Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.

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Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.
Efrem Zimbalist Jr.JPG
Zimbalist in 1956
Born (1918-11-30)November 30, 1918
New York City
Died May 2, 2014(2014-05-02) (aged 95)
Solvang, California. U.S.
Resting place Town Hill Cemetery, New Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.
Residence Solvang, California
Nationality American
Education Fay School
Alma mater Yale University
Occupation Actor
Years active 1945–2008
Known for Dandy Jim Buckley,
Alfred Pennyworth,
DC animated universe
Home town New York City
Television 77 Sunset Strip,
The F.B.I.,
Batman: The Animated Series
Political party Republican Party[1]
Spouse(s) Emily Munroe McNair (m. 1945–50)
Loranda Stephanie Spaulding (m. 1956–2007)
Children With McNair:
Nancy Zimbalist
Efrem "Skip" Zimbalist III
With Spaulding:
Stephanie Zimbalist
Parent(s) Efrem Zimbalist, Sr.,
Alma Gluck
Awards Golden Globe Award

Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. (November 30, 1918 – May 2, 2014) was an American actor known for his starring roles in the television series 77 Sunset Strip and The F.B.I. He is also known as recurring character "Dandy Jim Buckley" in the series Maverick and as the voice behind the character Alfred Pennyworth in Batman: The Animated Series and associated spin-offs. He also voiced Doctor Octopus from the 1990s Spider-Man animated series, and Justin Hammer from the second season of 1994 Iron Man animated series.

Early years[edit]

Zimbalist was born in New York City, the son of Jewish parents. His father a Russian-born violinist Efrem Zimbalist, Sr.[2] and Romanian-born operatic soprano Alma Gluck.[3][4] His stepmother was Mary Louise Curtis Bok Zimbalist, the founder of the Curtis Institute of Music. He attended Fay School in Southborough, Massachusetts.[citation needed]

Zimbalist attended Yale University in the late 1930s, worked as a page for NBC radio in New York, and served in the United States Army for five years during World War II, where he became friends with Garson Kanin. He was awarded the Purple Heart for a leg wound received during the battle of Hürtgen Forest.

Early career[edit]

Following the war, Zimbalist returned to New York and made his Broadway acting debut in The Rugged Path, starring Spencer Tracy. This led to a stage career as both an actor and producer. His producing successes included bringing three Gian Carlo Menotti operas to Broadway, one of which, The Consul, won the Pulitzer Prize for music in 1950.

In 1954–1955 he co-starred in his first television series, Concerning Miss Marlowe.

Warner Bros. star[edit]

In 1956, Zimbalist was put under contract by Warner Bros. and moved to Hollywood.[5]

Zimbalist's first recurring role in a Warner Bros. Television series was as roguish gambler "Dandy Jim Buckley" on Maverick, opposite James Garner in 1957, and making five appearances as the character. In 1958, Zimbalist played the co-lead Stuart "Stu" Bailey in 77 Sunset Strip, a popular detective series running until 1964. During this period, he made several concurrent appearances in other Warner Bros. television shows, such as Hawaiian Eye, The Alaskans, and Bronco. He also starred as the lead in several feature films for Warners, such as Bombers B-52, The Deep Six, A Fever in the Blood, and The Chapman Report. Zimbalist was in such demand that he was given leave by Jack Warner due to exhaustion from his busy schedule.

Jack Warner lent him to Columbia Pictures for By Love Possessed in exchange for adding several years to his Warners' contract, but refused to let him make BUtterfield 8 for MGM.[6]

In 1959, he was awarded the Golden Globe for "Most Promising Newcomer – Male".

The F.B.I. television series[edit]

The F.B.I., first episode

Zimbalist was most widely known for his starring role as Inspector Lewis Erskine in the Quinn Martin television production The F.B.I., which premiered on September 19, 1965 and ended with its final episode on September 8, 1974. Zimbalist was generous in his praise of producer Martin and of his own experience starring in the show. Those who worked with him on the show were equally admiring of the star's professionalism and likable personality.[7]

Zimbalist maintained a strong personal relationship with J. Edgar Hoover, who requested technical accuracy for the show and that agents be portrayed in the best possible light. Actors who played F.B.I. employees were required by Hoover to undergo a background check.[7] Zimbalist passed his background check with ease. He subsequently spent a week in Washington, D.C., where he was interviewed by Hoover, and at the F.B.I. academy in Quantico, Virginia. Hoover and Zimbalist remained mutual admirers for the rest of Hoover's life.[7] Hoover later held Zimbalist up as an image role model for F.B.I. employees to emulate in their personal appearance.[8]

The Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation[9] honored the character of Lewis Erskine in 1985 with a set of retired credentials.[10] On June 8, 2009 FBI Director Robert Mueller presented Zimbalist with a plaque of an honorary special agent for his work on the television series The F.B.I., on which he worked in collaboration with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and his friend J. Edgar Hoover.[10][11] The run of the show on ABC was followed in the 1980s by a revival show, Today's FBI with Zimbalist returning as Erskine.

Other television work[edit]

After 77 Sunset Strip, he appeared in other series, including CBS's short-lived The Reporter starring Harry Guardino as journalist Danny Taylor of the fictitious New York Globe. He also appeared in leading and supporting roles in several feature films, including Harlow, A Fever in the Blood (a film about a ruthless politician), Wait Until Dark, and Airport 1975.

Zimbalist had a recurring role as Daniel Chalmers, a white-collar con man, on his daughter Stephanie Zimbalist's 1980s television detective series Remington Steele, and in the television dramatic series Hotel.

In 1990, he played the father of Zorro in the Christian Broadcasting Network's remake, The New Zorro. Zimbalist relinquished the role after the program's first season due to the filming at studios outside Madrid, Spain, and the role subsequently went to Henry Darrow. He had a small recurring role in the 1990s hit science fiction television series Babylon 5 as William Edgars.

Also in the 1990s, Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. played Alfred Pennyworth in Batman: The Animated Series as well as in Superman: The Animated Series, The New Batman Adventures, Justice League, Static Shock, and the animated films Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero, Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman, and villain Doctor Octopus in Spider-Man: The Animated Series. He appeared on the Trinity Broadcasting Network[12] and as himself in the 1998 Smithsonian Institution production of Gemstones of America.[13] He performed as the narrator in "Good Morning, America" by Elinor Remick Warren—Cambria CD #1042 (1993).

Zimbalist wrote an autobiography, My Dinner of Herbs, published by Limelight Editions, New York.

In 2008, he appeared in the short film The Delivery, where he played a professor who helps a young girl in her struggles for literacy. The film won first place in fantasy at the Dragon*Con Film Festival and was an official selection at the Los Angeles International Children's Festival and the Reel Women International Film Festival in 2009.

Personal life and religion[edit]

Zimbalist in 1972

Efrem Zimbalist married his first wife, Emily Munroe McNair, in 1945. She died of cancer five years later in 1950.[14] Zimbalist's second marriage was to Loranda Stephanie Spaulding in 1956. She died of lung cancer on February 5, 2007, at the age of 73.[14] Zimbalist was the father of Efrem Zimbalist III and Nancy Zimbalist by Emily McNair, and actress Stephanie Zimbalist by Stephanie Spaulding.

Zimbalist considered himself to be a man of abiding faith and was involved in a number of Christian media productions. His parents, Alma Gluck and Efrem Zimbalist, Sr., were assimilated non-practicing Jews who rejected their Jewish heritage.[15] Efrem Sr. was raised in a non-practicing household and later stated, "As far as I am concerned, there has been no Jew in the family for sixty-five years."[15] Alma and Efrem Sr. had their children baptized Christians in the Episcopal Church and raised them in that church. Efrem Jr. stated that he was taken to church every Sunday and attended St. Paul's School, an Episcopal boarding school in New Hampshire.[16] He also attended church every Sunday with his first wife, and it was his faith which allowed him peace when she succumbed to cancer.[17]

A spiritual pilgrim, Zimbalist was an early practitioner and proponent of Transcendental Meditation, as taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. He described the Maharishi Yogi as a "fascinating character", but found that his nine-year association with the meditation method "... was a total waste of energy for me."[17] He returned to the Episcopal Church for a time. In the late 1970s, Zimbalist was drawn to the Charismatic Christianity first to Jim Bakker and Tammy Faye Bakker's PTL Club and later, after serving for several years, on PTL's board, to its principal televangelistic successor the Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN).[18] Efrem's face and voice have appeared on scores of TBN announcements, including the station identification at the top of every hour. In a five-minute segment called "The Word"[19] which aired on TBN at 25 after the hour, Zimbalist read through the entire Bible, verse by verse; later these segments appeared in interludes and station breaks on TBN. He told a reporter in 1989, "for a while I did go overboard in my association with a fundamentalist group", but never made a verbal association with any ministry. As of January 2016, TBN still uses his spots where he reads scripture, as well as his voice on TBN network identifications.[20] Eventually, he resumed active participation in the Episcopal Church, feeling comfortable with that denominational style.[17]

In 1963 and 1964, Zimbalist joined fellow actors William Lundigan, Chill Wills, and Walter Brennan in making appearances on behalf of U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater, the Republican candidate, in his election campaign against U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.[21]


Zimbalist died on May 2, 2014 from natural causes at the age of 95. His daughter Stephanie announced the news, saying, "He was 95 years old, a devout Christian. He actively enjoyed his life to the last day, showering love on his extended family, playing golf and visiting with close friends."[22] His interment was at Town Hill Cemetery in New Hartford, Connecticut, near his parents.[23]

Acting credits[edit]


Opening date Closing date Title Role Theatre Refs
Nov 10, 1945 Jan 19, 1946 The Rugged Path Gil Hartnick Plymouth [24][25]
Nov 6, 1946 Feb 21, 1947 King Henry VIII Duke of Suffolk International Theatre [26][25]
Nov 8, 1946 Feb 15, 1947 What Every Woman Knows A Butler, Ensemble International Theatre [27][25]
Dec 19, 1946 Feb 22, 1947 A Pound on Demand
Androcles and the Lion
Secutor International Theatre [28][25]
Feb 27, 1947 Mar 15, 1947 Yellow Jack Aristides Agramonte International Theatre [29][25]
May 1, 1947 Nov 1, 1947 The Telephone
The Medium
(producer) Ethel Barrymore Theatre [30]
Feb 24, 1948 Mar 6, 1948 Hedda Gabler Eilert Lovborg Cort Theatre [31][25]
Dec 7, 1948 Jan 9, 1949 The Telephone (producer) City Center [32]
Dec 7, 1948 Jan 9, 1949 The Medium (producer) City Center [33]
Mar 15, 1950 Nov 4, 1950 The Consul (producer) Ethel Barrymore Theatre [34]
Jan 17, 1956 Aug 11, 1956 Fallen Angels Maurice Duclos Playhouse [35][25]
Oct 16, 2004 Nov 7, 2004 Night of the Iguana Nonno Rubicon Theatre Company
Apr 26, 2007 May 20, 2007 Hamlet The Player King Rubicon Theatre Company

Film and television[edit]

Year Title Role Notes Refs
1946 Mr. and Mrs. North TV movie [36]
1949 House of Strangers Tony Monetti [25]
1954–1955 Concerning Miss Marlowe Jim Gavin Unknown episodes [25]
1956 Star Tonight TV series, episode: "The Long View" [37]
United States Steel Hour, TheThe United States Steel Hour Sean O'Neill TV series, episode "Stopover at Sublimity" [25]
1957 Conflict Stuart Bailey TV series, episodes: "Execution Night"
and "Anything For Money"
Band of Angels Lt. Ethan Sears [25]
Bombers B-52 Colonel Jim Herlihy [25]
1957–1958 Maverick Dandy Jim Buckley TV series, episodes: "Stampede" (1957), "Trail West to Fury", "High Card Hangs", "The Jail at Junction Flats" and "Shady Deal at Sunny Acres" (all 1958)
1958 Deep Six, TheThe Deep Six Lt. Blanchard [25]
Too Much, Too Soon Vincent Bryant [25]
Violent Road George Lawrence [25]
Girl on the Run Stuart Bailey Pilot for TV series 77 Sunset Strip [25]
Sugarfoot Kerrigan the Great TV series, episode: "The Wizard"
Home Before Dark Jacob 'Jake' Diamond [25]
1958–1964 77 Sunset Strip Stu Bailey 163 episodes [39]
1959–1962 Hawaiian Eye Stu Bailey TV series, episodes: "Malahini Holiday" and "Three Tickets to Lani" (both 1959), "I Wed Three Wives" (1960) and "Blackmail in Satin" (1962)
1960 Alaskans, TheThe Alaskans John Conrad TV series, episode: "The Trial of Reno McKee"
The Crowded Sky Dale Heath [25]
1961 Fever in the Blood, AA Fever in the Blood Judge Leland Hoffman [25]
By Love Possessed Arthur Winner [25]
Bronco Edwin Booth TV series, episode: "The Prince of Darkness" [40]
1962 Chapman Report, TheThe Chapman Report Paul Radford [25]
1963 Insight TV series, episode: "The Phony"
1964 Insight Charles de Foucauld TV series, episode: "The Hermit"
Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre Paul Radford TV series, episode: "The Sojourner" [41]
Alfred Hitchcock Hour, TheThe Alfred Hitchcock Hour Stranger TV series, episode: "See the Monkey Dance"
Reporter, TheThe Reporter Charles Durwood TV series, episode: "Super-Star"
1965 Insight TV series, episode: "Stranger in My Shoes"
Rawhide Jeff McKeever TV series, episode: "The Diehard"
Harlow William Mansfield [25]
Reward, TheThe Reward Frank Bryant [25]
1965–1974 F.B.I., TheThe F.B.I. Inspector Lewis Erskine TV series, 241 episodes [42]
1966 Insight TV series, episode: "The Coffee House"
1967 Cosa Nostra, Arch Enemy of the F.B.I. Inspector Lewis Erskine TV movie [43]
Wait Until Dark Sam Hendrix [25]
1968 Insight Don Ford TV series, episode: "He Lived With Us, Ate With Us, What Else, Dear?"
1970 Insight TV series, episode: "The Day God Died"
1974 Airport 1975 Captain Stacy [25]
Insight TV series, episode: "When You See Arcturus"
1975 Who Is the Black Dahlia? Sgt. Harry Hansen TV movie [25]
1978 Family Upside Down, AA Family Upside Down Mike Long TV movie [25]
Terror Out of the Sky David Martin TV movie [25]
1979 Best Place to Be, TheThe Best Place to Be Bill Reardan TV movie [25]
Gathering, Part II, TheThe Gathering, Part II Victor Wainwright TV movie [25]
Insight God TV series, episode: "Checkmate"
Insight TV series, episode: "A Family of Winners"
1980 Scruples Ellis Ikehorn TV mini-series [25]
1982 Avenging, TheThe Avenging Jacob Anderson [25]
Beyond Witch Mountain Aristotle Bolt TV movie [25]
Family in Blue Marty Malone TV movie [25]
1983 Insight TV series, episode: "The Hit Man"
Tempest, TheThe Tempest Prospero Video [44]
Charley's Aunt Col. Francis Chesney TV movie [45]
Baby Sister Tom Burroughs TV movie [25]
Shooting Stars Robert Cluso TV movie [25]
Fantasy Island Mr. Baldwin TV series, episode: "The Butler's Affair/Roarke's Sacrifice"
Remington Steele Daniel Chalmers TV series, episode: "Sting of Steele" [25]
1984 Love Boat, TheThe Love Boat Dan Whitman TV series, episode: "Polly's Poker Palace, Parts 1 and 2"
Hardcastle and McCormick Emmett Parnell TV series, episode: "The Georgia Street Motors" [46]
Partners in Crime Grant Latham TV series, episode: "Murder in the Museum"
Cover Up E.G. Dawson TV series, episode: "Writer's Block"
Remington Steele Daniel Chalmers TV series, episode: "Blue Blooded Steele" [25]
Hotel Alexander Heath TV series, episode: "Flesh and Blood" [25]
You Are the Jury Narrator TV series: "The Case of the People of Florida v Joseph Lamdrum" [47]
1985 Finder of Lost Loves Judge Alex Hale TV series, episode: "Mister Wonderful"
Remington Steele Daniel Chalmers TV series, episode: "Steele Searching, Part 2" [25]
1986 You Are the Jury Narrator TV series, episode: "The State of Arizona v Dr. Evan Blake" [47]
Hotel Charles Cabot TV series, episodes: "Opening Moves", "Queen's Gambit", "Enemies Within", "Double Jeopardy", "Hornet's Nest", "Undercurrents" and "Forsaking All Others" [25]
1987 Remington Steele Daniel Chalmers TV series, episode: "Steeled With a Kiss, Parts 1 and 2" [25]
1988 Hotel Charles Cabot TV series, episode: "Power Play" [25]
Hunter Clarence Hyland TV series, episode: "Murder He Wrote"
Murder, She Wrote Gen. Havermeyer TV series, episode: "The Last Flight of the Dixie Damsel"
1990 Zorro Don Alejandro de la Vega TV series, 25 episodes [25]
Murder, She Wrote Richard Thompson Grant TV series, episode: "Hannigan's Wake"
Who's the Boss? Robert Robinson TV series, episode: "Operation Mona"
1991 Hot Shots! Wilson [25]
1992 Murder, She Wrote Adam Quatrain TV series, episode: "Sugar, Spice, Malice and Vice"
1992–1993 Legend of Prince Valiant, TheThe Legend of Prince Valiant King Arthur (voice) TV series, 53 episodes
1992–1995 Batman: The Animated Series Alfred TV series, 57 episodes [25]
1993 Jack L. Warner: The Last Mogul Narrator
Trade Winds Christof Philips TV mini-series [25]
Gabriel Knight: Sins of the Fathers Wolfgang Video game
Batman: Mask of the Phantasm Alfred Pennyworth Major Motion Picture (Movie) [25]
1994 Burke's Law Sam Gallagher TV series, episode: "Who Killed the Legal Eagle?"
Nanny, TheThe Nanny Theodore Timmons TV series, episode: "Material Fran"
1995 Street Corner Kids: The Sequel, TheThe Street Corner Kids: The Sequel Marty
Biker Mice from Mars King Arthur TV series, episode: "Knights of the Round Table, Parts 1 and 2"
One West Waikiki Walter Mansfield TV series, episode: "Flowers of Evil"
Gargoyles Mace Malone TV series, episode: "Revelations"
Iron Man Justin Hammer TV series, episodes: "The Armor Wars: Part 1 & 2", "The Beast Within"
1995–1997 Spider-Man Dr. Octopus/Dr. Otto Octavius TV series, 11 episodes
1996 Picket Fences Hal Klosterman TV series, episode: "Forget Selma"
Mighty Ducks Dr. Denton P. Hookerman TV series, episode: "Zap Attack"
1997 Babylon 5 William Edgars TV series, episodes: "Conflicts of Interest", "Moments of Transition", "Exercise of Vital Powers", "The Face of the Enemy" [48]
Visitor, TheThe Visitor Wayland Scott TV series, episode: "Miracles"
1997–1998 New Batman Adventures, TheThe New Batman Adventures Alfred Pennyworth 12 episodes [25]
1997–1999 Superman: The Animated Series Alfred Pennyworth 4 episodes [25]
1998 Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero Alfred Pennyworth [25]
Batman Superman Movie: World's Finest, TheThe Batman Superman Movie: World's Finest Alfred Pennyworth [25]
1999 Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man, TheThe Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man Dr. Octopus animated short film
2000 Spider-Man Dr. Octopus Video game
2001 Batman: Vengeance Alfred Pennyworth Video game [25]
First Day, TheThe First Day Benjamin Hart TV movie [25]
2003–2004 Justice League Alfred Pennyworth TV series, episodes: "Hereafter Part 1", Starcrossed Part 2 & 3" [25]
2003 Static Shock Alfred Pennyworth [25]
Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman Alfred Pennyworth [25]
2008 Delivery, TheThe Delivery Dr. Engel

Television appearances as self[edit]

Year Title Notes Refs
1961 What About Linda? March of Dimes fund raising program
1962 Here's Hollywood November 2, 1962
1965 Password All-Stars Episode: "Angie Dickinson vs. Efrem Zimbalist Jr."
1972 Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, TheThe Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson February 16, 1972
1978 30th Primetime Emmy Awards Presenter
1980 Anita Bryant Spectacular, TheThe Anita Bryant Spectacular [49]
1986 38th Primetime Emmy Awards Presenter
1991 Hot Shots: The Making of an Important Movie
1994 Vicki!
1998 Gemstones of America Host
1999 Year to Remember, AA Year to Remember Host
2003 Batman: Behind the Mystery
2004 TVLand Moguls
2008 Brothers Warner, TheThe Brothers Warner


  1. ^ "'FBI Agent' Efrem Zimbalist Jr. Remembered as Staunch Conservative". Newsmax.com. May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2014. 
  2. ^ Malan, Roy (May 2004). Efrem Zimbalist: A Life. Amadeus Press. p. 1. ISBN 1-57467-091-3. 
  3. ^ Marston Records bio of Alma Gluck
  4. ^ 1922-Year Radio's Population Soared-Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.'s parents at radio station WSB, Atlanta, in 1922 (PDF). Broadcasting. May 14, 1962. p. 119. Retrieved March 6, 2014. (PDF)
  5. ^ Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., My Dinner of Herbs, Limelight Editions, 2004.
  6. ^ http://www.americanlegends.com/actors/efrem%20zimbalist/
  7. ^ a b c Etter, Jonathan (2008). Quinn Martin, Producer: A Behind-the-Scenes History of QM Productions and Its Founder. McFarland. pp. 62–87. ISBN 978-0-7864-3867-9. 
  8. ^ Kessler, Ronald (2003). The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI. St. Martin's Paperbacks. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-312-98977-4. 
  9. ^ "Society of Former Special Agents of the FBI Inc.". Retrieved 15 July 2010. [dead link]
  10. ^ a b Robert S. Mueller, III (8 June 2009). "Presentation of Honorary Special Agent Badge to Efrem Zimbalist, Jr.Los Angeles". Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  11. ^ "Actor Efrem Zimbalist Jr. honored by FBI". Associated Press. 9 June 2009. 
  12. ^ TBN – Trinity Broadcasting Network
  13. ^ Gemstones of America
  14. ^ a b USA TODAY
  15. ^ a b Malan, Roy (2004). Efrem Zimbalist: A Life. Amadeus Press. pp. 139–142. ISBN 978-1-57467-091-2. 
  16. ^ Stanford, Monty (2008). "EZimablist Jr". Christus Rex 1 (5). 
  17. ^ a b c Silversten, Linda (1998). Lives Charmed: Intimate Conversations with Extraordinary People. HCI. pp. 173–194. ISBN 978-1-55874-593-3. 
  18. ^ Jeannie, Pugh (23 April 1979). "Efrem Zimbalist Jr. Revitalized His Faith Through Christian TV". St. Petersburg Times. 
  19. ^ Bruce Boland (2009-10-20). "emails from the public 2009 (kept for station FCC license renewal)" (PDF). Trinity Broadcasting Network. p. 19. Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  20. ^ Mary Evertz, "At 65 Still a Sex Symbol: Veteran Actor Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. is Back on Stage," St. Petersburg (Florida) Times, May 26, 1989.
  21. ^ "The Impact of the Draft Goldwater Committee on the Republican Party". ashbrook.org(archive.org). Archived from the original on March 3, 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-24. 
  22. ^ Statement from Stephanie Zimbalist and Efrem Zimbalist III
  23. ^ http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=129063100
  24. ^ "The Rugged Path". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be Monush 2003, p. 816.
  26. ^ "King Henry VIII". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  27. ^ "What Every Woman Knows". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  28. ^ "A Pound on Demand / Androcles and the Lion". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  29. ^ "Yellow Jack". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  30. ^ "The Telephone/The Medium". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  31. ^ "Hedda Gable". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  32. ^ "The Telephone". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  33. ^ "The Medium". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  34. ^ "The Consul". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  35. ^ "Fallen Angels". IBDB. The Broadway League. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  36. ^ Roberts 2009, p. 90.
  37. ^ Terrace 2011, p. 1011.
  38. ^ Terrace 2013a, p. 15.
  39. ^ Terrace 2013, pp. 121–122.
  40. ^ Marill 2011, p. 57.
  41. ^ Neibaur 2004, p. 178.
  42. ^ Terrace 2013, p. 79.
  43. ^ Roberts 2009, p. 383.
  44. ^ Coursen 2010, p. 127.
  45. ^ Terrace 2013b, p. 90.
  46. ^ Abbott 2009, p. 165.
  47. ^ a b Terrace 2013a, p. 331.
  48. ^ Garcia & Phillips 2012, p. 21.
  49. ^ Terrace 2013b, p. 33.


  • Abbott, Jon (2009). Stephen J. Cannell Television Productions: A History of All Series and Pilots. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 9780786454013. 
  • Coursen, Herbert R. (2010). Contemporary Shakespeare Production (Studies in Shakespeare). Peter Lang International Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-1433109249. 
  • Garcia, Frank; Phillips, Mark (2012). Science Fiction Television Series, 1990–2004: Histories, Casts and Credits for 58 Shows. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786469178. 
  • Marill, Alvin H. (2011). Television Westerns: Six Decades of Sagebrush Sheriffs, Scalawags, and Sidewinders. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810881327. 
  • Monush, Barry (2003). Encyclopedia of Hollywood Film Actors, Vol. 1: From the Silent Era to 1965. Hal Leonard Corporation (Applause). ISBN 978-1557835512. 
  • Neibaur, James L. (2004). The Bob Hope Films. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786410507. 
  • Roberts, Jerry (2009). Encyclopedia of Television Film Directors. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810861381. 
  • Terrace, Vincent (2013). Television Introductions: Narrated TV Program Openings since 1949. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810892491. 
  • Terrace, Vincent (2013a). Encyclopedia of Television Pilots: 1937–2012. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786474455. 
  • Terrace, Vincent (2013b). Television Specials: 5,336 Entertainment Programs, 1936–2012. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786474448. 
  • Terrace, Vincent (2011). Encyclopedia of Television Shows, 1925 through 2010. McFarland and Company, Inc. ISBN 0786464771. 
  • Zimbalist Jr., Efrem (2004). My Dinner of Herbs. Limelight Editions. ISBN 978-0-87910-988-2. 

External links[edit]