the light bulb". Archived from the original on February 24, 2015.
- Shurkin 2006, pp. 259–260 "Essentially, the jury agreed that Witherspoon's column met the standards of defamation, but that by then, Shockley's reputation wasn't worth very much."
- Shurkin 2006, p. 286
- Moll, John L. (1995). "William Bradford Shockley 1910—1989" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences.
- "Shockley, Nobel Winner, Files for Senate Race in California". The New York Times. February 12, 1982.
- "CA US Senate – D Primary". OurCampaigns. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
- Shurkin 2006, p. 268.
- Carl, N.; Woodley of Menie, M. A. (November 1, 2019). "A scientometric analysis of controversies in the field of intelligence research". Intelligence. 77: 101397. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2019.101397. ISSN 0160-2896. S2CID 209513578.
- A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: William Shockley PBS
- Hoddeson, Lillian (2002). True genius : the life and science of John Bardeen : the only winner of two Nobel Prizes in physics. Vicki Daitch. Washington, District of Columbia. ISBN 0-309-16954-2. OCLC 1162253791.
- "Shockley's Ceiling". Mountain Project. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- "Rock Climb The Ceiling, The Gunks". Mountain Project. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
- Crystal Fire p. 45
- Polly Morrice (July 3, 2005). "The Genius Factory: Test-Tube Superbabies". The New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2008.
- "William B. Shockley, 79, Creator of Transistor and Theory on Race". The New York Times. August 14, 1989. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved July 21, 2007.
He drew further scorn when he proposed financial rewards for the genetically disadvantaged if they volunteered for sterilization.
- "William Shockley (Part 3 of 3): Confusion over Credit". PBS. 1999. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
- "Comstock Prize in Physics". National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on December 29, 2010. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
- Editor, ÖGV. (2015). Wilhelm Exner Medal. Austrian Trade Association. ÖGV. Austria.
- "Google Patents assignee:(Shockley William)". patents.google.com. Retrieved December 12, 2020.
- Shockley, William (1971). "Models, Mathematics, and the Moral Obligation to Diagnose the Origin of Negro IQ Deficits". Review of Educational Research. 41 (4): 369–377. doi:10.2307/1169443. ISSN 0034-6543. JSTOR 1169443.
- Shockley, William (1971). "Negro IQ Deficit: Failure of a "Malicious Coincidence" Model Warrants New Research Proposals". Review of Educational Research. 41 (3): 227–248. doi:10.2307/1169529. ISSN 0034-6543. JSTOR 1169529.
- Shockley, Wiliam; Shockley, William (1972). "Dysgenics, Geneticity, Raceology: A Chalenge to the Intelectual Responsibility of Educators". The Phi Delta Kappan. 53 (5): 297–307. ISSN 0031-7217. JSTOR 20373194.
- Shockley, William (1972). "A Debate Challenge: Geneticity Is 80% for White Identical Twins' I.Q.'s". The Phi Delta Kappan. 53 (7): 415–419. ISSN 0031-7217. JSTOR 20373251.
- Shockley, William (1973). "Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Frequencies Caused by Assortative Mating in Hybrid Populations". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 70 (3): 732–736. Bibcode:1973PNAS...70..732S. doi:10.1073/pnas.70.3.732. ISSN 0027-8424. JSTOR 62346. PMC 433346. PMID 4514986.
- Park, Lubinski & Benbow 2010, "There were two young boys, Luis Alvarez and William Shockley, who were among the many who took Terman's tests but missed the cutoff score. Despite their exclusion from a study of young 'geniuses,' both went on to study physics, earn PhDs, and win the Nobel prize."
- Leslie 2000, "We also know that two children who were tested but didn't make the cut – William Shockley and Luis Alvarez – went on to win the Nobel Prize in Physics. According to Hastorf, none of the Terman kids ever won a Nobel or Pulitzer."
- Shurkin 2006, p. 13 (See also "The Truth About the 'Termites'" Kaufman, S. B. 2009)
- Simonton 1999, p. 4 "When Terman first used the IQ test to select a sample of child geniuses, he unknowingly excluded a special child whose IQ did not make the grade. Yet a few decades later that talent received the Nobel Prize in physics: William Shockley, the cocreator of the transistor. Ironically, not one of the more than 1,500 children who qualified according to his IQ criterion received so high an honor as adults."
- Eysenck 1998, pp. 127–128 "Terman, who originated those 'Genetic Studies of Genius', as he called them, selected ... children on the basis of their high IQs, the mean was 151 for both sexes. Seventy–seven who were tested with the newly translated and standardized Binet test had IQs of 170 or higher–well at or above the level of Cox's geniuses. What happened to these potential geniuses–did they revolutionize society? ... The answer in brief is that they did very well in terms of achievement, but none reached the Nobel Prize level, let alone that of genius. ... It seems clear that these data powerfully confirm the suspicion that intelligence is not a sufficient trait for truly creative achievement of the highest grade."
- Brittain, J.E. (1984). "Becker and Shive on the transistor". Proceedings of the IEEE. 72 (12): 1695. doi:10.1109/PROC.1984.13075. ISSN 0018-9219. S2CID 1616808.
an observation that William Shockley interpreted as confirmation of his concept of that junction transistor
- Eysenck, Hans (1998). Intelligence: A New Look. New Brunswick (NJ): Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7658-0707-6.
- Giangreco, D. M. (1997). "Casualty Projections for the U.S. Invasions of Japan, 1945-1946: Planning and Policy Implications". Journal of Military History. 61 (3): 521–581. doi:10.2307/2954035. ISSN 0899-3718. JSTOR 2954035. S2CID 159870872.
- Goodheart, Adam (July 2, 2006). "10 Days That Changed History". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
- Leslie, Mitchell (July–August 2000). "The Vexing Legacy of Lewis Terman". Stanford Magazine. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- Park, Gregory; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P. (November 2, 2010). "Recognizing Spatial Intelligence". Scientific American. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- Shurkin, Joel (2006). Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-8815-7.
- Brian Clegg (June 2, 2013). "Review - Broken Genius - Joel Shurkin". Popular Science. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- Simonton, Dean Keith (1999). Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512879-6. JSTOR 3080746.
- Riordan, Michael; Hoddeson, Lillian (1997). Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age. Sloan Technology Series. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04124-8.
- Arthur P. Molella (July 2000). "Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age (review)". Technology and Culture. 41 (3): 623–625. doi:10.1353/tech.2000.0121.
- Saxon, Wolfgang (August 14, 1989). "William B. Shockley, 79, Creator of Transistor and Theory on Race". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
He drew further scorn when he proposed financial rewards for the genetically disadvantaged if they volunteered for sterilization.
- "Contributors to Proceedings of the I.R.E." Proceedings of the I.R.E. November 1952. p. 1611. Archived from the original on November 26, 2012.
- Sparks, Morgan; Hogan, Lester; Linville, John (1991). "[Obituary:] William Shockley". Physics Today. 44 (6): 130–132. Bibcode:1991PhT....44f.130S. doi:10.1063/1.2810155. ISSN 0031-9228.
- Tucker, William H. (2007) [first published 2002]. The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07463-9.
- Andrew S. Winston (July 2003). "The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund (review)". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 58 (3): 391–392. doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrg016.
- National Academy of Sciences biography
- William Shockley on Nobelprize.org including his Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1956 Transistor Technology Evokes New Physics
- PBS biography
- Gordon Moore. Biography of William Shockley Time Magazine
- Interview with Shockley biographer Joel Shurkin
- Oral history interview transcript for William Shockley on 10 September 1974, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library & Archives - interview conducted by Lillian Hoddeson in Murray Hill, New Jersey
- History of the transistor
- William Shockley (IEEE Global History Network)
- Shockley and Bardeen-Brattain patent disputes
- William Shockley vs. Francis Cress-Welsing (Tony Brown Show, 1974)
- Works by or about William Shockley in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Guide to the William Shockley Papers SC0222