Eikev, Ekev, Ekeb, Aikev, or Eqeb (עֵקֶב – Hebrew for "if [you follow]," the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah) is the 46th weekly Torah portion (פָּרָשָׁה, parashah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the third in the book of Deuteronomy. It comprises Deuteronomy 7:12–11:25. The parashah is made up of 6,865 Hebrew letters, 1,747 Hebrew words, and 111 verses, and can occupy about 232 lines in a Torah Scroll (סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, Sefer Torah).
- 1 Readings
- 1.1 First reading – Deuteronomy 7:12–8:10
- 1.2 Second reading – Deuteronomy 8:11–9:3
- 1.3 Third reading – Deuteronomy 9:4–29
- 1.4 Fourth reading – Deuteronomy 10:1–11
- 1.5 Fifth reading – Deuteronomy 10:12–11:9
- 1.6 Sixth reading – Deuteronomy 11:10–21
- 1.7 Seventh reading – Deuteronomy 11:22–25
- 1.8 Readings according to the triennial cycle
- 2 In ancient parallels
- 3 In inner-Biblical interpretation
- 4 In early nonrabbinic interpretation
- 5 In classical Rabbinic interpretation
- 6 In medieval rabbinic interpretation
- 7 In modern interpretation
- 8 Commandments
- 9 In the liturgy
- 10 Haftarah
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
- 13 Notes
In traditional Sabbath Torah reading, the parashah is divided into seven readings, or עליות, aliyot. In the masoretic text of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), Parashah Eikev has six "open portion" (פתוחה, petuchah) divisions (roughly equivalent to paragraphs, often abbreviated with the Hebrew letter פ (peh)). Parashah Eikev has several further subdivisions, called "closed portions" (סתומה, setumah) (abbreviated with the Hebrew letter ס (samekh)) within the open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) divisions. The first open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) divides the first reading (עליה, aliyah). The second open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) goes from the middle of the first reading (עליה, aliyah) to the middle of the second reading (עליה, aliyah). The short third open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) is contained within the second reading (עליה, aliyah). The fourth open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) starts in the second reading (עליה, aliyah) and contains all of the third reading (עליה, aliyah). The fifth open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) corresponds to the fourth reading (עליה, aliyah). And the sixth open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) spans the fifth, sixth, and seventh readings (עליות, aliyot). A closed portion (סתומה, setumah) corresponds to the fifth reading (עליה, aliyah). The sixth reading (עליה, aliyah) is divided into two closed portion (סתומה, setumah) divisions. And the short seventh reading (עליה, aliyah) corresponds to a final closed portion (סתומה, setumah).
First reading – Deuteronomy 7:12–8:10
In the first reading (עליה, aliyah), Moses told the Israelites that if they obeyed God's rules, God would faithfully maintain the covenant, would bless them with fertility and agricultural productivity, and would ward off sickness. Moses directed the Israelites to destroy all the peoples whom God delivered to them, showing no pity and not worshiping their gods. A closed portion (סתומה, setumah) ends here.
Moses told the Israelites not to fear these nations because they were numerous, for the Israelites had but to recall what God did to Pharaoh and the Egyptians and the wonders by which God liberated them. God would do the same to the peoples whom they feared, and would send a plague against them, too. God would dislodge those peoples little by little, so that the wild beasts would not take over the land. Moses directed the Israelites to burn the images of their gods, not to covet nor keep the silver and gold on them, nor to bring an abhorrent thing into their houses. The first open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) ends here with the end of chapter 7.
God made the Israelites travel the long way in the wilderness for 40 years to test them with hardships to learn what was in their hearts and whether they would keep God's commandments. God subjected them to hunger and then gave them manna to teach them that man does not live on bread alone, but on what God decrees. Their clothes did not wear out, nor did their feet swell for 40 years. God disciplined them as a man disciplines his son. Moses told the Israelites that God was bringing them into a good land, where they might eat food without end, and thus when they had eaten their fill, they were to give thanks to God for the good land that God had given them. The first reading (עליה, aliyah) ends here.
Second reading – Deuteronomy 8:11–9:3
In the second reading (עליה, aliyah), Moses warned the Israelites not to forget God, not to violate God's commandments, and not to grow haughty and believe that their own power had won their wealth, but to remember that God gave them the power to prosper. The second open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) ends here.
Moses warned that if they forgot God and followed other gods, then they would certainly perish like the nations that God was going to displace from the land. The third open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) ends here with the end of chapter 8.
Moses warned the Israelites that they were to dispossess nations greater than they, but God would go before them as a devouring fire to drive out the land's inhabitants. The second reading (עליה, aliyah) ends here.
Third reading – Deuteronomy 9:4–29
In the third reading (עליה, aliyah), Moses warned the Israelites not to believe that God had enabled them to possess the land because of their virtue, for God was dispossessing the land's current inhabitants because of those nations' wickedness and to fulfill the oath that God had made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Moses exhorted the Israelites to remember how they had provoked God to anger in the wilderness. At Horeb they so provoked God that God was angry enough to have destroyed them. Moses ascended the mountain, stayed for 40 days and nights, and consumed no bread or water. At the end of the 40 days, God gave Moses two stone tablets that God had inscribed with the covenant that God had addressed to the Israelites. God told Moses to hurry down, for the people whom Moses brought out of Egypt had acted wickedly and had made a molten image. God told Moses that God was inclined to destroy them and make of Moses a nation far more numerous than they. Moses started down the mountain with the two tablets in his hands, when he saw how the Israelites had made themselves a molten calf. Moses smashed the two tablets before their eyes, and threw himself down before God, fasting another 40 days and nights. God gave heed to Moses. God was angry enough with Aaron to have destroyed him, so Moses also interceded for Aaron. Moses burned the calf, ground it into dust, and threw its dust into the brook that came down from the mountain.
In the continuation of the reading, Moses reminded the Israelites how they provoked God at Taberah, at Massah, and at Kibroth-hattaavah. And when God sent them from Kadesh-barnea to take possession of the land, they flouted God's command and did not put their trust in God. When Moses lay prostrate before God those 40 days, because God was determined to destroy the Israelites, Moses prayed to God not to annihilate God's own people, whom God freed from Egypt, but to give thought to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and ignore the Israelites' sinfulness, else the Egyptians would say that God was powerless to bring them into the land that God had promised them. The third reading (עליה, aliyah) and the fourth open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) end here with the end of chapter 9.
Fourth reading – Deuteronomy 10:1–11
In the fourth reading (עליה, aliyah), God told Moses to carve out two tablets of stone like the first, come up the mountain, and make an ark of wood. God inscribed on the tablets the Ten Commandments that were on the first tablets that Moses had smashed, and Moses came down from the mountain and deposited the tablets in the Ark.
In the continuation of the reading, the Israelites marched to Moserah, where Aaron died and was buried, and his son Eleazar became priest in his stead. From there they marched to Gudgod, and on to Jotbath. God set apart the Levites to carry the Ark of the Covenant, to stand in attendance upon the Tabernacle, and to bless in God's Name, and that was why the Levites were to receive no portion of the land, as God was their portion. The fourth reading (עליה, aliyah) and the fifth open portion (פתוחה, petuchah) end with Deuteronomy 10:11.
Fifth reading – Deuteronomy 10:12–11:9
In the fifth reading (עליה, aliyah), Moses exhorted the Israelites to revere God, to walk only in God's paths, to love God, to serve God with all their heart and soul, and to keep God's commandments. Moses noted that although heaven and earth belong to God, God was drawn to love their fathers, so that God chose the Israelites from among all peoples. Moses described God as supreme, great, mighty, and awesome, showing no favor and taking no bribe, but upholding the cause of the fatherless and the widow, and befriending the stranger. Moses thus instructed the Israelites to befriend the stranger, for they were strangers in Egypt. Moses exhorted the Israelites to revere God, worship only God, and swear only by God's name, for God was their glory, who performed for them marvelous deeds, and made them as numerous as the stars. Moses exhorted the Israelites to love God and always keep God's commandments. Moses asked the Israelites to note that they themselves witnessed the signs that God performed in Egypt against Pharaoh, what God did to Egypt's army, how God rolled upon them the waters of the Sea of Reeds, what God did for them in the wilderness, and what God did to Dathan and Abiram when the earth swallowed them. Moses instructed them therefore to keep all the law so that they might have the strength to enter and possess the land and long endure on that land flowing with milk and honey. The fifth reading (עליה, aliyah) and a closed portion (סתומה, setumah) end here.
Sixth reading – Deuteronomy 11:10–21
In the sixth reading (עליה, aliyah), Moses extolled the land as a land of hills and valleys that soaks up its water from the rains, a land that God looks after. A closed portion (סתומה, setumah) end here.
Then Moses told them words now found in the Shema prayer: If the Israelites obeyed the commandments, loving God and serving God with heart and soul, God would grant the rain in season and they would gather their grain, wine, and oil. God would provide grass for their cattle and the Israelites would eat their fill. Moses warned them not to be lured away to serve other gods, for God's anger would flare up against them, God would suspend the rain, and they would soon perish from the land. Moses urged them to impress God's words upon their heart, bind them as a sign on their hands, let them serve as a symbol on their foreheads, teach them to their children, and recite them when they stayed at home and when they were away, when they lay down and when they got up. Moses instructed them to inscribe God's words on the doorposts of their houses and on their gates, so that they and their children might endure in the land that God swore to their fathers as long as there is a heaven over the earth. The sixth reading (עליה, aliyah) and a closed portion (סתומה, setumah) end here.
Seventh reading – Deuteronomy 11:22–25
In the seventh reading (עליה, aliyah), which is also the concluding maftir (מפטיר) reading, Moses promised that if the Israelites faithfully kept the law, loving God, walking in all God's ways, and holding fast to God, then God would dislodge the nations then in the land, and every spot on which their feet tread would be theirs, and their territory would extend from the wilderness to Lebanon and from the Euphrates to the Mediterranean Sea. Parashah Eikev and a closed portion (סתומה, setumah) end here.
Readings according to the triennial cycle
|Year 1||Year 2||Year 3|
|2013–2014, 2016–2017, 2019–2020 . . .||2014–2015, 2017–2018, 2020–2021 . . .||2015–2016, 2018–2019, 2021–2022 . . .|
In ancient parallels
The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these ancient sources:
Deuteronomy chapter 9
Numbers 13:22 and 28 refer to the "children of Anak" (יְלִדֵי הָעֲנָק, yelidei ha-anak), Numbers 13:33 refers to the "sons of Anak" (בְּנֵי עֲנָק, benei anak), and Deuteronomy 1:28, 2:10–11, 2:21, and 9:2 refer to the "Anakim" (עֲנָקִים). John A. Wilson suggested that the Anakim may be related to the Iy-‘anaq geographic region named in Middle Kingdom Egyptian (19th to 18th century BCE) pottery bowls that had been inscribed with the names of enemies and then shattered as a kind of curse.
In inner-Biblical interpretation
The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these Biblical sources:
Deuteronomy chapter 9
1 Kings 12:25–33 reports a parallel story of golden calves. King Jeroboam of the northern Kingdom of Israel made two calves of gold out of a desire to prevent the kingdom from returning to allegiance to the house of David and the southern Kingdom of Judah. In Exodus 32:4, the people said of the Golden Calf, "This is your god, O Israel, that brought you up out of the land of Egypt." Similarly, in 1 Kings 12:28, Jeroboam told the people of his golden calves, "You have gone up long enough to Jerusalem; behold your gods, O Israel, that brought you up out of the land of Egypt." Jeroboam set up one of the calves in Bethel, and the other in Dan, and the people went to worship before the calf in Dan. Jeroboam made houses of high places, and made priests from people who were not Levites. He ordained a feast like Sukkot on the fifteenth day of the eighth month (a month after the real Sukkot), and he went up to the altar at Bethel to sacrifice to the golden calves that he had made, and he installed his priests there.
In Deuteronomy 9:27 and Exodus 32:13, Moses called on God to remember God's covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob to deliver the Israelites from God's wrath after the incident of the Golden Calf. Similarly, God remembered Noah to deliver him from the flood in Genesis 8:1; God promised to remember God's covenant not to destroy the Earth again by flood in Genesis 9:15–16; God remembered Abraham to deliver Lot from the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah in Genesis 19:29; God remembered Rachel to deliver her from childlessness in Genesis 30:22; God remembered God's covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob to deliver the Israelites from Egyptian bondage in Exodus 2:24 and 6:5–6; God promised to "remember" God's covenant with Jacob, Isaac, and Abraham to deliver the Israelites and the Land of Israel in Leviticus 26:42–45; the Israelites were to blow upon their trumpets to be remembered and delivered from their enemies in Numbers 10:9; Samson called on God to deliver him from the Philistines in Judges 16:28; Hannah prayed for God to remember her and deliver her from childlessness in 1 Samuel 1:11 and God remembered Hannah's prayer to deliver her from childlessness in 1 Samuel 1:19; Hezekiah called on God to remember Hezekiah's faithfulness to deliver him from sickness in 2 Kings 20:3 and Isaiah 38:3; Jeremiah called on God to remember God's covenant with the Israelites to not condemn them in Jeremiah 14:21; Jeremiah called on God to remember him and think of him, and avenge him of his persecutors in Jeremiah 15:15; God promises to remember God's covenant with the Israelites and establish an everlasting covenant in Ezekiel 16:60; God remembers the cry of the humble in Zion to avenge them in Psalm9:13; David called upon God to remember God's compassion and mercy in Psalm 25:6; Asaph called on God to remember God's congregation to deliver them from their enemies in Psalm 74:2; God remembered that the Israelites were only human in Psalm 78:39; Ethan the Ezrahite called on God to remember how short Ethan's life was in Psalm 89:48; God remembers that humans are but dust in Psalm 103:14; God remembers God's covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in Psalm 105:8–10; God remembers God's word to Abraham to deliver the Israelites to the Land of Israel in Psalm 105:42–44; the Psalmist calls on God to remember him to favor God's people, to think of him at God's salvation, that he might behold the prosperity of God's people in Psalm 106:4–5; God remembered God's covenant and repented according to God's mercy to deliver the Israelites in the wake of their rebellion and iniquity in Psalm 106:4–5; the Psalmist calls on God to remember God's word to God's servant to give him hope in Psalm 119:49; God remembered us in our low estate to deliver us from our adversaries in Psalm 136:23–24; Job called on God to remember him to deliver him from God's wrath in Job 14:13; Nehemiah prayed to God to remember God's promise to Moses to deliver the Israelites from exile in Nehemiah 1:8; and Nehemiah prayed to God to remember him to deliver him for good in Nehemiah 13:14–31.
Deuteronomy chapter 10
Deuteronomy 10:8 assigns the Levites the duties of bearing the Ark of the Covenant, to stand before God to minister to God, and to bless in God's name. Elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy 33:10 reports that Levites taught the law. Deuteronomy 17:9–10 reports that they served as judges. 1 Chronicles 23:3–5 reports that of 38,000 Levite men age 30 and up, 24,000 were in charge of the work of the Temple in Jerusalem, 6,000 were officers and magistrates, 4,000 were gatekeepers, and 4,000 praised God with instruments and song. 1 Chronicles 15:16 reports that King David installed Levites as singers with musical instruments, harps, lyres, and cymbals, and 1 Chronicles 16:4 reports that David appointed Levites to minister before the Ark, to invoke, to praise, and to extol God. And 2 Chronicles 5:12 reports at the inauguration of Solomon's Temple, Levites sang dressed in fine linen, holding cymbals, harps, and lyres, to the east of the altar, and with them 120 priests blew trumpets. 2 Chronicles 20:19 reports that Levites of the sons of Kohath and of the sons of Korah extolled God in song. Eleven Psalms identify themselves as of the Korahites. And the siddur reports that the Levites would recite the Psalm for the Day in the Temple.
In early nonrabbinic interpretation
The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these early nonrabbinic sources:
Deuteronomy chapter 8
Philo saw in Deuteronomy 8:12–17 accusations against "the self-loving man." Philo cited Cain as an example of one who (in Genesis 4:3) showed his gratitude to God too slowly. Philo taught that we should hurry to please God without delay. Thus Deuteronomy 23:22 enjoins, "If you vow a vow, you shall not delay to perform it." Philo explained that a vow is a request to God for good things, and Deuteronomy 23:22 thus enjoins that when one has received them, one must offer gratitude to God as soon as possible. Philo divided those who fail to do so into three types: (1) those who forget the benefits that they have received, (2) those who from an excessive conceit look upon themselves and not God as the authors of what they receive, and (3) those who realize that God caused what they received, but still say that they deserved it, because they are worthy to receive God's favor. Philo taught that Scripture opposes all three. Philo wrote that Deuteronomy 8:12–14 replies to the first group who forget, "Take care, lest when you have eaten and are filled, and when you have built fine houses and inhabited them, and when your flocks and your herds have increased, and when your silver and gold, and all that you possess is multiplied, you be lifted up in your heart, and forget the Lord your God." Philo taught that one does not forget God when one remembers one's own nothingness and God's exceeding greatness. Philo interpreted Deuteronomy 8:17 to reprove those who look upon themselves as the cause of what they have received, telling them: "Say not my own might, or the strength of my right hand has acquired me all this power, but remember always the Lord your God, who gives you the might to acquire power." And Philo read Deuteronomy 9:4–5 to address those who think that they deserve what they have received, saying, "You do not enter into this land to possess it because of your righteousness, or because of the holiness of your heart; but, in the first place, because of the iniquity of these nations, since God has brought on them the destruction of wickedness; and in the second place, that He may establish the covenant that He swore to our Fathers." Philo interpreted the term "covenant" figuratively to mean God's graces. Thus Philo concluded that if we discard forgetfulness, ingratitude, and self-love, we will no longer through delay miss attaining the genuine worship of God, but we shall meet God, having prepared ourselves to do what God commands us.
In classical Rabbinic interpretation
Deuteronomy chapter 7
A Midrash likened the second word of Deuteronomy 7:12, עֵקֶב, eikev ("if" or "because") to the word עֲקֵבַי, akeivai ("footsteps") in Psalm 49:6, which the Midrash interpreted to mean: "Why should I fear in the days of evil? The iniquity of my footsteps encompasses me." The Midrash taught that people sometimes fail to observe minor commandments, thus trampling those commandments beneath their heels. The Midrash thus taught that the Psalmist feared the day of judgment because he may have trampled minor commandments.
Another Midrash played on two possible meanings of the second word of Deuteronomy 7:12, עֵקֶב, eikev, "as a consequence" and "the end." Israel asked God when God would grant reward for the observance of commandments. God replied that when people observe commandments, they enjoy some fruits now, but God will give them their full reward in the end, after death.
Another Midrash played on two possible meanings of the second word of Deuteronomy 7:12, עֵקֶב, eikev, "as a consequence" and "heel." The Midrash interpreted the words "upon Edom I cast my shoe" in Psalms 60:10 and 108:10 to mean that God says that when Israel repents, then God will tread with God's heel, so to speak, on Israel's enemy Edom. And the Midrash taught, in the words of Deuteronomy 7:12, that "it shall come to pass, because (eikev) you hearken."
Rabbi Samuel bar Nahmani interpreted the words "that the Lord your God shall keep for you" in Deuteronomy 7:12, teaching that all the good that Israel enjoys in this world results from the blessings with which Balaam blessed Israel, but the blessings with which the Patriarchs blessed Israel are reserved for the time to come, as signified by the words, "that the Lord your God shall keep for you."
Rabbi Bibi ben Giddal said that Simeon the Just taught that the law prohibited a Jew from robbing a non-Jew, although a Jew could take possession of a non-Jew's lost article. Rav Huna read Deuteronomy 7:16 to prohibit a Jew from robbing a non-Jew, because Deuteronomy 7:16 provided that the Israelites were to take from the enemies that God would deliver to them in time of war, thus implying that the Israelites could not take from non-Jews in time of peace, when God had not delivered them into the Israelites' hands.
In Exodus 23:28, God promised to "send the hornet (צִּרְעָה) before you, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before you," and in Deuteronomy 7:20, Moses promised that "the Lord your God will send the hornet (צִּרְעָה) among them." But a Baraita taught that the hornet did not pass over the Jordan River with the Israelites. Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish reconciled the two sources, explaining that the hornet stood on the eastern bank of the Jordan and shot its venom over the river at the Canaanites. The venom blinded the Canaanites' eyes above and castrated them below, as Amos 2:9 says, "Yet destroyed I the Amorite before them, whose height was like the height of the cedars, and he was strong as the oaks; yet I destroyed his fruit from above and his roots from beneath." Rav Papa offered an alternative explanation, saying that there were two hornets, one in the time of Moses and the other in the time of Joshua. The former did not pass over the Jordan, but the latter did.
The Rabbis told the story that God, Daniel, and Nebuchadnezzar conspired to keep Daniel out of the fiery furnace. God said: "Let Daniel depart, lest people say that Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah were delivered through Daniel's merit instead of their own." Daniel said: "Let me go, so that I will not become a fulfillment of the words (in Deuteronomy 7:25), ‘the graven images of their gods you shall burn with fire.'" And Nebuchadnezzar said: "Let Daniel depart, lest people say that the king has burned his god in fire."
The Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael used Deuteronomy 7:25 to help interpret the commandment not to covet in Exodus 20:13 (20:14 in NJSP). The Mekhilta asked whether the commandment not to covet in Exodus 20:13 (20:14 in NJSP) applied so far as to prohibit merely expressing one's desire for one's neighbor's things in words. But the Mekhilta noted that Deuteronomy 7:25 says, "You shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on them, nor take it for yourself." And the Mekhilta reasoned that just as in Deuteronomy 7:25 the word "covet" applies only to prohibit the carrying out of one's desire into practice, so also Exodus 20:13 (20:14 in NJSP) prohibits only the carrying out of one's desire into practice.
The Gemara deduced from the command of Deuteronomy 7:26, "you shall not bring an abomination into your house, lest you be a cursed thing like it," that whatever one might bring into being out of an idolatrous thing would have the same cursed status.
Rabbi Johanan in the name of Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai noted the word "abomination" in common in both Deuteronomy 7:26 and Proverbs 16:5 and deduced that people who are haughty of spirit are as though they worshiped idols.
Deuteronomy chapter 8
The Mishnah taught that first fruits were brought only from the Seven Species (Shiv'at Ha-Minim) that Deuteronomy 8:8 noted to praise the Land of Israel: wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olive-oil, and date-honey. But first fruits could not be brought from dates grown on hills, or from valley-fruits, or from olives that were not of the choice kind.
Rabbi Awira told – sometimes in the name of Rabbi Ammi, and sometimes in the name of Rabbi Assi – that the angels asked God whether God was not showing favor to Israel. And God asked the angels how God could not show favor to Israel, when Deuteronomy 8:10 required them to bless God when they had eaten and were satisfied, but the Israelites bless God even when they have eaten only the quantity of an olive or an egg.
Rabbi Johanan deduced from Deuteronomy 8:14 that people who are haughty of spirit are as though they had denied the fundamental principle of God's existence. And Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak found in Deuteronomy 8:14 a prohibition for haughtiness of spirit. For Rabbi Abin said in the name of Rabbi Ilai that wherever it is stated "Beware, lest" (as it does in Deuteronomy 8:11) the reference is to a prohibition.
In Deuteronomy 8:14, the heart becomes proud. A Midrash catalogued the wide range of additional capabilities of the heart reported in the Hebrew Bible. The heart speaks, sees, hears, walks, falls, stands, rejoices, cries, is comforted, is troubled, becomes hardened, grows faint, grieves, fears, can be broken, rebels, invents, cavils, overflows, devises, desires, goes astray, lusts, is refreshed, can be stolen, is humbled, is enticed, errs, trembles, is awakened, loves, hates, envies, is searched, is rent, meditates, is like a fire, is like a stone, turns in repentance, becomes hot, dies, melts, takes in words, is susceptible to fear, gives thanks, covets, becomes hard, makes merry, acts deceitfully, speaks from out of itself, loves bribes, writes words, plans, receives commandments, acts with pride, makes arrangements, and aggrandizes itself.
The Pesikta de-Rav Kahana cited Deuteronomy 8:14 for the proposition that God's fate and Israel's fate are intertwined. According to Bar Kappara, God told Israel that the time of God's redemption (when God would release God's right hand, which was restrained while Israel is in exile) was in Israel's hand, and the time of Israel's redemption was in God's hand. As the time of God's redemption (and action) was in Israel's hand, therefore, Israel should heed the words of Deuteronomy 8:14, "let not your heart grow haughty so that you forget the Lord your God." And that the time of Israel's redemption was in God's hand was seen in Psalm 137:5, "If I forget you, O Jerusalem, My right hand will forget." To Rabbi Dosa, this verse meant that God said that if God forgot Jerusalem, God's right hand would forget how to perform miracles (and God would thus cease to be God).
A Midrash taught that God told the Israelites that during all the 40 years that they spent in the wilderness, God did not make it necessary for them to escape. Rather, God cast their enemies down before them. As Deuteronomy 8:15 reports, there were numerous snakes, fiery serpents, and scorpions in the wilderness, but God did not allow them to harm the Israelites. Thus, God told Moses to write down in Numbers 33 the stages by which Israel journeyed in the wilderness, so that they would know the miracles that God had done for them.
Deuteronomy chapter 9
Rabbi Tanhuma taught that Moses prostrated himself before the Israelites and said to them the words of Deuteronomy 9:1, "You are to pass over the Jordan," noting that he would not. Moses gave the Israelites the opportunity to pray for him, but they did not. The Midrash compared this to a king who had many children by a noble lady. The lady was undutiful to him and he decided to divorce her. He told her that he was going to marry another wife. She asked who, and he told her. She summoned her children and told them that their father intended to divorce her and marry the other woman, and asked the children if they could bear being subjected to her. She thought that perhaps they would understand what she meant and would intercede with their father on her behalf, but they did not understand. As they did not understand, she commanded them only for their own sake to be mindful of the honor of their father. So it was with Moses. When God told him in Deuteronomy 3:27, "You shall not go over this Jordan," Moses spoke to the Israelites and stressed the words in Deuteronomy 9:1, "You are to pass over."
A Baraita taught that because of God's displeasure with the Israelites, the north wind did not blow on them in any of the 40 years during which they wandered in the wilderness. Rashi attributed God's displeasure to the Golden Calf, although the Tosafot attributed it to the incident of the spies in Numbers 13.
Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai taught that because the generation of the Flood transgressed the Torah that God gave humanity after Moses had stayed on the mountain for 40 days and 40 nights (as reported in Exodus 24:18 and 34:28 and Deuteronomy 9:9–11, 18, 25, and 10:10), God announced in Genesis 7:4 that God would "cause it to rain upon the earth 40 days and 40 nights."
Noting that in Deuteronomy 9:9, Moses said, "And I sat (וָאֵשֵׁב, va-eisheiv) on the mount," and in Deuteronomy 10:10, Moses said, "And I stood in the mount, Rav taught that Moses stood when he learned (from God) and sat while he reviewed what he had learned (by himself). Rabbi Hanina taught that Moses neither sat nor stood, but bowed. Rabbi Johanan taught that "sat" (וָאֵשֵׁב, va-eisheiv) here meant only "stayed," as it does in Deuteronomy 1:46, which says, "And you stayed (תֵּשְׁבוּ, teshbu) in Kadesh many days." Rava taught that Moses learned the easy things standing and the hard ones sitting.
A Midrash explained why Moses broke the stone tablets. When the Israelites committed the sin of the Golden Calf, God sat in judgment to condemn them, as Deuteronomy 9:14 says, "Let Me alone, that I may destroy them," but God had not yet condemned them. So Moses took the tablets from God to appease God's wrath. The Midrash compared the act of Moses to that of a king's marriage-broker. The king sent the broker to secure a wife for the king, but while the broker was on the road, the woman corrupted herself with another man. The broker (who was entirely innocent) took the marriage document that the king had given the broker to seal the marriage and tore it, reasoning that it would be better for the woman to be judged as an unmarried woman than as a wife.
In Deuteronomy 18:15, Moses foretold that "A prophet will the Lord your God raise up for you . . . like me," and Rabbi Johanan thus taught that prophets would have to be, like Moses, strong, wealthy, wise, and meek. Strong, for Exodus 40:19 says of Moses, "he spread the tent over the tabernacle," and a Master taught that Moses himself spread it, and Exodus 26:16 reports, "Ten cubits shall be the length of a board." Similarly, the strength of Moses can be derived from Deuteronomy 9:17, in which Moses reports, "And I took the two tablets, and cast them out of my two hands, and broke them," and it was taught that the tablets were six handbreadths in length, six in breadth, and three in thickness. Wealthy, as Exodus 34:1 reports God's instruction to Moses, "Carve yourself two tablets of stone," and the Rabbis interpreted the verse to teach that the chips would belong to Moses. Wise, for Rav and Samuel both said that 50 gates of understanding were created in the world, and all but one were given to Moses, for Psalm 8:6 said of Moses, "You have made him a little lower than God." Meek, for Numbers 12:3 reports, "Now the man Moses was very meek."
A Midrash recounted how at first (after the incident of the Golden Calf), God pronounced a decree against Aaron, as Deuteronomy 9:20 says, "The Lord was very angry with Aaron to have destroyed (לְהַשְׁמִיד, le-hashmid) him." And Rabbi Joshua of Siknin taught in the name of Rabbi Levi that "destruction" (הַשְׁמָדָה, hashmadah) means extinction of offspring, as in Amos 2:9, which says, "And I destroyed ( וָאַשְׁמִיד, va-ashmid) his fruit from above, and his roots from beneath." But, as Rabbi Joshua ben Levi taught, prayer effects half atonement. So when Moses prayed on Aaron's behalf, God annulled half the decree. Aaron's two sons Nadab and Abihu died, and Aaron's two other sons remained. Thus Leviticus 8:1–2 says, "And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: ‘Take Aaron and his sons'" (implying that they were to be saved from death).
The Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer expounded on the exchange between God and Moses in Deuteronomy 9:26–29. The Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer told that after the incident of the Golden Calf, God told Moses that the Israelites had forgotten God's might and had made an idol. Moses replied to God that while the Israelites had not yet sinned, God had called them "My people," as in Exodus 7:4, God had said, "And I will bring forth My hosts, My people." But Moses noted that once the Israelites had sinned, God told Moses (in Exodus 32:7), "Go, get down, for your people have corrupted themselves." Moses told God that the Israelites were indeed God's people, and God's inheritance, as Deuteronomy 9:29 reports Moses saying, "Yet they are Your people and Your inheritance."
Deuteronomy chapter 10
Reading the words, "which you broke, and you shall put them," in Deuteronomy 10:2, Rav Joseph noted that the verse employs superfluous words to describe the Tablets. Rav Joseph reasoned that the two mentionings of the Tablets teaches that both the Tablets and the fragments of the Tablets that Moses broke were deposited in the Ark. Rav Joseph deduced from this that a scholar who has forgotten his learning through no fault of his own (through old age, sickness, or trouble, but not through willful neglect) is still due respect (by analogy to the broken pieces of the tablets that the Israelites nonetheless treated with sanctity).
The Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer explained how the Levites came to minister before God, as directed in Deuteronomy 10:8. The Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer taught that Jacob wished to ford the Jabbok River and was detained there by an angel, who asked Jacob whether Jacob had not told God (in Genesis 28:22), "Of all that you shall give me I will surely give a tenth to You." So Jacob gave a tenth of all the cattle that he had brought from Paddan Aram. Jacob had brought some 5,500 animals, so his tithe came to 550 animals. Jacob again tried to ford the Jabbok, but was hindered again. The angel once again asked Jacob whether Jacob had not told God (in Genesis 28:22), "Of all that you shall give me I will surely give a tenth to You." The angel noted that Jacob had sons and that Jacob had not given a tithe of them. So Jacob set aside the four firstborn sons (whom the law excluded from the tithe) of each of the four mothers, and eight sons remained. He began to count from Simeon, and included Benjamin, and continued the count from the beginning. And so Levi was reckoned as the tenth son, and thus the tithe, holy to God, as Leviticus 27:32 says, "The tenth shall be holy to the Lord." So the angel Michael descended and took Levi and brought him up before the Throne of Glory and told God that Levi was God's lot. And God blessed him, that the sons of Levi should minister on earth before God, as directed in Deuteronomy 10:8 like the ministering angels in heaven.
Rabbi Hanina deduced from Deuteronomy 10:12 that everything is in the hand of Heaven except the fear of Heaven, for Deuteronomy 10:12 says: "What does the Lord your God ask of you, but only to fear the Lord your God." The Gemara asked whether the fear of Heaven was such a little thing that Deuteronomy 10:12 says "only." Rabbi Hanina said in the name Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai that God has in God's treasury nothing but a store of the fear of Heaven, as Isaiah 33:6 says: "The fear of the Lord is His treasure," and thus the fear of Heaven must be a great thing. The Gemara responded that for Moses, the fear of Heaven was a small thing, for he had it. Rabbi Hanina illustrated with a parable: If a man is asked for a big article and he has it, it seems like a small article to him; if he is asked for a small article and he does not have it, it seems like a big article to him.
Rav Awira (or some say Rabbi Joshua ben Levi) taught that the Evil Inclination has seven names. God called it "Evil" in Genesis 8:21, saying, "the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth." Moses called it "the Uncircumcised" in Deuteronomy 10:16, saying, "Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart." David called it "Unclean" in Psalm 51:12; Solomon called it "the Enemy" in Proverbs 25:21–22; Isaiah called it "the Stumbling-Block" in Isaiah 57:14; Ezekiel called it "Stone" in Ezekiel 36:26; and Joel called it "the Hidden One" in Joel 2:20.
Rav Zeira counted five kinds of orlah (things uncircumcised) in the world: (1) uncircumcised ears (as in Jeremiah 6:10), (2) uncircumcised lips (as in Exodus 6:12), (3) uncircumcised hearts (as in Deuteronomy 10:16 and Jeremiah 9:26), (4) uncircumcised flesh (as in Genesis 17:14), and (5) uncircumcised trees (as in Leviticus 19:23). Rav Zeira taught that all the nations are uncircumcised in each of the first four ways, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in heart, in that their hearts do not allow them to do God's will. And Rav Zeira taught that in the future, God will take away from Israel the uncircumcision of their hearts, and they will not harden their stubborn hearts anymore before their Creator, as Ezekiel 36:26 says, "And I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh," and Genesis 17:11 says, "And you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin."
Rabbi Joshua ben Levi said that the men of the Great Assembly were so called because they restored the crown of the divine attributes – the enumeration of God's praise – to its ancient completeness. For in Deuteronomy 10:17, Moses called God "the great, the mighty, and the awesome." Then when Jeremiah saw foreigners despoiling the Temple, he asked where God's awesome deeds were, and thus in Jeremiah 32:18, he omitted "awesome." And then when Daniel saw foreigners enslaving the Israelites, he asked where God's mighty deeds were, and thus in Daniel 9:4, he omitted the word "mighty." But the men of the Great Assembly came and said that these circumstances showed God's mighty deeds, because God suppressed God's wrath, extending longsuffering to the wicked. And these circumstances showed God's awesome powers, for but for the fear of God, how could the single nation of Israel survive among the many nations. The Gemara asked how Jeremiah and Daniel could alter words established by Moses. Rabbi Eleazar said that since Jeremiah and Daniel knew that God insists on truth, they did not want to ascribe false attributions to God.
Rabbi Eliezer the Great taught that the Torah warns against wronging a stranger in 36, or others say 46, places (including Deuteronomy 10:17–19). The Gemara went on to cite Rabbi Nathan's interpretation of Exodus 22:20, "You shall neither wrong a stranger, nor oppress him; for you were strangers in the land of Egypt," to teach that one must not taunt one's neighbor about a flaw that one has oneself. The Gemara taught that thus a proverb says: If there is a case of hanging in a person's family history, do not say to the person, "Hang up this fish for me." Reading the words, "love the stranger, in giving him food and clothing," in Deuteronomy 10:18, Akilas the proselyte asked Rabbi Eliezer whether food and clothing constituted all the benefit of conversion to Judaism. Rabbi Eliezer replied that food and clothing are no small things, for in Genesis 28:20, Jacob prayed to God for "bread to eat, and clothing to put on," while God comes and offers it to the convert on a platter. Akilas then visited Rabbi Joshua, who taught that "bread" refers to the Torah (as in Proverbs 9:5, Wisdom – the Torah – says, "Come, eat of my bread"), while "clothing" means the Torah scholar's cloak. A person privileged to study the Torah is thus privileged to perform God's precepts. Moreover, converts' daughters could marry into the priesthood, so that their descendants could offer burnt-offerings on the altar. The Midrash offered another interpretation: "Bread" refers to the showbread, while "clothing" refers to the priestly vestments. The Midrash offered yet another interpretation: "Bread" refers to challah, while "clothing" refers to the first shearings of the sheep, both of which belong to the priests.
A Midrash taught that the Israelites were counted on ten occasions: (1) when they went down to Egypt (as reported in Deuteronomy 10:22), (2) when they went up out of Egypt, (3) at the first census in Numbers, (4) at the second census in Numbers, (5) once for the banners, (6) once in the time of Joshua for the division of the Land of Israel, (7) once by Saul, (8) a second time by Saul, (9) once by David, and (10) once in the time of Ezra.
Deuteronomy chapter 11
Already at the time of the Mishnah, Deuteronomy 11:13–21 constituted the second part of a standard Shema prayer that the priests recited daily, following Deuteronomy 6:4–9 and preceding Numbers 15:37–41. The first three chapters of tractate Berakhot in the Mishnah, Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud and the first two chapters of tractate Berakhot in the Tosefta interpreted the laws of the Shema in Deuteronomy 6:4–9 and 11:13–21.
Rabbi Joshua ben Korhah taught that the Shema prayer puts Deuteronomy 6:4–9 before Deuteronomy 11:13–21 so that those who say the prayer should first accept upon themselves the yoke of Heaven's sovereignty and then take upon themselves the yoke of the commandments. And Deuteronomy 11:13–21 comes before Numbers 15:37–41 because Deuteronomy 11:13–21 applies both day and night (since it mentions all the commandments), whereas Numbers 15:37–41 is applicable only to the day (since it mentions only the precept of the fringes, which is not obligatory at night).
The Gemara reported a number of Rabbis' reports of how the Land of Israel did indeed flow with "milk and honey," as described in Exodus 3:8 and 17, 13:5, and 33:3, Leviticus 20:24, Numbers 13:27 and 14:8, and Deuteronomy 6:3, 11:9, 26:9 and 15, 27:3, and 31:20. Once when Rami bar Ezekiel visited Bnei Brak, he saw goats grazing under fig trees while honey was flowing from the figs, and milk dripped from the goats mingling with the fig honey, causing him to remark that it was indeed a land flowing with milk and honey. Rabbi Jacob ben Dostai said that it is about three miles from Lod to Ono, and once he rose up early in the morning and waded all that way up to his ankles in fig honey. Resh Lakish said that he saw the flow of the milk and honey of Sepphoris extend over an area of sixteen miles by sixteen miles. Rabbah bar bar Hana said that he saw the flow of the milk and honey in all the Land of Israel and the total area was equal to an area of twenty-two parasangs by six parasangs.
The Rabbis in a Baraita questioned what was to be learned from the words of Deuteronomy 11:14: "And you shall gather in your corn and wine and oil." Rabbi Ishmael replied that since Joshua 1:8 says, "This book of the law shall not depart out of your mouth, but you shall meditate therein day and night," one might think that one must take this injunction literally (and study Torah every waking moment). Therefore Deuteronomy 11:14 directs one to "gather in your corn," implying that one should combine Torah study with a worldly occupation. Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai questioned that, however, asking if a person plows in plowing season, sows in sowing season, reaps in reaping season, threshes in threshing season, and winnows in the season of wind, when would one find time for Torah? Rather, Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai taught that when Israel performs God's will, others perform its worldly work, as Isaiah 61:5–6 says, "And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, aliens shall be your plowmen and vine-trimmers; while you shall be called ‘Priests of the Lord,' and termed ‘Servants of our God.'" And when Israel does not perform God's will, it has to carry out its worldly work by itself, as Deuteronomy 11:14 says, "And you shall gather in your corn." And not only that, but the Israelites would also do the work of others, as Deuteronomy 28:48 says, "And you shall serve your enemy whom the Lord will let loose against you. He will put an iron yoke upon your neck until He has wiped you out." Abaye observed that many had followed Rabbi Ishmael's advice to combine secular work and Torah study and it worked well, while others have followed the advice of Rabbi Simeon ben Yohai to devote themselves exclusively to Torah study and not succeeded. Rava would ask the Rabbis (his disciples) not to appear before him during Nisan (when corn ripened) and Tishrei (when people pressed grapes and olives) so that they might not be anxious about their food supply during the rest of the year.
Rav Judah taught in the name of Rav that one is forbidden to eat before giving food to one's animals, as Deuteronomy 11:15 says, "And I will give grass in your fields for your cattle," and only after that does Deuteronomy 11:15 say, "you shall eat and be satisfied."
The Rabbis taught in a Baraita that Deuteronomy 11:18 says of the Torah, "So you fix (וְשַׂמְתֶּם, ve-samtem) these My words in your heart and in your soul." The Rabbis taught that one should read the word samtem rather as sam tam (meaning "a perfect remedy"). The Rabbis thus compared the Torah to a perfect remedy. The Rabbis compared this to a man who struck his son a strong blow, and then put a compress on the son's wound, telling his son that so long as the compress was on his wound, he could eat and drink at will, and bathe in hot or cold water, without fear. But if the son removed the compress, his skin would break out in sores. Even so did God tell Israel that God created the Evil Inclination (יֵצֶר הַרַע, yetzer hara), but also created the Torah as its antidote. God told Israel that if they occupied themselves with the Torah, they would not be delivered into the hand of the Evil Inclination, as Genesis 4:7 says: "If you do well, shall you not be exalted?" But if Israel did not occupy themselves with the Torah, they would be delivered into the hand of the Evil Inclination, as Genesis 4:7 says: "sin couches at the door." Moreover, the Rabbis taught, the Evil Inclination is altogether preoccupied to make people sin, as Genesis 4:7 says: "and to you shall be his desire." Yet if one wishes, one can rule over the Evil Inclination, as Genesis 4:7 says: "and you shall rule over him." The Rabbis taught in a Baraita that the Evil Inclination is hard to bear, since even God its Creator called it evil, as in Genesis 8:21, God says, "the desire of man's heart is evil from his youth." Rav Isaac taught that a person's Evil Inclination renews itself against that person daily, as Genesis 6:5 says, "Every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil every day." And Rabbi Simeon ben Levi (or others say Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish) taught that a person's Evil Inclination gathers strength against that person daily and seeks to slay that person, as Psalm 37:32 says, "The wicked watches the righteous, and seeks to slay him." And if God were not to help a person, one would not be able to prevail against one's Evil Inclination, for as Psalm 37:33 says, "The Lord will not leave him in his hand."
Rabban Gamaliel cited Deuteronomy 11:21 as an instance where the Torah alludes to life after death. The Gemara related that sectarians asked Rabban Gamaliel where Scripture says that God will resurrect the dead. Rabban Gamaliel answered them from the Torah, the Prophets (נְבִיאִים, Nevi'im), and the Writings (כְּתוּבִים, Ketuvim), yet the sectarians did not accept his proofs. From the Torah, Rabban Gamaliel cited Deuteronomy 31:16, "And the Lord said to Moses, ‘Behold, you shall sleep with your fathers and rise up [again].'" But the sectarians replied that perhaps Deuteronomy 31:16 reads, "and the people will rise up." From the Prophets, Rabban Gamaliel cited Isaiah 26:19, "Your dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing, you who dwell in the dust: for your dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out its dead." But the sectarians rejoined that perhaps Isaiah 26:19 refers to the dead whom Ezekiel resurrected in Ezekiel 27. From the Writings, Rabban Gamaliel cited Song 7:9, "And the roof of your mouth, like the best wine of my beloved, that goes down sweetly, causing the lips of those who are asleep to speak." (As the Rabbis interpreted Song of Songs as a dialogue between God and Israel, they understood Song 7:9 to refer to the dead, whom God will cause to speak again.) But the sectarians rejoined that perhaps Song 7:9 means merely that the lips of the departed will move. For Rabbi Johanan said that if a halachah (legal ruling) is said in any person's name in this world, the person's lips speak in the grave, as Song 7:9 says, "causing the lips of those that are asleep to speak." Thus Rabban Gamaliel did not satisfy the sectarians until he quoted Deuteronomy 11:21, "which the Lord swore to your fathers to give to them." Rabban Gamaliel noted that God swore to give the land not "to you" (the Israelites whom Moses addressed) but "to them" (the Patriarchs, who had long since died). Others say that Rabban Gamaliel proved it from Deuteronomy 4:4, "But you who did cleave to the Lord your God are alive every one of you this day." And (the superfluous use of "this day" implies that) just as you are all alive today, so shall you all live again in the world to come.
Interpreting the words "to walk in all His ways" in Deuteronomy 11:22, the Sifre taught that to walk in God's ways means to be (in the words of Exodus 34:6) "merciful and gracious." Similarly, Rabbi Hama son of Rabbi Hanina asked what Deuteronomy 13:5 means in the text, "You shall walk after the Lord your God." How can a human being walk after God, when Deuteronomy 4:24 says, "[T]he Lord your God is a devouring fire"? Rabbi Hama son of Rabbi Hanina explained that the command to walk after God means to walk after the attributes of God. As God clothes the naked – for Genesis 3:21 says, "And the Lord God made for Adam and for his wife coats of skin, and clothed them" – so should we also clothe the naked. God visited the sick – for Genesis 18:1 says, "And the Lord appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre" (after Abraham was circumcised in Genesis 17:26) – so should we also visit the sick. God comforted mourners – for Genesis 25:11 says, "And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, that God blessed Isaac his son" – so should we also comfort mourners. God buried the dead – for Deuteronomy 34:6 says, "And He buried him in the valley" – so should we also bury the dead.
In medieval rabbinic interpretation
The parashah is discussed in these medieval rabbinic sources:
Deuteronomy chapter 8
Saadia Gaon read the words of Deuteronomy 8:13–14, "And your silver and your gold is multiplied, and all that you have is multiplied; then your heart be lifted up, and you forget the Lord your God," to teach that if all goes well and runs smoothly for those engaged in the accumulation of money, then they are apt to put their entire trust in money and forget to make mention of their Master and deny their Provider. Reading Deuteronomy 8:14, Hezekiah ben Manoah (the Hizkuni) lamented that the phenomenon of becoming haughty is tragically all too common. Reading Deuteronomy 8:14, Bahya ben Asher taught that pride is the principal cause of forgetting essentials. Due to the abundance of affluence, peace, and tranquility, a person's heart can become haughty and smug, and the evil urge (יֵצֶר הַרַע, yetzer hara) can find it easy to provoke a person to follow the heart without restraint. When that happens, Heaven's concerns become marginal. In Deuteronomy 8:17, "and you say in your heart: ‘My strength and the power of my hand has gotten me this wealth,'" Bahya ben Asher read Moses to warn of the possibility that arrogance can lead one to ascribe affluence to one's own lucky stars. And reading Deuteronomy 8:18, "you shall remember the Lord your God," Bahya ben Asher taught that God alone is the Source of good fortune, because God has given people the strength to perform deeds of valor, and has handed people the power to overcome bad fortune in their stars. Abraham ibn Ezra read Moses to warn the Israelites in Deuteronomy 8:14 that they might forget that they were slaves with downcast hearts, forget the affliction and the hunger that they experienced in the wilderness, and forget that God sustained them nonetheless. But Ibn Ezra read the words "But you shall remember" in Deuteronomy 8:18 to teach that if the thought "My power and the might of my hand has gotten me this wealth" should enter one's mind, then one should remember the One Who gives one power.
As the numeric value (gematria) of the word "power" (כֹּחַ, koach) in Deuteronomy 8:18 is 28, Jacob ben Asher (the Baal Ha-Turim) saw an allusion to Joshua, who lead the Israelites for 28 years. And the Baal Ha-Turim saw a connection with the reference to Joshua in Numbers 27:16–17, "‘Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation, who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, and who may lead them out, and who may bring them in; that the congregation of the Lord be not as sheep which have no shepherd,'" as those two verses contain 28 words in Hebrew.
In modern interpretation
The parashah is discussed in these modern sources:
Deuteronomy chapter 8
The late 16th century Safed commentator Moshe Alshich noted that Deuteronomy 8:14 appears to repeat Deuteronomy 8:11, "Be careful lest you forget the Lord your God." Alshich explained that the evil urge (יֵצֶר הַרַע, yetzer hara) works iteratively to subvert a person's character. The evil urge knows that it is easier to subvert successful people into believing in the success of their own efforts than to convince people of average means that they do not need God. Alshich taught that Deuteronomy 8:11–19 thus reflects the way that the evil urge works. The process of moving away from serving God can be gradual, almost imperceptibly slow. It can start not by failing to observe the commandments, but by failing to see them as God's will. Thus Deuteronomy 8:11 reflects that one can observe the commandments only for the sake of obtaining the reward that the Torah promises. Deuteronomy 8:12 reflects the next step that one might eat and be satisfied without giving credit to God. After this, as Deuteronomy 8:17 reports, one might give one's self credit for one's success. Still later, in Deuteronomy 8:19, one might give credit to idols. Moses thus warns against the insidious, indirect way that the evil urge attacks.
The 19th century German Orthodox Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch read the word "power" (כֹּחַ, koach) in Deuteronomy 8:18 to comprehend everything that makes up one's creative personality and capacity to earn – intelligence, skill, foresight, health – and explained that this comes not from the food that one eats but directly from God. And the external circumstances that bring about success depend on God alone. Hirsch taught that the very smallest part of one's good fortune can be ascribed to one's own merit, and more is due to the merit of one's ancestors, whose virtues God rewards with their descendants' good fortune.
Reading Deuteronomy 8:11–18, the 20th century Israeli scholar Nechama Leibowitz wrote that people in their blindness tend to detect the guiding hand of Providence only when manifested in visible miracles, as the Israelites witnessed in the wilderness. People fail to see the hidden miracles performed for them continually when the world around them seems to be going on as usual. For this reason, the formulators of the liturgy obliged Jews to give thanks three times daily (in the final benedictions of the Amidah prayer) "for Your miracles that are with us every day and for Your wonders and Your bounties that are at all times, evening, morning, and noon."
- Not to derive benefit from any ornamentation of an idol
- Not to take any object from idolatry into our possession, to derive benefit from it
- The precept of blessing the Almighty for the food we receive
- The precept of love for converts to Judaism
- The precept of reverent awe for the Eternal Lord
- The precept of prayer to the Almighty
- The mitzvah of associating with Torah scholars and adhering to them
- That whoever needs to take an oath should swear by the Name of the Eternal Lord
In the liturgy
In the Blessing after Meals (Birkat Hamazon), Jews sometimes quote Deuteronomy 8:10, the Scriptural basis for the Blessing after Meals, immediately before the invitation (zimun), and quote it again at the close of the second blessing (for the Land of Israel).
Deuteronomy 11:13–21 is the second of three blocks of verses in the Shema, a central prayer in Jewish prayer services. Jews combine Deuteronomy 6:4–9, Deuteronomy 11:13–21, and Numbers 15:37–41 to form the core of K'riat Shema, recited in the evening (מעריב, Ma'ariv) and morning (שַחֲרִת, Shacharit) prayer services.
The parashah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:
- Exodus 23:25–26 (blessings of health and fertility); 23:27–30 (driving out the Canaanites); 32:1–35 (the Golden Calf); 34:1.
- Numbers 13:1–14:45; 20:23–29.
- Deuteronomy 1:19–44; 28:1–11 (blessings).
- 1 Kings 12:26–30.
- Jeremiah 4:1–4 (circumcise your heart).
- Psalms 11:7 (God loves); 63:4 (God's loving kindness); 105:5 (remember God's wonders); 106:36 (their idols became a snare); 136:16 (God led the people through the wilderness); 146:8 (God loves).
- Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews 4:8:2–3. Circa 93–94. Reprinted in, e.g., The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition. Translated by William Whiston. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8.
- Matthew 4:4 (not live by bread alone).
- Mishnah: Berakhot 1:1–3:6; Bikkurim 1:3; Sotah 7:8; Avodah Zarah 1:9, 3:1–10; Tamid 5:1. Land of Israel, circa 200 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, pages 3–7, 167, 458–59, 662, 664–67, 869. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4.
- Sifre to Deuteronomy 37:1–52:1. Land of Israel, circa 250–350 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., Sifre to Deuteronomy: An Analytical Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987. ISBN 1-55540-145-7.
- Tosefta: Berakhot 1:1–2:21; 4:15; 6:1; Sotah 7:17; 8:10; Avodah Zarah 3:19; 5:6; 6:13; Zavim 5:6. Land of Israel, circa 300 CE. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction. Translated by Jacob Neusner, volume 1, pages 3–13, 25, 36, 864, 871; volume 2, pages 1273, 1280, 1285, 1898. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2.
- Jerusalem Talmud: Berakhot 1a–42b, 72b, 88b; Peah 23a; Kilayim 30a; Sheviit 42b; Terumot 12a; Challah 18b; Shabbat 69b, 70a, 92a; Eruvin 63b; Pesachim 28a; Yoma 2b, 5b, 50b; Sukkah 20b; Rosh Hashanah 10a; Taanit 3a, 16b, 22b, 26a; Megillah 16a, 33a, 34a–b; Sanhedrin 36a; Avodah Zarah chapter 3. Land of Israel, circa 400 CE. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Yerushalmi. Edited by Chaim Malinowitz, Yisroel Simcha Schorr, and Mordechai Marcus, volumes 1–3, 5, 6b–7, 11, 14–15, 17–18, 21–22, 24–25. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2005–2014.
- Genesis Rabbah 8:10; 21:6; 32:5, 10; 38:9; 44:17; 48:10, 14; 49:2; 53:4; 70:5. Land of Israel, 5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 1, pages 105, 175–76, 252, 255, 308, 372–73, 411–12, 415, 420, 463–64; volume 2, pages 604, 638. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Babylonian Talmud: Berakhot 2a–26a, 32a–b, 33b–34a, 35a–b, 36b–37a, 38a, 40a–41b, 44a, 48b, 51b, 55a; Shabbat 31b, 32b, 82b, 105b, 108a; Eruvin 4a; Pesachim 36a, 49b, 53a, 87b, 101b, 104a, 119a; Yoma 3b, 11b, 69b, 72b, 74b, 75b, 79b, 81b; Sukkah 5b, 26b, 35a, 52a; Rosh Hashanah 7a, 8a–b, 17b; Taanit 2a, 3b–4a, 6a–b, 7b, 9b, 26b; Megillah 19b, 21a, 25a, 31a; Chagigah 12a–b; Yevamot 78b; Ketubot 47b, 111a; Nedarim 7b, 32a, 38a; Sotah 4b–5a, 11a, 33a; Gittin 62a; Kiddushin 29b–30b, 36a, 58a; Bava Kamma 113b; Bava Batra 9b, 14b, 19a, 21a, 110b, 121a; Sanhedrin 4b, 56a, 90b, 93a, 99a, 110a, 113a; Makkot 7b; Shevuot 30b; Avodah Zarah 15a, 21a, 40b–49b, 52a, 54b; Horayot 13a; Zevachim 16a; Menachot 28b, 31b, 37b, 43b, 84a–b, 99a; Chullin 84b, 120b, 135b, 140a; Bekhorot 6b, 44b; Arakhin 4a; Temurah 3b, 28b, 30b; Niddah 16b, 70b. Babylonia, 6th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, Chaim Malinowitz, and Mordechai Marcus, 72 volumes. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2006.
- Rashi. Commentary. Deuteronomy 7–11. Troyes, France, late 11th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashi. The Torah: With Rashi's Commentary Translated, Annotated, and Elucidated. Translated and annotated by Yisrael Isser Zvi Herczeg, volume 5, pages 83–118. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89906-030-7.
- Rashbam. Commentary on the Torah. Troyes, early 12th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashbam's Commentary on Deuteronomy: An Annotated Translation. Edited and translated by Martin I. Lockshin, pages 69–84. Providence, Rhode Island: Brown Judaic Studies, 2004. ISBN 1-930675-19-4.
- Judah Halevi. Kuzari. 1:97; 2:14, 47–48, 56. Toledo, Spain, 1130–1140. Reprinted in, e.g., Jehuda Halevi. Kuzari: An Argument for the Faith of Israel. Introduction by Henry Slonimsky, pages 68–69, 89, 111–12, 119. New York: Schocken, 1964. ISBN 0-8052-0075-4.
- Abraham ibn Ezra. Commentary on the Torah. Mid-12th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Pentateuch: Deuteronomy (Devarim). Translated and annotated by H. Norman Strickman and Arthur M. Silver, volume 5, pages 55–77. New York: Menorah Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN 0-932232-10-8.
- Benjamin of Tudela. The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela. Spain, 1173. Reprinted in The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Travels in the Middle Ages. Introductions by Michael A. Singer, Marcus Nathan Adler, A. Asher, page 91. Malibu, California: Joseph Simon, 1983. ISBN 0-934710-07-4. (Anak).
- Maimonides. Mishneh Torah: Hilchot De'ot (The Laws of Personality Development), chapter 1, halachah 4; chapter 2, halachah 3; chapter 6, halachot 2, 4; Hilchot Talmud Torah (The Laws of Torah Study), chapter 1, halachot 1, 6, 8; chapter 3, halachot 5, 13. Egypt, circa 1170–1180. Reprinted in, e.g., Mishneh Torah: Hilchot De'ot: The Laws of Personality Development: and Hilchot Talmud Torah: The Laws of Torah Study. Translated by Za'ev Abramson and Eliyahu Touger, volume 2, pages 18–23, 36–43, 118–23, 158–59, 168–70, 164–65, 192–95, 206–09. New York: Moznaim Publishing, 1989. OCLC 122956037 ASIN B00071PPDE (1991).
- Maimonides. Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Avodat Kochavim V'Chukkoteihem (The Laws of the Worship of Stars and their Statutes), chapter 2, halachah 1; chapter 7; chapter 8, halachah 7; chapter 10, halachah 4. Egypt, circa 1170–1180. Reprinted in, e.g., Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Avodat Kochavim V'Chukkoteihem: The Laws of the Worship of Stars and their Statutes.Translated by Eliyahu Touger, volume 3, pages 30–33, 112–45, 158–59, 190–93. New York: Moznaim Publishing, 1990. OCLC 23834932 ASIN B000L88PUS.
- Maimonides. Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Teshuvah (The Laws of Repentance), chapter 3, halachah 2; chapter 4, halachah 2; chapter 9, halachah 1; chapter 10, halachah 4. Egypt, circa 1170–1180. Reprinted in, e.g., Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Teshuvah: The Laws of Repentance. Translated by Eliyahu Touger, volume 4, pages 50–55, 96–103, 200–11, 224–27. New York: Moznaim Publishing, 1990. OCLC 28239393 ASIN B000AO991C ISBN 978-0-940118-20-1.
- Maimonides. Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Kri'at Shema (The Laws of Kri'at Shema), chapter 1, halachah 2; chapter 2, halachah 9; Hilchot Tefilah (The Laws of Prayer), chapter 1, halachah 1; chapter 5, halachot 2, 13. Egypt, circa 1170–1180. Reprinted in, e.g., Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Kri'at Shema: The Laws of Kri'at Shema: and Hilchot Tefilah [I]: The Laws of Prayer. Translated by Eliyahu Touger, volume 5, pages 12–15, 40–43, 96–98, 180–83, 198–201. New York: Moznaim Publishing, 1989.
- Maimonides. Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Tefilah (The Laws of Prayer), chapter 7, halachah 14; chapter 9, halachah 7; chapter 12, halachah 12; chapter 14, halachot 1, 12; chapter 15, halachah 3. Egypt, circa 1170–1180. Reprinted in, e.g., Mishneh Torah: Tefilah [II]: and Birkat Kohanim: The Laws of Prayer and the Priestly Blessing. Translated by Eliyahu Touger, volume 6, pages 34–37, 72–75, 144–47, 188–89, 204–07, 212–15. New York: Moznaim Publishing, 1989.
- Maimonides. Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Tefillin UMezuzah V'Sefer Torah (The Laws (Governing) Tefillin, Mezuzah, and Torah Scrolls), chapter 1, halachot 1–2; chapter 2, halachot 1–2, 7, 9; chapter 3, halachah 5; chapter 5, halachot 2–3. Egypt, circa 1170–1180. Reprinted in, e.g., Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Tefillin UMezuzah V'Sefer Torah: The Laws (Governing) Tefillin, Mezuzah, and Torah Scrolls: and Hilchot Tzitzit: The Laws of Tzitzit. Translated by Eliyahu Touger, volume 7, pages 12–14, 38–41, 44–47, 54–57, 102–05. New York: Moznaim Publishing, 1990.
- Maimonides. Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Berachot (The Laws of Blessings), chapter 1, halachah 1; chapter 2, halachot 1, 3; chapter 3, halachah 1; chapter 5, halachot 1, 10; chapter 7, halachah 4; chapter 8, halachot 1, 4, 13. Egypt, circa 1170–1180. Reprinted in, e.g., Mishneh Torah: Hilchot Berachot: The Laws of Blessing: and Hilchot Milah: The Laws of Circumcision. Translated by Eliyahu Touger, volume 8, pages 12–13, 34–41, 54–57, 84–85, 92–93, 122–23, 130–35, 142–43. New York: Moznaim Publishing, 1991.
- Maimonides. The Guide for the Perplexed, part 1, chapters 36–37, 44; part 2, chapters 9, 39; part 3, chapters 17, 24, 28–29, 32–33, 37, 39, 50–51. Cairo, Egypt, 1190. Reprinted in, e.g., Moses Maimonides. The Guide for the Perplexed. Translated by Michael Friedländer, pages 50, 53, 58, 163, 232, 286, 304–05, 314, 318, 320, 323, 325, 327, 335–36, 340, 382, 386. New York: Dover Publications, 1956. ISBN 0-486-20351-4.
- Hezekiah ben Manoah. Hizkuni. France, circa 1240. Reprinted in, e.g., Chizkiyahu ben Manoach. Chizkuni: Torah Commentary. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 4, pages 1083–94. Jerusalem: Ktav Publishers, 2013. ISBN 978-1-60280-261-2.
- Nachmanides. Commentary on the Torah. Jerusalem, circa 1270. Reprinted in, e.g., Ramban (Nachmanides): Commentary on the Torah: Deuteronomy. Translated by Charles B. Chavel, volume 5, pages 94–138. New York: Shilo Publishing House, 1976. ISBN 0-88328-010-8.
- Zohar part 3, pages 270a–. Spain, late 13th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., The Zohar. Translated by Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon. 5 volumes. London: Soncino Press, 1934.
- Bahya ben Asher. Commentary on the Torah. Spain, early 14th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbeinu Bachya: Torah Commentary by Rabbi Bachya ben Asher. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 7, pages 2445–99. Jerusalem: Lambda Publishers, 2003. ISBN 965-7108-45-4.
- Isaac ben Moses Arama. Akedat Yizhak (The Binding of Isaac). Late 15th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Yitzchak Arama. Akeydat Yitzchak: Commentary of Rabbi Yitzchak Arama on the Torah. Translated and condensed by Eliyahu Munk, volume 2, pages 821–35. New York, Lambda Publishers, 2001. ISBN 965-7108-30-6.
- Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno. Commentary on the Torah. Venice, 1567. Reprinted in, e.g., Sforno: Commentary on the Torah. Translation and explanatory notes by Raphael Pelcovitz, pages 870–91. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1997. ISBN 0-89906-268-7.
- Moshe Alshich. Commentary on the Torah. Safed, circa 1593. Reprinted in, e.g., Moshe Alshich. Midrash of Rabbi Moshe Alshich on the Torah. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 3, pages 993–1016. New York, Lambda Publishers, 2000. ISBN 965-7108-13-6.
- Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan, 2:26; 3:40; 4:45. England, 1651. Reprint edited by C. B. Macpherson, pages 319, 504–05, 672, 676–77. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Classics, 1982. ISBN 0-14-043195-0.
- Moshe Chaim Luzzatto Mesillat Yesharim, introduction. Amsterdam, 1740. Reprinted in Mesillat Yesharim: The Path of the Just, pages 9–13. Jerusalem: Feldheim, 1966. ISBN 0-87306-114-4. (Interpreting Deuteronomy 10:12).
- Chaim ibn Attar. Ohr ha-Chaim. Venice, 1742. Reprinted in Chayim ben Attar. Or Hachayim: Commentary on the Torah. Translated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 5, pages 1818–43. Brooklyn: Lambda Publishers, 1999. ISBN 965-7108-12-8.
- Samson Raphael Hirsch. Horeb: A Philosophy of Jewish Laws and Observances. Translated by Isidore Grunfeld, pages 35–43, 47–50, 175–80, 187–89, 376–77, 406–16, 448–52, 471–78, 525–30, 544–47, 565–67. London: Soncino Press, 1962. Reprinted 2002 ISBN 0-900689-40-4. Originally published as Horeb, Versuche über Jissroel's Pflichten in der Zerstreuung. Germany, 1837.
- Samuel David Luzzatto (Shadal). Commentary on the Torah. Padua, 1871. Reprinted in, e.g., Samuel David Luzzatto. Torah Commentary. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 4, pages 1174–82. New York: Lambda Publishers, 2012. ISBN 965-524-067-3.
- Yehudah Aryeh Leib Alter. Sefat Emet. Góra Kalwaria (Ger), Poland, before 1906. Excerpted in The Language of Truth: The Torah Commentary of Sefat Emet. Translated and interpreted by Arthur Green, pages 295–99. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1998. ISBN 0-8276-0650-8. Reprinted 2012. ISBN 0-8276-0946-9.
- Abraham Isaac Kook. The Moral Principles. Early 20th Century. Reprinted in Abraham Isaac Kook: the Lights of Penitence, the Moral Principles, Lights of Holiness, Essays, Letters, and Poems. Translated by Ben Zion Bokser, page 176. Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press 1978. ISBN 0-8091-2159-X.
- Thomas Mann. Joseph and His Brothers. Translated by John E. Woods, page 788. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-4001-9. Originally published as Joseph und seine Brüder. Stockholm: Bermann-Fischer Verlag, 1943.
- Abraham Joshua Heschel. Man's Quest for God: Studies in Prayer and Symbolism, page 36. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1954.
- Bob Dylan. "Gates of Eden." In Bringing It All Back Home. Columbia Records, 1965. ("Aladdin and his lamp sits with Utopian hermit monks side saddle on the Golden Calf").
- Martin Buber. On the Bible: Eighteen studies, pages 80–92. New York: Schocken Books, 1968.
- Moshe Weinfeld. Deuteronomy 1–11, volume 5, pages 357–455. New York: Anchor Bible, 1991. ISBN 0-385-17593-0.
- Joel Roth. "Homosexuality." New York: Rabbinical Assembly, 1992. EH 24.1992b. Reprinted in Responsa: 1991–2000: The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards of the Conservative Movement. Edited by Kassel Abelson and David J. Fine, pages 613, 615. New York: Rabbinical Assembly, 2002. ISBN 0-916219-19-4. (interpreting the term "abhorrence").
- Elliot N. Dorff. "Artificial Insemination, Egg Donation and Adoption." New York: Rabbinical Assembly, 1994. EH 1:3.1994. Reprinted in Responsa: 1991–2000: The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards of the Conservative Movement. Edited by Kassel Abelson and David J. Fine, pages 461, 462, 464. New York: Rabbinical Assembly, 2002. ISBN 0-916219-19-4. (children among life's chief goods).
- Neil Gillman. Sacred Fragments: Recovering Theology for the Modern Jew, pages xxiv-xxv. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1994. ISBN 0-8276-0352-5. (arguing that for many Jews, the traditional images that characterized Judaism are like the irreparably shattered Tablets, and modern Jews must carve out their new set of interpretations, without discarding the old).
- Judith S. Antonelli. "The Asherah." In In the Image of God: A Feminist Commentary on the Torah, pages 416–27. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson, 1995. ISBN 1-56821-438-3.
- Jacob Milgrom. "‘The Alien in Your Midst': Every nation has its ger: the permanent resident. The Torah commands us, first, not to oppress the ger, and then to befriend and love him." Bible Review, volume 11 (number 6) (December 1995).
- Jeffrey H. Tigay. The JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy: The Traditional Hebrew Text with the New JPS Translation, pages 88–115, 438–46. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1996. ISBN 0-8276-0330-4.
- Elliot N. Dorff. "Assisted Suicide." New York: Rabbinical Assembly, 1997. YD 345.1997a. Reprinted in Responsa: 1991–2000: The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards of the Conservative Movement. Edited by Kassel Abelson and David J. Fine, pages 379, 380. New York: Rabbinical Assembly, 2002. ISBN 0-916219-19-4. (implications for assisted suicide of God's ownership of the universe).
- Sorel Goldberg Loeb and Barbara Binder Kadden. Teaching Torah: A Treasury of Insights and Activities, pages 304–09. Denver: A.R.E. Publishing, 1997. ISBN 0-86705-041-1.
- "Sh'ma." In My People's Prayer Book: Traditional Prayers, Modern Commentaries: The Sh'ma and Its Blessings. Edited by Lawrence A. Hoffman, volume 1, pages 83–116. Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-879045-79-6.
- Elie Kaplan Spitz. "On the Use of Birth Surrogates." New York: Rabbinical Assembly, 1997. EH 1:3.1997b. Reprinted in Responsa: 1991–2000: The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards of the Conservative Movement. Edited by Kassel Abelson and David J. Fine, pages 529, 536. New York: Rabbinical Assembly, 2002. ISBN 0-916219-19-4. (promise of abundant offspring).
- Gila Colman Ruskin. "Circumcision, Womb, and Spiritual Intimacy." In The Women's Torah Commentary: New Insights from Women Rabbis on the 54 Weekly Torah Portions. Edited by Elyse Goldstein, pages 345–50. Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing, 2000. ISBN 1-58023-076-8.
- Bernard M. Levinson. "Deuteronomy." In The Jewish Study Bible. Edited by Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, pages 383–90. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-529751-2.
- W. Gunther Plaut. The Torah: A Modern Commentary: Revised Edition. Revised edition edited by David E.S. Stern, pages 1226–54. New York: Union for Reform Judaism, 2006. ISBN 0-8074-0883-2.
- Suzanne A. Brody. "Fall-able." In Dancing in the White Spaces: The Yearly Torah Cycle and More Poems, 104. Shelbyville, Kentucky: Wasteland Press, 2007. ISBN 1-60047-112-9.
- Esther Jungreis. Life Is a Test, pages 18, 128, 208, 261–62. Brooklyn: Shaar Press, 2007. ISBN 1-4226-0609-0.
- The Torah: A Women's Commentary. Edited by Tamara Cohn Eskenazi and Andrea L. Weiss, pages 1089–114. New York: URJ Press, 2008. ISBN 0-8074-1081-0.
- Jonathan Goldstein. "The Golden Calf." In Ladies and Gentlemen, the Bible! pages 115–28. New York: Riverhead Books, 2009. ISBN 978-1-59448-367-7.
- Julie Cadwallader-Staub. Joy. In Face to Face: A Poetry Collection. DreamSeeker Books, 2010. ISBN 193103852X. ("land of milk and honey").
- Shmuel Herzfeld. "The Fragile Relationship." In Fifty-Four Pick Up: Fifteen-Minute Inspirational Torah Lessons, pages 262–67. Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House, 2012. ISBN 978-965-229-558-3.
- "Devarim Torah Stats". Akhlah Inc. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- "Parashat Eikev". Hebcal. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash: Devarim / Deuteronomy. Edited by Menachem Davis, pages 55–78. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2009. ISBN 1-4226-0210-9.
- Deuteronomy 7:12–15.
- Deuteronomy 7:16.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 56.
- Deuteronomy 7:17–19.
- Deuteronomy 7:19–20.
- Deuteronomy 7:22.
- Deuteronomy 7:25–26.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 58.
- Deuteronomy 8:2.
- Deuteronomy 8:3.
- Deuteronomy 8:4.
- Deuteronomy 8:5.
- Deuteronomy 8:7–10.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 60.
- Deuteronomy 8:11–18.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 61.
- Deuteronomy 8:19–20.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 62.
- Deuteronomy 9:1–3.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 62.
- Deuteronomy 9:4–6.
- Deuteronomy 9:7.
- Deuteronomy 9:8.
- Deuteronomy 9:9.
- Deuteronomy 9:10–11.
- Deuteronomy 9:12.
- Deuteronomy 9:14.
- Deuteronomy 9:15–16.
- Deuteronomy 9:17–18.
- Deuteronomy 9:19.
- Deuteronomy 9:20.
- Deuteronomy 9:21.
- Deuteronomy 9:22.
- Deuteronomy 9:23.
- Deuteronomy 9:25–29.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 67.
- Deuteronomy 10:1.
- Deuteronomy 10:2–5.
- Deuteronomy 10:6.
- Deuteronomy 10:7.
- Deuteronomy 10:8–9.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 69.
- Deuteronomy 10:12–13.
- Deuteronomy 10:14–15.
- Deuteronomy 10:17–18.
- Deuteronomy 10:19.
- Deuteronomy 10:20–22.
- Deuteronomy 11:1.
- Deuteronomy 11:2–7.
- Deuteronomy 11:8–9.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 73.
- Deuteronomy 11:10–12.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 74.
- Deuteronomy 11:13–21.
- Deuteronomy 11:13–14.
- Deuteronomy 11:15.
- Deuteronomy 11:16–17.
- Deuteronomy 11:18–19.
- Deuteronomy 11:20–21.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 77.
- Deuteronomy 11:22–24.
- See, e.g., The Schottenstein Edition Interlinear Chumash, page 78.
- See, e.g., "A Complete Triennial Cycle for Reading the Torah" (PDF). The Jewish Theological Seminary. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
- Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Edited by James B. Pritchard, page 328. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. ISBN 0-691-03503-2.
- For more on inner-Biblical interpretation, see, e.g., Benjamin D. Sommer. "Inner-biblical Interpretation." In The Jewish Study Bible. Edited by Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, pages 1829–35. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-529751-2.
- 1 Kings 12:26–28.
- 1 Kings 12:29–30.
- 1 Kings 12:31.
- 1 Kings 12:32-33.
- See also 2 Chronicles 17:7–9; and 35:3; Nehemiah 8:7–13; and Malachi 2:6–8.
- See also 1 Chronicles 23:4 and 26:29; 2 Chronicles 19:8–11; and Nehemiah 11:16 (officers)
- Psalms 42:1; 44:1; 45:1; 46:1; 47:1; 48:1; 49:1; 84:1; 85:1; 87:1; and 88:1.
- Reuven Hammer. Or Hadash: A Commentary on Siddur Sim Shalom for Shabbat and Festivals, pages 72–78. New York: The Rabbinical Assembly, 2003. ISBN 0-916219-20-8. The Psalms of the Day are Psalms 92, 24, 48, 82, 94, 81, and 93.
- Philo. On the Birth of Abel and the Sacrifices Offered by Him and by His Brother Cain, chapters 13–14 (¶¶ 52–58). Alexandria, Egypt, early 1st century CE. Reprinted in, e.g., The Works of Philo: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition. Translated by Charles Duke Yonge, page 101. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 1993. ISBN 0-943575-93-1.
- Midrash Tanhuma Devorim Eikev 1. 6th–7th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Metsudah Midrash Tanchuma. Translated and annotated by Avraham Davis; edited by Yaakov Y.H. Pupko, volume 8, page 54. Monsey, New York: Eastern Book Press, 2006.
- Deuteronomy Rabbah 3:1. Land of Israel, 9th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Deuteronomy. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 7, pages 67–68. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Deuteronomy Rabbah 3:2. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Deuteronomy. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 7, pages 68–69.
- Deuteronomy Rabbah 3:4. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Deuteronomy. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 7, pages 71–72.
- Babylonian Talmud Bava Kamma 113b. Babylonia, 6th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Abba Zvi Naiman and Mendy Wachsman; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, volume 40, pages 113b2–3. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2001. ISBN 1-57819-636-1.
- Babylonian Talmud Sotah 36a. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Eliezer Herzka, Moshe Zev Einhorn, Michoel Weiner, Dovid Kamenetsky, and Reuvein Dowek; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 33b, page 36a2. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-57819-673-6.
- Mishnah Avodah Zarah 3:1–10. Land of Israel, circa 200 CE. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, pages 664–67. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4. Jerusalem Talmud Avodah Zarah chapter 3. Land of Israel, circa 400 CE. Reprinted in, e.g., The Jerusalem Talmud: A Translation and Commentary. Edited by Jacob Neusner and translated by Jacob Neusner, Tzvee Zahavy, B. Barry Levy, and Edward Goldman. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2009. ISBN 978-1-59856-528-7. Babylonian Talmud Avodah Zarah 40b–49b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Israel Schneider, Moshe Zev Einhorn, and Mendy Wachsman; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 53, pages 40b1–49b3. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-57819-653-1.
- Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 93a. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Asher Dicker, Joseph Elias, and Dovid Katz; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 49, page 93a3. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1995. ISBN 1-57819-628-0.
- Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Bahodesh chapter 8. Land of Israel, late 4th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael. Translated by Jacob Z. Lauterbach, volume 2, page 337. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1933, reissued 2004. ISBN 0-8276-0678-8.
- Babylonian Talmud Kiddushin 58a.
- Babylonian Talmud Sotah 4b.
- Mishnah Bikkurim 1:3. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, page 167.
- Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 20b.
- Babylonian Talmud Sotah 4b–5a. Babylonia, 6th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli: Tractate Sotah. Elucidated by Avrohom Neuberger and Abba Zvi Naiman; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 33a, pages 4b4–5a1. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2000.
- Ecclesiastes 1:16.
- Ecclesiastes 1:16.
- 1 Kings 3:9.
- 2 Kings 5:26.
- 1 Samuel 17:32.
- Ezekiel 22:14.
- Psalm 16:9.
- Lamentations 2:18.
- Isaiah 40:2.
- Deuteronomy 15:10.
- Exodus 9:12.
- Deuteronomy 20:3.
- Genesis 6:6.
- Deuteronomy 28:67.
- Psalm 51:19.
- Jeremiah 5:23.
- 1 Kings 12:33.
- Deuteronomy 29:18.
- Psalm 45:2.
- Proverbs 19:21.
- Psalm 21:3.
- Proverbs 7:25.
- Numbers 15:39.
- Genesis 18:5.
- Genesis 31:20.
- Leviticus 26:41.
- Genesis 34:3.
- Isaiah 21:4.
- 1 Samuel 4:13.
- Song of Songs 5:2.
- Deuteronomy 6:5.
- Leviticus 19:17.
- Proverbs 23:17.
- Jeremiah 17:10.
- Joel 2:13.
- Psalm 49:4.
- Jeremiah 20:9.
- Ezekiel 36:26.
- 2 Kings 23:25.
- Deuteronomy 19:6.
- 1 Samuel 25:37.
- Joshua 7:5.
- Deuteronomy 6:6.
- Jeremiah 32:40.
- Psalm 111:1.
- Proverbs 6:25.
- Proverbs 28:14.
- Judges 16:25.
- Proverbs 12:20.
- 1 Samuel 1:13.
- Jeremiah 22:17.
- Proverbs 3:3.
- Proverbs 6:18.
- Proverbs 10:8.
- Obadiah 1:3.
- Proverbs 16:1.
- 2 Chronicles 25:19.
- Ecclesiastes Rabbah 1:36. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Ruth; Ecclesiastes. Translated by L. Rabinowitz. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Pesikta de-Rav Kahana 17:5. 6th–7th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Pesikta de-Rab Kahana: R. Kahana's Compilation of Discourses for Sabbaths and Festal Days. Translated by William G. Braude and Israel J. Kapstein, pages 308–09. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1975. ISBN 0-8276-0051-8. Pesiqta deRab Kahana: An Analytical Translation and Explanation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, volume 2, pages 37–38. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987. ISBN 1-55540-073-6.
- Numbers Rabbah 23:1. 12th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Numbers. Translated by Judah J. Slotki, volume 6, pages 863–64. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Deuteronomy Rabbah 3:11. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Deuteronomy. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 7, pages 78–81.
- Babylonian Talmud Yevamot 72a.
- Genesis Rabbah 32:5. Land of Israel, 5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 1, page 252. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Babylonian Talmud Megillah 21a. Babylonia, 6th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli: Tractate Megillah. Elucidated by Gedaliah Zlotowitz and Hersh Goldwurm; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, volume 20, pages 21a3–4. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1991.
- Exodus Rabbah 43:1. 10th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Exodus. Translated by S. M. Lehrman, 3:494–95. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Babylonian Talmud Nedarim 38a.
- Leviticus Rabbah 10:5. Land of Israel, 5th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Leviticus. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, 4:126–29. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
- Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer, chapter 45. Early 9th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Translated and annotated by Gerald Friedlander, page 355. London, 1916. Reprinted New York: Hermon Press, 1970. ISBN 0-87203-183-7.
- Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 14b; Menachot 99a.
- Babylonian Talmud Menachot 99a.
- Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 14b.
- Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer, chapter 37. Reprinted in, e.g., Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Translated and annotated by Gerald Friedlander.
- Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 33b.
- Babylonian Talmud Sukkah 52a.
- Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer, chapter 29. Reprinted in, e.g., Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer. Translated and annotated by Gerald Friedlander, pages 206–07. See also Genesis Rabbah 46:5. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 1, page 392. (Rabbi Akiva counted four kinds of orlah). And Tractate Orlah in the Mishnah, Tosefta, and Jerusalem Talmud deals with the uncircumcision of trees based on Leviticus 19:23–25. Mishnah Orlah 1:1–3:9. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, pages 158–66. Tosefta Orlah 1:1–8. Jerusalem Talmud Orlah 1a–42a.
- Babylonian Talmud Yoma 69b.
- See, e.g., Exodus 22:20; 23:9; Leviticus 19:33–34; Deuteronomy 1:16; 10:17–19; 24:14–15 and 17–22; and 27:19.
- Babylonian Talmud Bava Metzia 59b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Mordechai Rabinovitch and Tzvi Horowitz; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, volume 42, page 59b3. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1993. ISBN 1-57819-638-8.
- Genesis Rabbah 70:5. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbah: Genesis. Translated by H. Freedman and Maurice Simon, volume 2.
- Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 56a.
- Midrash Tanhuma Ki Sisa 9.
- Exodus 12:37.
- Numbers 1:1–46.
- Numbers 26:1–65.
- 1 Samuel 11:8.
- 1 Samuel 15:4.
- 2 Samuel 24:9.
- Ezra 2:64.
- Mishnah Tamid 5:1. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, page 869. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4. Babylonian Talmud Tamid 32b.
- Mishnah Berakhot 1:1–3:6. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, pages 3–7. Tosefta Berakhot 1:1–2:21. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 1:3–13. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2. Jerusalem Talmud Berakhot 1a–42b. Reprinted in, e.g., The Jerusalem Talmud: A Translation and Commentary. Edited by Jacob Neusner and translated by Jacob Neusner, Tzvee Zahavy, B. Barry Levy, and Edward Goldman. Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 2a–26a. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Gedaliah Zlotowitz; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 1, pages 2a1–26a3. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1997.
- Mishnah Berakhot 2:2. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, page 5. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4. Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 13a. Babylonia, 6th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Gedaliah Zlotowitz; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 1, pages 13a3–4. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1997.
- Babylonian Talmud Ketubot 111b–12a.
- Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 35b.
- Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 40a.
- Babylonian Talmud Kiddushin 30b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by David Fohrman, Dovid Kamenetsky, and Hersh Goldwurm; edited by Hersh Goldwurm, volume 36, pages 30b1–2. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1992. ISBN 1-57819-642-6.
- Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 90b. Reprinted in, e.g., Talmud Bavli. Elucidated by Asher Dicker, Joseph Elias, and Dovid Katz; edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr and Chaim Malinowitz, volume 49, pages 90b2–4. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1995. ISBN 1-57819-628-0.
- Sifre to Deuteronomy 49:1. Land of Israel, circa 250–350 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., Sifre to Deuteronomy: An Analytical Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 164. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987. ISBN 1-55540-145-7.
- Babylonian Talmud Sotah 14a.
- Saadia Gaon. Emunoth ve-Deoth (Beliefs and Opinions), treatise 9, chapter 8. Baghdad, Babylonia, 933. Reprinted in, e.g., The Book of Beliefs and Opinions. Translated by Samuel Rosenblatt, page 380. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1948. ISBN 0-300-04490-9.
- Hezekiah ben Manoah. Hizkuni. France, circa 1240. Reprinted in, e.g., Chizkiyahu ben Manoach. Chizkuni: Torah Commentary. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 4, page 1086. Jerusalem: Ktav Publishers, 2013. ISBN 978-1-60280-261-2.
- Bahya ben Asher. Commentary on the Torah. Spain, early 14th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Midrash Rabbeinu Bachya: Torah Commentary by Rabbi Bachya ben Asher. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 7, pages 2464–65. Jerusalem: Lambda Publishers, 2003. ISBN 965-7108-45-4.
- Abraham ibn Ezra. Commentary on the Torah. Mid-12th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Pentateuch: Deuteronomy (Devarim). Translated and annotated by H. Norman Strickman and Arthur M. Silver, volume 5, pages 60–61. New York: Menorah Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN 0-932232-10-8.
- Jacob ben Asher (Baal Ha-Turim). Rimze Ba'al ha-Turim. Early 14th century. Reprinted in, e.g., Baal Haturim Chumash: Bamidbar/Numbers. Translated by Eliyahu Touger; edited and annotated by Avie Gold, volume 4, pages 1694–95. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2003. ISBN 1-57819-131-9.
- Moshe Alshich. Commentary on the Torah. Safed, circa 1593. Reprinted in, e.g., Moshe Alshich. Midrash of Rabbi Moshe Alshich on the Torah. Translated and annotated by Eliyahu Munk, volume 3, pages 1001–02. New York, Lambda Publishers, 2000. ISBN 965-7108-13-6.
- Samson Raphael Hirsch. The Pentateuch: Deuteronomy. Translated by Isaac Levy, volume 5, pages 152–53. Gateshead: Judaica Press, 2nd edition 1999. ISBN 0-910818-12-6. Originally published as Der Pentateuch uebersetzt und erklaert. Frankfurt, 1867–1878.
- Nehama Leibowitz. Studies in Devarim (Deuteronomy). Translated by Aryeh Newman, page 93. Jerusalem: World Zionist Organization, 1980. Reprinted as New Studies in the Weekly Parasha. Lambda Publishers, 2010. ISBN 965524038X.
- Sefer HaHinnuch: The Book of [Mitzvah] Education. Translated by Charles Wengrov, volume 4, pages 304–57. Jerusalem: Feldheim Publishers, 1988. ISBN 0-87306-457-7.
- Deuteronomy 7:25.
- Deuteronomy 7:26.
- Deuteronomy 8:10.
- Deuteronomy 10:19.
- Deuteronomy 10:20.
- Deuteronomy 10:20.
- Deuteronomy 10:20.
- Deuteronomy 10:20.
- Menachem Davis. The Schottenstein Edition Siddur for the Sabbath and Festivals with an Interlinear Translation, pages 159, 165. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-57819-697-3.
- Reuven Hammer. Or Hadash: A Commentary on Siddur Sim Shalom for Shabbat and Festivals, pages 35a–b.
- Menachem Davis. The Interlinear Haggadah: The Passover Haggadah, with an Interlinear Translation, Instructions and Comments, page 44. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2005. ISBN 1-57819-064-9. Joseph Tabory. JPS Commentary on the Haggadah: Historical Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 90. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8276-0858-0.
- Reuven Hammer. Or Hadash: A Commentary on Siddur Sim Shalom for Shabbat and Festivals, pages 30–31, 112–13, 282–83. Menachem Davis. The Schottenstein Edition Siddur for the Sabbath and Festivals with an Interlinear Translation, pages 95–97, 331–33, 605–06.