Floriano Peixoto

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Floriano Peixoto
Floriano Peixoto (1891).jpg
Marshal Floriano in 1891
President of Brazil
In office
23 November 1891 – 14 November 1894
Vice PresidentNone
Preceded byDeodoro da Fonseca
Succeeded byPrudente de Morais
Vice President of Brazil
In office
26 February 1891 – 23 November 1891
PresidentDeodoro da Fonseca
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byManuel Vitorino
Justice of the Superior Military Court
In office
26 February 1891 – 29 June 1895
Nominated byDeodoro da Fonseca
Preceded byHermes Ernesto da Fonseca
Succeeded byCarlos Machado Bittencourt
Minister of War
In office
19 April 1890 – 22 January 1891
PresidentDeodoro da Fonseca
Preceded byEduardo Wandenkolk
Succeeded byAntônio Falcão da Frota
President of the Mato Grosso Province
In office
13 September 1884 – 5 October 1885
Preceded byBaron of Batovi
Succeeded byJosé Joaquim Ramos Ferreira
Personal details
Born(1839-04-30)30 April 1839
Maceió, Alagoas, Empire of Brazil
Died29 July 1895(1895-07-29) (aged 56)
Barra Mansa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Political partyIndependent
Spouse(s)
Children8
Parents
  • Manuel Vieira de Araújo Peixoto (father)
  • Ana Joaquina de Albuquerque (mother)
Alma materPraia Vermelha Military School
Signature
Nickname(s)The Iron Marshal
The Sphinx
Military service
Allegiance Empire of Brazil
United States of Brazil
Branch/service Brazilian Army
Years of service1861–1895
RankField Marshal
Commands
  • 9th Infantry Battalion
  • 3rd Horse Artillery Regiment
  • Pernambuco War Arsenal
  • Commander of Arms of Mato Grosso
  • Army Adjutant General
  • Court Garrison
  • Rio de Janeiro Garrison
Battles/wars
Federalist Revolution
Brazilian Naval Revolt

Floriano Vieira Peixoto (Portuguese pronunciation: [floɾiˈɐ̃nu viˈe(j)ɾɐ pe(j)ˈʃotu] 30 April 1839 – 29 June 1895), born in Ipioca (today a district of the city of Maceió in the State of Alagoas), nicknamed the "Iron Marshal",[1] was a Brazilian soldier and politician, a veteran of the Paraguayan War, and the second president of Brazil.[2] He was the first vice president of Brazil to have succeeded the president mid-term.

Election[edit]

Monument to Marshal Floriano Peixoto, by Eduardo de Sá, in Downtown Rio de Janeiro

Peixoto was an army marshal when elected vice-president in February 1891. In November 1891, he rose to the presidency after the resignation of Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, the first president of Brazil. Peixoto came to the presidency in a difficult period of the new Brazilian Republic, which was in the midst of a general political and economic crisis made worse by the effects of the bursting of the Encilhamento economic bubble. As Vice President, he had also served as the President of the Senate.[3]

Presidency[edit]

His government was marked by several revolutions. Ruling in an authoritarian fashion, Peixoto defeated a naval officers' rebellion against him in 1893–1894 and the Federalist Revolution in the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, where he ordered many murders and summary executions, during the same years.[4] His government was marked by an increased centralization of power and nationalism, with the florianista cult of personality being the first phenomenon of a favorable political expression towards a republican politician in Brazil.[5]

Legacy[edit]

He is often referred to as "the Consolidator of the Republic" or "The Iron Marshal." He left the presidency on 15 November 1894. In spite of his unpopularity, he was responsible for the consolidation of the First Brazilian Republic.

Desterro, the capital of the state of Santa Catarina, was renamed Florianópolis after its defeat by loyalist troops at the end of the Federalist Revolution.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A República de Ferro". folha online (in Portuguese). Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  2. ^ Floriano Vieira Peixoto (in Portuguese)
  3. ^ "República Velha (1889 - 1930)". Senado Federal (in Portuguese).
  4. ^ https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/37705125.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  5. ^ "Florianismo | Atlas Histórico do Brasil - FGV". atlas.fgv.br (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 19 May 2018.

External links[edit]

Media related to Floriano Peixoto at Wikimedia Commons

Political offices
Preceded by President of the Mato Grosso Province
1884–1885
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of War
1890–1891
Succeeded by
New office Vice President of Brazil
1891
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of Brazil
1891–1894
Succeeded by
Legal offices
Preceded by Minister of the Superior Military Court
1891–1895
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of the Superior Military Court
1891–1893
Succeeded by