Flight altitude record

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Explorer II gondola, 1935

This listing of flight altitude records are the records set for the highest aeronautical flights conducted in the atmosphere, set since the age of ballooning.

Some, but not all of the records were certified by the non-profit international aviation organization, the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). One reason for a lack of 'official' certification was that the flight occurred prior to the creation of the FAI.[1]

For clarity, the "Fixed-wing aircraft" table is sorted by FAI-designated categories as determined by whether the record-creating aircraft left the ground by its own power (category "Altitude"), or whether it was first carried aloft by a carrier-aircraft prior to its record setting event (category "Altitude gain", or formally "Altitude Gain, Aeroplane Launched from a Carrier Aircraft"). Other sub-categories describe the airframe, and more importantly, the powerplant type (since rocket-powered aircraft can have greater altitude abilities than those with air-breathing engines).[1]

An essential requirement for the creation of an "official" altitude record is the employment of FAI-certified observers present during the record-setting flight.[1] Thus several records noted are unofficial due to the lack of such observers.


In 1931, Auguste Piccard and Paul Kipfer (photo) reached a record altitude of 15,781 m. In 1932, Auguste Piccard and Max Cosyns made a second record-breaking ascent to 16,201 m. Auguste Piccard ultimately made a total of twenty-seven balloon flights, setting a final record of 23,000 m.
  • 1783-08-15: 24 m (79 ft); Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier of France, made the first ascent in a hot-air balloon.
  • 1783-10-19: 81 m (266 ft); Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, in Paris.
  • 1783-10-19: 105 m (344 ft); Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier with André Giroud de Villette, in Paris.
  • 1783-11-21: 1,000 m (3,300 ft); Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier with Marquis d'Arlandes, in Paris.
  • 1783-12-01: 2.7 km (8,900 ft); Jacques Alexandre Charles and his assistant Marie-Noël Robert, both of France, made the first flight in a hydrogen balloon to about 610 m. Charles then ascended alone to the record altitude.
  • 1784-06-23: 4 km (13,000 ft) Pilâtre de Rozier and the chemist Joseph Proust in a Montgolfier.
  • 1803-07-18: 7.28 km (23,900 ft) Étienne-Gaspard Robert and Auguste Lhoëst in a balloon.
  • 1839: 7.9 km (26,000 ft) Charles Green and Spencer Rush in a free balloon.
  • 1862-09-05: about 11,000 m (36,000 ft)-Henry Coxwell and James Glaisher in a balloon filled with coal gas.[2][3] Glaisher lost consciousness during the ascent due to the low air pressure and cold temperature of −11 °C (12 °F).
  • 1901-07-31: 10.8 km (35,000 ft)-Arthur Berson and Reinhard Süring in the hydrogen balloon Preußen, in an open basket and with oxygen in steel cylinders. This flight contributed to the discovery of the stratosphere.
  • 1927-11-04: 13.222 km (43,380 ft)-Captain Hawthorne C. Gray, of the U.S. Army Air Corps, in a helium balloon. Gray was killed when his oxygen supply ran out.
  • 1931-05-27: 15.787 km (51,790 ft) – Auguste Piccard and Paul Kipfer in a hydrogen balloon.
  • 1932: 16.2 km (53,000 ft) -Auguste Piccard and Max Cosyns in a hydrogen balloon.
  • 1933-09-30: 18.501 km (60,700 ft) USSR balloon USSR-1.
  • 1933-11-20: 18.592 km (61,000 ft) Lt. Comdr. Thomas G. W. Settle (USN) and Maj Chester L. Fordney (USMC) in Century of Progress balloon
  • 1934-01-30: 21.946 km (72,000 ft) USSR balloon Osoaviakhim-1. The three crew were killed when the balloon broke up during the descent.
  • 1935-11-10: 22.066 km (72,400 ft) Captain O. A. Anderson and Captain A. W. Stevens (U.S. Army Air Corps) ascended in the Explorer II gondola from the Stratobowl, near Rapid City, South Dakota, for a flight that lasted 8 hours 13 minutes and covered 362 kilometres (225 mi).
  • 1956-11-08: 23.165 km (76,000 ft) Malcolm D. Ross and M. L. Lewis (U.S. Navy) in Office of Naval Research Strato-Lab I, using a pressurized gondola and plastic balloon launching near Rapid City, South Dakota, and landing 282 km (175 mi) away near Kennedy, Nebraska.
  • 1957-06-02: 29.4997 km (96,784 ft) Captain Joseph W. Kittinger (U.S. Air Force) ascended in the Project Manhigh 1 gondola to a record-breaking altitude.
  • 1957-08-19: 31.212 km (102,400 ft) above sea level, Major David Simons (U.S. Air Force) ascended from the Portsmouth Mine near Crosby, Minnesota in the Manhigh 2 gondola for a 32-hour record-breaking flight. Simons landed at 5:32 p.m. on August 20 in northeastern South Dakota.
  • 1960-08-16: 31.333 km (102,800 ft) Testing a high-altitude parachute system, Joseph Kittinger of the U.S. Air Force parachuted from the Excelsior III balloon over New Mexico at 102,800 ft (31,300 m). He set world records for: high-altitude jump; freefall diving by falling 16 mi (26 km) before opening his parachute; and fastest speed achieved by a human without motorized assistance, 614 mph (988 km/h).[4]
  • 1961-05-04: 34.668 km (113,740 ft); Commander Malcolm D. Ross and Lieutenant Commander Victor A. Prather, Jr., of the U.S. Navy ascended in the Strato-Lab V, in an unpressurized gondola. After descending, the gondola containing the two balloonists landed in the Gulf of Mexico. Prather slipped off the rescue helicopter's hook into the gulf and drowned.[a]
  • 1966-02-02: The amateur parachutist Nicholas Piantanida of the United States, reached 123,500 feet (37,600 m) with his "Project Strato-Jump" II balloon. Because he was unable to disconnect his oxygen line from the gondola's main feed, the ground crew had to remotely detach the balloon from the gondola. His planned free fall and parachute jump was abandoned, and he returned to the ground in the gondola. Nick was unable to accomplish his desired free fall record, however his spectacular flight set other records that held up for 46 years. Because of the design of his glove, he was unable to reattach his safety seat belt harness. He endured incredibe g-forces, but survived the descent. Piantanida's ascent is not recognized by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale as a balloon altitude world record, because he did not return with his balloon, although that was not the feat he was trying to accomplish. On this second attempt of "Project Strato-Jump", Nick Piantanida took with him 250 postmarked air-mail envelopes and letters. At the time, these letters were the first covers to have ever been delivered by the U.S. Post Office via space. The habit of bringing cover letters in to space continued with the Apollo Program. In fact, in 1972 there was a Scandal involving the Apollo 15 Astronauts. It is unclear if any of the "Project Strato-Jump" covers survived, and were eventually mailed to the intended recipients.
  • 2012-10-14: Felix Baumgartner in the Red Bull Stratos reached 38,969 metres (127,851 ft) in a balloon flight that started near Roswell, New Mexico, and he returned to earth via a record-setting parachute jump.
  • 2014-10-24: Alan Eustace, a senior vice president at the Google corporation, reached 41,424 metres (135,906 ft) in a helium balloon and then returned to earth via parachute jump during the StratEx mission executed by Paragon Space Development Corporation.[6][7]

Hot-air balloons[edit]

Year Date Altitude Person Aircraft Notes
imperial metric
2004 December 13, 2004 4.1 mi (22,000 ft) 6.614 km (6,614 m) David Hempleman-Adams Boland Rover A-2 Fédération Aéronautique Internationale record for hot air balloon as of 2007
1783 October 15, 1783 0.016 mi (84 ft) 0.026 km (26 m) Pilâtre de Rozier Montgolfier tethered balloon

On November 26, 2005, Vijaypat Singhania set the world altitude record for highest hot-air-balloon flight, reaching 21,290 m (69,850 ft). He launched from downtown Mumbai, India, and landed 240 km (150 mi) south in Panchale. The previous record of 19,811 m (64,997 ft) had been set by Per Lindstrand on June 6, 1988 in Plano, Texas.[citation needed]

Uncrewed gas balloon[edit]

During 1893 French scientist Jules Richard constructed sounding balloons. These uncrewed balloons, carrying light, but very precise instruments, approached an altitude of 15.24 km (50,000 ft).[8]

The U.S. (and for a while, the world) altitude record for uncrewed balloons was 51.8 km (170,000 ft) (according to a 1991 edition of Guinness Book of World Records). The vehicle was a Winzen-Balloon with a volume of 1.35 million cubic metres, launched in October 1972 in Chico, California, USA.[citation needed]

During 2002 an ultra-thin-film balloon named BU60-1 made of polyethylene film 3.4 µm thick with a volume of 60,000 m³ was launched from Sanriku Balloon Center at Ofunato City, Iwate in Japan at 6:35 on May 23, 2002. The balloon ascended at a speed of 260 m per minute and reached the altitude of 53.0 km (173,900 ft), breaking the previous world record set during 1972.[9]


On February 17, 1986, The highest altitude obtained by a soaring aircraft was set at 49,009 ft (14,938 m) by Robert Harris using lee waves over California City, United States.[10]

This was surpassed at 15,460 m (50,720 ft) set on August 30, 2006 by Steve Fossett (pilot) and Einar Enevoldson (co-pilot) in their high performance research glider Perlan 1, a modified Glaser-Dirks DG-500.[10] This record was also achieved over El Calafate (Patagonia, Argentina) and set as part of the Perlan Project.[11]

This was raised at 52,172 ft (15,902 m) on September 3, 2017[12] by Jim Payne (pilot) and Morgan Sandercock (co-pilot) in the Perlan 2,[13] a special built high altitude research glider. This record was again achieved over El Calafate and as part of the Perlan Project.[11]

On September 2, 2018, within the Airbus Perlan Mission II, again from El Calafate, the Perlan II piloted by Jim Payne and Tim Gardner reached 76,124 ft (23,203 m), surpassing the 73,737 ft (22,475 m) attained by Jerry Hoyt on April 17, 1989 in a Lockheed U-2: the highest subsonic flight.[14]

Fixed-wing aircraft[edit]

Year Date Altitude Person Aircraft Propulsion Notes
Imperial Metric
1890 October 8 8 in 20 cm Clément Ader Éole propeller Uncontrolled hop
1903 December 17 10 ft 3 m Wilbur Wright, Orville Wright Wright Flyer propeller Photographed and witnessed unofficially.
1906 October 23 10 ft 3 m Alberto Santos-Dumont 14-bis propeller First officially witnessed and certified flight.
1906 November 12 13 ft 4 m Alberto Santos-Dumont 14-bis propeller
1908 December 18 360 ft 110 m Wilbur Wright Biplane propeller at Auovors
1909 July 18 492 ft 150 m Louis Paulhan Farman propeller Concours d’Aviation, La Brayelle, Douai[15]
1909 3,018 ft 920 m Louis Paulhan Farman propeller Lyon
1910 January 9 4,164 ft 1,269 m Louis Paulhan Farman propeller Los Angeles Air Meet[16]
1910 June 17 4,603 ft 1,403 m Walter Brookins Wright biplane propeller [17]
1910 August 11 6,621 ft 2,018 m John Armstrong Drexel Blériot monoplane propeller Lanark Aviation Meeting[18]
1910 October 30 8,471 ft 2,582 m Ralph Johnstone Wright biplane propeller International Aviation Tournament was at the Belmont Park race track in Elmont, New York[19]
1910 December 26 11,474 ft 3,497 m Archibald Hoxsey Wright Model B propeller Second International Aviation Meet held in 1910 at Dominguez Field, Los Angeles.[20] Hoxsey died in a plane crash five days later while trying to set a new record.[21]
1912 September 11 18,405 ft 5,610 m Roland Garros Blériot monoplane propeller Saint-Brieuc (France) [22]
1915 January 5 11,950 ft 3,640 m Joseph Eugene Carberry Curtiss Model E propeller [23]
1916 November 9 26,083 ft 7,950 m Guido Guidi Caudron G.4 propeller Torino Mirafiori airfield[24]
1919 June 14 31,230 ft 9,520 m Jean Casale Nieuport NiD.29 propeller [25][26]
1920 February 27 33,113 ft 10,093 m Major Rudolf Schroeder LUSAC-11 propeller [27][28]
1921 September 18 34,508 ft 10,518 m Lt. John Arthur Macready LUSAC-11 propeller [29]
1923 September 5 35,240 ft 10,740 m Joseph Sadi-Lecointe Nieuport NiD.40R propeller [30][31]
1923 October 30 36,565 ft 11,145 m Joseph Sadi-Lecointe Nieuport NiD.40R propeller [31][32]
1924 October 21 39,587 ft 12,066 m Jean Callizo Gourdou-Leseurre 40 C.1 propeller [33] Callizo later claimed several higher records, but these were stripped from him, as he had falsified barograph readings.[34][35]
1930 June 4 43,168 ft 13,158 m Lt. Apollo Soucek, USN Wright Apache propeller [36]
1932 September 16 43,976 ft 13,404 m Cyril Uwins Vickers Vespa propeller [37]
1933 September 28 44,819 ft 13,661 m Gustave Lemoine Potez 506 propeller [38]
1934 April 11 47,354 ft 14,433 m Renato Donati Caproni Ca.113 AQ propeller [39][40]
1936 August 14 48,698 ft 14,843 m Georges Détré Potez 506 propeller highest with no pressure suit[41]
1936 September 28 49,967 ft 15,230 m Squadron Leader Francis Ronald Swain Bristol Type 138 propeller [42]
1938 June 30 53,937 ft 16,440 m M. J. Adam Bristol Type 138 propeller [42]
1938 October 22 56,850 ft 17,330 m Lt. Colonel Mario Pezzi Caproni Ca.161 crewed propeller-driven biplane record so far [43]
1948 March 23 59,430 ft 18,114 m John Cunningham de Havilland Vampire turbojet Modified Vampire F.1 with extended wingtips and a de Havilland Ghost jet engine.[44][45]
1951 August 15 79,494 ft 24,230 m Bill Bridgeman Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket air-launched rocket plane Unofficial record. Powered by the XLR11 liquid fuel rocket engine (designated as XLR8-RM-5).
1953 May 4 63,668 ft 19,406 m Walter Gibb English Electric Canberra B.2 turbojet propelled by two Rolls-Royce Olympus engines.[46]
1953 August 21 83,235 ft 25,370 m Lt. Col. Marion Carl Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket air-launched rocket plane Unofficial record. Powered by the XLR11 liquid fuel rocket engine (designated as XLR8-RM-5).
1954 May 28 90,440 ft 27,570 m Arthur W. Murray Bell X-1A air-launched rocket plane Unofficial record. Powered by the XLR11 liquid fuel rocket engine.[47]
1955 August 29 65,876 ft 20,079 m Walter Gibb English Electric Canberra B.2 turbojet Olympus powered.[48]
1956 September 7 126,283 ft 38,491 m Iven Kincheloe Bell X-2 air-launched rocket plane [49]
1957 August 28 70,310 ft 21,430 m Mike Randrup English Electric Canberra WK163 turbojet & rocket With Napier "Double Scorpion" rocket motor
1958 April 18 76,939 ft 23,451 m Lt. Commander George C. Watkins, USN Grumman F11F-1F Super Tiger turbojet [50]
1958 May 2 79,452 ft 24,217 m Roger Carpentier SNCASO Trident II turbojet & rocket
1958 May 7 91,243 ft 27,811 m Major Howard C. Johnson Lockheed F-104 Starfighter turbojet This F-104 became the first aircraft to simultaneously hold the world speed and altitude records when on May 16, 1958, U.S. Air Force Capt. Walter W. Irwin set a world speed record of 1,404.19 mph
1959 September 4 94,658 ft 28,852 m Vladimir Ilyushin Sukhoi Su-9 turbojet
1959 December 6 98,557 ft 30,040 m Commander Lawrence E. Flint, Jr. McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II turbojet
1959 December 14 103,389 ft 31,513 m Capt "Joe" B. Jordan Lockheed F-104 Starfighter turbojet General Electric J79
1961 April 28 113,891 ft 34,714 m Giorgii Mosolov Ye-66A Mig-21 turbojet & rocket R-11
1962 July 17 314,700 ft 95,900 m Robert Michael White X-15 air-launched rocket plane Not a C-1 FAI record
1963 July 19 347,400 ft 105,900 m Joseph Albert Walker X-15 air-launched rocket plane Not a C-1 FAI record.
1963 August 22 353,200 ft 107,700 m Joseph Albert Walker X-15 air-launched rocket plane Not a C-1 FAI record
1963 November 15 118,860 ft 36,230 m Major Robert W. Smith Lockheed NF-104A turbojet & rocket Unofficial altitude record for an aircraft with self-powered takeoff.
1963 December 6 120,800 ft 36,800 m Major Robert W. Smith Lockheed NF-104A turbojet & rocket Unofficial altitude record for an aircraft with self-powered takeoff.
1973 July 25 118,898 ft 36,240 m Aleksandr Fedotov Mikoyan-Gurevich Ye-266 MiG-25 Jet plane record Under Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI) classification the Ye-155 type
1976 July 28 85,069 ft 25,929 m Captain Robert Helt Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird turbojet Pratt & Whitney J58; Absolute Record of FAI classes C, H and M[51] Another SR-71 set absolute speed record on the same day.
1977 August 31 123,520 ft 37,650 m Aleksandr Fedotov Mikoyan-Gurevich Ye-266M MiG-25 Jet plane record Under Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI) classification the Ye-155 type
1995 August 4 60,897 ft 18,561 m 2 pilots: Einar Enevoldson and other, and two scientists[52] Grob Strato 2C crewed propeller monoplane record to date
2001 August 14 96,863 ft 29,524 m Uncrewed NASA Helios HP01 propeller Set altitude records for propeller driven aircraft, solar-electric aircraft, and highest altitude in horizontal flight by a winged aircraft.
2004 October 4 367,490 ft 112,010 m Brian Binnie SpaceShipOne air launched rocket plane In addition to the altitude record, this flight also set records for greatest mass lifted to altitude and minimum time between two consecutive flights in a reusable vehicle.[53]

Piston-driven propeller aeroplane[edit]

The highest altitude obtained by a piston-driven propeller UAV (without payload) is 67,028 feet (20,430 m). It was obtained during 1988–1989 by the Boeing Condor UAV.[54]

The highest altitude obtained in a piston-driven propeller biplane (without a payload) was 17,083 m (56,047 ft) on October 22, 1938 by Mario Pezzi at Montecelio, Italy in a Caproni Ca.161 driven by a Piaggio XI R.C. engine.[55]

The highest altitude obtained in a piston-driven propeller monoplane (without a payload) was 18,552 m (60,866 ft) on August 4, 1995 by the Grob Strato 2C driven by two Teledyne Continental TSIO-550 engines.

Jet aircraft[edit]

The highest current world absolute general aviation altitude record [56] propelled aircraft is 37,650 metres (123,520 ft) set by Aleksandr Vasilyevich Fedotov, in a Mikoyan Gurevitch E-266M (MiG-25M), on August 31, 1977.

Rocket plane[edit]

The highest altitude obtained by a crewed aeroplane (launched from another aircraft) is 112,010 m (367,487 ft) by Brian Binnie in the Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne (powered by a Scaled Composite SD-010 engine with 18,000 pounds (8,200 kg) of thrust) on October 4, 2004 at Mojave, CA. The SpaceShipOne was launched at over 43,500 ft (13.3 km).[53] The previous (unofficial) record was 107,960 m (354,199 ft) set by Joseph A. Walker in a North American X-15 in mission X-15 Flight 91 on August 22, 1963. Walker had reached 106 km – crossing the Kármán line the first time – with X-15 Flight 90 the previous month.

The record for highest altitude obtained by a rocket-powered aircraft (self-launched—i.e. not launched from another aircraft) was 24,217 m (79,452 ft) on May 2, 1958 by Roger Carpentier over Istres, France in a Sud-Ouest Trident II mixed power (turbojet & rocket engine) aircraft.[57] The unofficial altitude record for aircraft with self-powered takeoff was 36,820 m (120,800 ft) on December 6, 1963 by Major Robert W. Smith in a Lockheed NF-104A mixed power (turbojet and rocket engine) aircraft.[58]

Electrically powered aircraft[edit]

The highest altitude obtained by an electrically powered aircraft is 96,863 feet (29,524 m) on August 14, 2001 by the NASA Helios, and is the highest altitude in horizontal flight by a winged aircraft. This is also the altitude record for propeller driven aircraft, FAI class U (Experimental / New Technologies), and FAI class U-1.d (Remotely controlled UAV : Weight 500 kg to less than 2500 kg).[59]


On June 21, 1972, Jean Boulet of France piloted an Aérospatiale SA 315B Lama helicopter to an absolute altitude record of 40,814 feet (12,440 m).[60] At that extreme altitude, the engine flamed out and Boulet had to land the helicopter by breaking another record: the longest successful autorotation in history.[61] The helicopter was stripped of all unnecessary equipment prior to the flight to minimize weight, and the pilot breathed supplemental oxygen.

The record was broken on March 23, 2002 by Fred North. North achieved an altitude of 42,500 feet (12,954 m) in a Eurocopter AS350 B2.

Paper airplanes[edit]

The highest altitude obtained by a paper plane is currently for the Paper Aircraft Released Into Space (PARIS) project, which was released at an altitude of 27,307 metres (89,590 ft), from a helium balloon that was launched approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of Madrid, Spain on October 28, 2010, and recorded by The Register's "special projects bureau". The project achieved a Guinness world record recognition.[62][63]

Cannon rounds[edit]

The current world-record for highest cannon projectile flight is held by Project HARP’s 16-inch space gun prototype, which fired a 180 kg Martlet 2 projectile to record height of 180 km (590,550 ft; 110 mi) in Yuma, Arizona, on November 18, 1966. The projectile’s trajectory briefly sent it into space, making it the first cannon-fired projectile to exit the atmosphere.[64]

The Paris Gun (German: Paris-Geschütz) was a German long-range siege gun used to bombard Paris during World War I. It was in service from March–August 1918. Its 106-kilogram shells had a range of about 130 km (80 mi) with a maximum altitude of about 42.3 km (26.3 mi).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The FAI Absolute Altitude (#2325) record for balloon flight set in 1961 by Malcolm Ross and Victor Prather is still current, since it requires the balloonist to descend with the balloon.[5]


  1. ^ a b c Maksel, Rebecca (May 29, 2009). "Who Holds the Altitude Record For an Airplane?: Depends On the Category—And On Who Was Watching". Air & Space/Smithsonian magazine. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
  3. ^ https://hypertextbook.com/facts/1997/CassandraEng.shtml, Facts
  4. ^ Free-falling, New Scientist, July 26, 2006, archived from the original on November 7, 2017
  5. ^ The International Air Sports Federation (FAI). "Ballooning World Records". Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
  6. ^ "Alan Eustace Jumps From Stratosphere, Breaking Felix Baumgartner's World Record". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 24, 2014.
  7. ^ http://www.paragonsdc.com/stratex/
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 8, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Research on Balloon to Float over 50km Altitude". Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA. Archived from the original on August 15, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
  10. ^ a b "Fédération Aéronautique Internationale — Gliding World Records". Archived from the original on April 13, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  11. ^ a b DG Flugzeugbau GmbH. "Perlan Project". Archived from the original on December 15, 2010.
  12. ^ gGmbH, Segelflugszene. "OLC Flight information – Jim Payne (US) – 03.09.2017". www.onlinecontest.org. Archived from the original on September 3, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  13. ^ "The Powerless Plane Riding the Wind to a New Altitude Record". WIRED. Archived from the original on September 4, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  14. ^ "Airbus Perlan Mission II glider soars to 76,000 feet to break own altitude record, surpassing even U-2 reconnaissance plane" (Press release). Airbus. September 3, 2018.
  15. ^ "Concours d'Aviation de Douai". The First Air Races. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  16. ^ "1910 Dominguez Meet – Paulhan". Archived from the original on February 8, 2007.
  17. ^ Washington Post. June 18, 1910. Indianapolis, Indiana, June 17, 1910. Walter Brookins, in a Wright biplane, broke the world's aeroplane record for altitude today, when he soared to a height of 4,603 feet (1,403 m), according to the measurement of the altimeter. His motor stopped as he was descending, and he made a glide of 2 miles (3.2 km), landing easily in a wheat field. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  18. ^ Lewis 1971, p. 32.
  19. ^ "International Aviation Tournament". Newsday. Archived from the original on April 26, 2008.
  20. ^ "Hoxsey Soars 11,474 Feet; World's Record". Los Angeles Herald. December 27, 1910. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
  21. ^ "Hoxsey, Capsized By Wind, Crashes In Biplane To Instant Death At Dominguez Field". Los Angeles Herald. January 1, 1911. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ Aerial Age. 1915. Joseph E. Carberry, who holds the American record for altitude, accompanied by passenger, Capt. B. D. Foulois, Lt. T. DeWitt Milling, Lt. Ira A. Rader, Lt., Carlton G. Chapman ...
  24. ^ Evangelisti, Giorgio, Gente dell'Aria vol. 6, Ed. Olimpia, 2000
  25. ^ FAI record file #15455 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ Rosenthal, Marchand, Borget, Bénichou. Nieuport 1909–1950, Larivière, 1997, ISBN 2907051113.
  27. ^ Owers 1993, p. 51.
  28. ^ Flight December 16, 1920, p. 1274.
  29. ^ Angelucci and Bowers 1987, p. 195.
  30. ^ FAI record file #8246 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ a b Flight February 7, 1924, p. 75.
  32. ^ FAI record file #8223 Archived March 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ "FAI Record ID #8384". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. April 30, 2012. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  34. ^ "Airisms from the Air: Some "Record"". Flight. Vol. XIX no. 976. September 8, 1927. p. 635. Archived from the original on October 16, 2014.
  35. ^ "Macready May Win Record". Popular Science. December 1927. p. 54.
  36. ^ "World's Records In Aviation Archived 2012-03-08 at the Wayback Machine". Flight, March 20, 1931, p. 247.
  37. ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, pp. 205–206.
  38. ^ "The New Altitude Record Archived 2012-03-09 at the Wayback Machine". Flight, October 19, 1933. p. 1043.
  39. ^ "The World's Aviation Records Archived 2012-10-26 at the Wayback Machine". Flight, August 16, 1934, p. 844.
  40. ^ Cooper, Ralph. "Renato Donati 1894– Archived 2010-09-27 at the Wayback Machine". The Early Birds of Aviation. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
  41. ^ Détré, Georges. "J'ai piloté le Potez 506 à 15.000m." L'album du fanatique de l'aviation, March 1971. p. 27.
  42. ^ a b Lewis 1971, p. 485.
  43. ^ Taylor 1965, p. 346.
  44. ^ Bridgman 1951, p. 6b.
  45. ^ Lewis 1971, pp. 327–328.
  46. ^ Lewis 1971, p. 371.
  47. ^ Gibbs, Yvonne (August 12, 2015). "NASA Armstrong NASA Bell X-1 Fact Sheet: Second Generation X-1". Archived from the original on November 9, 2011.
  48. ^ Lewis 1971, p. 389.
  49. ^ "50th Anniversary of Two Historic X-2 Milestones Celebrated," NASA 2006
  50. ^ "The New Navy 1954–1959" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 14, 2000.
  51. ^ "Records: Sub-class : C-1 (Landplanes) Group 3: turbo-jet." records.fai.org. Retrieved: June 30, 2011.
  52. ^ "Einar Enevoldson - Perlan Project". www.perlanproject.org. Archived from the original on November 10, 2016.
  53. ^ a b "FAI Record ID #9881 – Altitude above the earth's surface with or without maneuvres of the aerospacecraft, Class P-1 (Suborbital missions) Archived 2015-10-18 at the Wayback Machine" Mass Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Turnaround time Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Retrieved: November 28, 2015.
  54. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 20, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  55. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  56. ^ "General Aviation World Records - achieved by a crewed airbreathing jet engine". Archived from the original on May 10, 2016.
  57. ^ "Trident's 79,720ft" (PDF), Flight, p. 623, May 9, 1958, archived from the original on November 1, 2014
  58. ^ George J. Marrett (November 2002). "Sky High in a Starfighter". Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  59. ^ "Aviation and Space World Records". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2013.
  60. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  61. ^ R. Randall Padfield; R. Padfield (1992). Learning to Fly Helicopters. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-07-157724-3.
  62. ^ "Guinness World Record certificate". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
  63. ^ Haines, Lester. PARIS soars to Guinness World Record: Highest paper plane launch ever Archived August 26, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, February 17, 2012.
  64. ^ Graf, Richard K. "A Brief History of the HARP Project". Encyclopedia Astronautica. astronautix.com. Retrieved August 14, 2013.


External links[edit]