Santa Catarina (state)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Santa Catarina
Estado de Santa Catarina
State of Santa Catarina
Flag of Santa Catarina
Coat of arms of Santa Catarina
Anthem: Hino do Estado de Santa Catarina
Map of the Brazil with Santa Catarina highlighted
Map of the Brazil with Santa Catarina highlighted
Coordinates: 27°15′S 50°20′W / 27.250°S 50.333°W / -27.250; -50.333Coordinates: 27°15′S 50°20′W / 27.250°S 50.333°W / -27.250; -50.333
Country Brazil
Largest cityJoinville
Named forSaint Catherine of Alexandria
CapitalFlorianópolis
Government
 • GovernorCarlos Moisés (Republicanos)
 • Vice GovernorDaniela Reinehr (PL)
 • SenatorsDário Berger (PSB)
Esperidião Amin (PP)
Jorginho Mello (PL)
Area
 • Total95,730.684 km2 (36,961.824 sq mi)
 • Rank20th
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total7,252,502
 • Rank11th
 • Density76/km2 (200/sq mi)
  • Rank9th
Demonym(s)Catarinense or Barriga-Verde (Green Belly)
GDP
 • Year2015 estimate
 • TotalUS$133 billion (PPP) US$75 billion (nominal) (6th)
 • Per capitaUS$19.084 (PPP) US$10.783 (nominal)(4th)
HDI
 • Year2017
 • Category0.808[2]very high (3rd)
Time zoneUTC-3 (BRT)
Postal Codes
87000-000 to 89990-000
ISO 3166 codeBR-SC
Websitesc.gov.br

Santa Catarina (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsɐ̃tɐ kataˈɾinɐ], Portuguese: Estado de Santa Catarina, lit.'State of Saint Catherine') is a state in the South Region of Brazil. It is the 7th smallest state in total area and the 11th most populous.[3][4] Additionally, it is the 9th largest settlement, with 295 municipalities. The state, with 3.4% of the Brazilian population, generates 3.8% of the national GDP.[5]

Santa Catarina is bordered by Paraná to the north, Rio Grande do Sul to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Argentine province of Misiones to the west. The coastline is over 450 km, i.e., about half of Portugal's mainland coast. The seat of the state executive, legislative and judiciary powers is the capital Florianópolis. Joinville, however, is the most populous city in the state. Besides Espírito Santo, Santa Catarina is the only state whose capital is not the most populous city.[6] South of the Tropic of Capricorn, situated in the planet's southern temperate zone, the state has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) in the east and west and an oceanic climate (Cfb) in the center.[7] Climatic conditions vary according to the relief of the region: in the west and mountainous plateau, snow and frost are relatively frequent, while on the coast the climate is warmer, capable of reaching high temperatures in summer.[7]

The territory of Santa Catarina is one of the oldest states in Brazil, separated from São Paulo in 1738, its first governor being José da Silva Pais. The state was created to extend Portuguese domains to southern Brazil until they reached the Rio de la Plata region. It is also the oldest state of the South Region of Brazil, older than Rio Grande do Sul (1807) and Paraná (1853). The state of Santa Catarina was settled by European immigrants: the coast was colonized by the Azorean Portuguese in the 18th century; the Itajaí Valley a portion of the southern region and northern Santa Catarina was settled by the Germans in the mid 19th century.[8][9] The south of the state was populated by the Italians in the last years of the 19th century. Children and grandchildren of Italian and German immigrants who moved from Rio Grande do Sul settled western Santa Catarina in the mid 20th century.[10]

The state's social indicators are among the best in Brazil. It has the highest rate of life expectancy in the country (just like the Federal District),[11] the lowest infant mortality rate and is also the state with the lowest economic inequality and illiteracy in Brazil.[12][13] Santa Catarina has the 6th highest GDP in the country,[14] with a diverse and industrialized economy.

Geography[edit]

Aerial view of Florianópolis

Santa Catarina is in a very strategic position in Mercosul, the South American Common Market. Its position in the map is situated between the parallel 25º57'41" and 29º23'55" of the Southern latitude and between the meridians 48º19'37" and 53º50'00" of Western longitude. Florianópolis, its capital, is 1,673 km (1,040 mi) from Brasilia, 705 km (438 mi) from São Paulo, 1,144 km (711 mi) from Rio de Janeiro and 1,850 km (1,150 mi) from Buenos Aires.

The Serra Geral mountains, a southern extension of the Serra do Mar, run north and south through the state parallel to the Atlantic coast, dividing the state into a narrow coastal plain and a larger plateau region to the west.

The Atlantic coast of Santa Catarina has many beaches, islands, bays, inlets, and lagoons. The humid tropical Serra do Mar coastal forests cover the narrow coastal zone, which is crossed by numerous short streams from the wooded slopes of the Serras.[15]

The central part of the state is home to the Araucaria moist forests, dominated by emergent Brazilian pines (Araucaria angustifolia). The drainage of the plateau is westward to the Paraná River, the rivers being tributaries of the Iguaçu which forms its northern boundary, and of the Uruguay River which forms its southern boundary.[15] The semi-deciduous Alto Paraná Atlantic forests occupy the westernmost valleys of the Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers.

The highest point of the state is the Morro da Boa Vista, at an altitude of 1,827 m, and the second-highest point is the Morro da Igreja, in the town of Urubici, at an altitude of 1,822 m.

View of São Joaquim National Park in Santa Catarina

History[edit]

European settlement began with the Spanish settlement of Santa Catarina island in 1542. The Portuguese took control in 1675 and established the captaincy of Santa Catarina in 1738, bringing families from the Azores to populate the shore.

In 1839, during the Ragamuffin War, there was an unsuccessful attempt for Santa Catarina to secede from the Empire of Brazil to form the independent Juliana Republic (allied with the Riograndense Republic to the south) which was thwarted in four months.

Map of the State of Santa Catarina, 1907. National Archives of Brazil.

Between the early 19th century and mid 20th century, a great number of European immigrants arrived to Santa Catarina; these immigrants were taken to populate the south of the nation by Imperial initiative. About 50% of these immigrants were from Germany and Austria.[16] The rest came mainly from Italy, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Lithuania, France, Finland, Croatia, Serbia, Estonia, Slovenia and Latvia;[16] these immigrants created an abundance of small, family-held farms, many of which continue to exist in the interior of the state.[citation needed]

Late in March 2004, the state was hit by the first hurricane ever recorded in the South Atlantic. Because there is no naming system for such an event in Brazil, Brazilian meteorologists called it Hurricane Catarina, after the state.

Demographics[edit]

Ethnicities of Santa Catarina in 2010.[17]

  White (83.85%)
  Pardo (mixed-race) (12.61%)
  Black (2.86%)
  Asian (0.41%)
  Indigenous (0.26%)
  Not declared (0.01%)

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 6,091,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 61.53 inhabitants per square kilometre (159.4/sq mi).

Urbanization: 83% (2006); Population growth: 2% (1991–2000); Houses: 1,836,000 (2006).[18]

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 5,297,000 White people (86.96%), 608,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (9.98%), 160,000 Black people (2.63%), 15,000 Asian people (0.25%), 5,000 Amerindian people (0.09%).[19]

People of Portuguese ancestry, mostly Azoreans, predominate on the coast. People of German descent predominate in the northeast region (Itajaí Valley) and in the north (Joinville region). There are many German communities in the west. People of Italian descent predominate in the south, and in many areas in the west. People of African, Amerindian or Japanese origin are present in small communities in a few towns.[20]

According to a 2013 genetic study with 20 samples (for 6.7 million people), the population of Santa Catarina is made up of 79.7% European, 11.4% African and 8.9% Amerindian ancestry groups.[21] A genetic study found out an isolated Azorean-Brazilian community from Santa Catarina to have between 80.6% to 93.5% European descent, along with 12.6% to 6.8% African and 4.1% to 2.4% Native American ancestries.[22][23]

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Santa Catarina
Rank Mesoregion Pop. Rank Mesoregion Pop.
Joinville
Joinville
Florianópolis
Florianópolis
1 Joinville Norte Catarinense 583,144 11 Balneário Camboriú Vale do Itajaí 138,732 Blumenau
Blumenau
São José
São José
2 Florianópolis Grande Florianópolis 492,977 12 Brusque Vale do Itajaí 131,703
3 Blumenau Vale do Itajaí 352,460 13 Tubarão Sul Catarinense 104,937
4 São José Grande Florianópolis 242,927 14 São Bento do Sul Norte Catarinense 83,576
5 Chapecó Oeste Catarinense 216,654 15 Camboriú Vale do Itajaí 80,834
6 Itajaí Vale do Itajaí 215,895 16 Caçador Oeste Catarinense 77,863
7 Criciúma Sul Catarinense 213,023 17 Navegantes Vale do Itajaí 79,285
8 Palhoça Grande Florianópolis 168,259 18 Concórdia Oeste Catarinense 74,106
9 Jaraguá do Sul Norte Catarinense 174,158 19 Rio do Sul Vale do Itajaí 70,100
10 Lages Serrana (Santa Catarina) 157,743 20 Araranguá Sul Catarinense 67,578

European settlement[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1872159,802—    
1890283,769+3.24%
1900320,289+1.22%
1920668,743+3.75%
19401,178,340+2.87%
19501,560,502+2.85%
19602,146,909+3.24%
19702,930,411+3.16%
19803,687,652+2.33%
19914,538,248+1.90%
20005,349,580+1.84%
20106,248,436+1.57%
20177,001,161+1.64%
source:[25]

One of the Brazilian states with the most obvious signs of 19th-century European immigration, Santa Catarina, where the vast majority of the population descends from European settlers, is also the state with the highest percentage of European phenotype citizens.

The state is also famous for having towns where most of the population belongs to a single main ancestry thanks to the settlement program with European colonists. Here are a few examples of such towns in the Southern region:

Some southern Brazilian towns with a notable main ancestry
Town name State Main ancestry Percentage
Nova Veneza Santa Catarina Italian 95%[26]
Pomerode Santa Catarina German 90%[27]
Treze Tílias Santa Catarina Austrian 60%[28]

Over 50% of Santa Catarina's population has German, Austrian and Luxembourgish ancestry[29][30][31] (the local Hunsrückisch is known as Katharinensisch,[32] East Pomeranian is still spoken in the town of Pomerode and Southern Austro-Bavarian by the Tyrolean population in Treze Tílias. It was also the main destination for Danes in Brazil, being sparsely populated and with just its shore mainly inhabited by Azoreans in the 18th century (e.g. Laguna born Anita Garibaldi, wife and comrade-in-arms of Italian Unification revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi). It also received Italians, French, Swedes, Norwegians, Swiss, Lithuanians and Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Poles, Slovenians, Croatians, Belgians, American Confederates and Spaniards who populated its interior during the 19th century. The town of Brusque, founded by Austrian Baron von Schneeburg who brought in German families from the Grand Duchy of Baden to settle in the northeast of Santa Catarina, also received additional waves of Italians from the Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino Euroregion, Poles and Swedes. Brusque was also one of the destinations in the South and Southeast for American Confederate settlers in 1867, differing from São Paulo and Paraná colonies, who gave birth to new towns such as Americana in São Paulo. Neighboring towns such as Nova Trento founded in 1875, similarly received subjects from the Austro-Hungarian Empire because Italian-speaking Tyroleans known as trentinos and Germans from the Kingdom of Prussia, historic Swabia and Baden faced an immense crisis in the agricultural sector caused by the conflicts of the unification of Italy and Germany respectively, that weakened local trade. Istrian Italians under the Austrian Empire rule also fled Istria to settle in Brazil, and a few towns like Nova Veneza, founded in 1891, still have an over 90% Venetian population of which many still speak the Talian dialect. Most Venetians arrived after the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866, when Venice, along with the rest of the Veneto, became part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy.[33][34][35][36][37][38][30][31][39][40]

Portuguese[edit]

The Portuguese started arriving in the 1750s, mainly from the Azores islands, and colonized the coast. In the late 18th century, half of Santa Catarina's population was Portuguese-born. These Portuguese established many important towns in the state, such as Florianópolis, the capital.

Germans and Austrians[edit]

German architecture in Blumenau

German people started arriving in 1828, after Brazilian independence. They were peasants attracted by the opportunity to have their own land, as Germanic countries were overpopulated and many people had no land to work. German immigration was very low until the 1850s, when waves started arriving in southern Brazil. To stimulate the German colonization of southern Brazil, the Brazilian government created many German colonies: these were ethnically Germanic areas where people from many parts of what are now Germany, Austria, Czech Republic and Poland settled. Initially, these colonies were in rural areas, where immigrants were able to cultivate their own farms. Many of these German colonies developed into large cities, Joinville and Blumenau among them.

Joinville, the largest city of Santa Catarina, settled by Germans in 1851.

Germans were isolated in rural communities for decades. They did not have much contact with the other peoples of Brazil, and for generations they were able to speak the German language and maintain German traditions in Brazil. This situation changed in 1942, during World War II, when Brazil declared war on Germany, and German immigrants and their descendants were required to learn Portuguese and to culturally integrate in their respective states.

German influence in the state nevertheless remains very strong and visible. Many towns and cities retain notable aspects of German culture: in Pomerode, for example, a small town in which nine-tenths of the population is of German-Brazilian descent, most inhabitants still speak German fluently; Oktoberfest continues to be celebrated in Blumenau and in many other towns in the region. Architecture, too, shows German influence, as do popular customs and local cuisine.

Italians[edit]

Stone house in Nova Veneza, southern Santa Catarina, landmark of Italian immigration.

Italian settlers started arriving in Santa Catarina in 1875 and immigrated in large numbers until the 1910s. They were peasants from Northern Italy and established themselves in ethnically Italian colonies close to the coast. In the beginning, Italian settlements failed, because many Italians died of tropical diseases or left the colonies in search of better conditions. However, in the Vale do Tubarão region (southern Santa Catarina), Italian immigrants found cooler weather and better lands, and the settlements prospered. Many of them worked in the coal industry and, unlike the German immigrants, they did not focus much on agriculture, except in places like Vale do Itajaí, where Northern Italians worked together with Germans.

Religion[edit]

Religion in Santa Catarina (2010)

  Catholic Church (73.1%)
  Protestantism (20.4%)
  Spiritism (1.5%)
  Other religions (1.8%)
  Irreligious (3.2%)

According to the 2010 population census, the population of Santa Catarina is made up of Roman Catholics (73.07%); Protestants or evangelicals (20.4%); spiritists (1.58%); Jehovah's Witnesses (0.74%); Mormons (0.11%) Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church (0.17%); Buddhists (0.05%); new Eastern religious (0.04%), among which the Messianic constitute 0.03%; Islamic (0.01%); Orthodox Christians (0.07%); umbandistas (0.14%); Jewish (0.02%); spiritualists (0.03%); esoteric traditions (0.17%); indigenous (0.03%); candomblezeiros (0.09%) and Hindus (0.01%). Another 3.27% had no religion, including atheists (0.29%) and agnostics (0.6%); 0.29% followed other Christian religions; 0.21% had no determined faith; 0.04% did not know, 0.04% other Eastern religions and 0.03% did not declare.[41][42]

Economy[edit]

The industrial sector is the largest contributor to the GDP at 52.5%, followed by the service sector at 33.9%. Agriculture represents 13.6% of GDP (2004). Santa Catarina exports include aviculture 26.1%, wood products 15.4%, compressors 8.5%, cotton 6.8%, and vehicles 5.8% (2002). Its share of the Brazilian economy stood at 4% in 2005.

Downtown Chapecó.

Santa Catarina has one of the highest standards of living in Brazil, and is a major industrial and agricultural center. The capital city, Florianópolis, has a diversified economy, being an important location for the technology industry and a major tourist destination. Commerce and services are also very strong in the capital. Cities from Florianópolis metro area, like São José, Palhoça and Biguaçu are important and diverse industrial centers, as well as strong commercial areas. In the northeast of the state, electric-mechanical, textile and furniture industries are strong; in the west, cattle and poultry breeding predominate, while in the south it is ceramics and shellfish. The corridor between Joinville, Jaraguá do Sul and Blumenau is heavily industrialized – more than 50% of the state's industrial output is concentrated in this small, but highly developed area.

Rice plantation near Rio do Sul.
Apple trees in Bom Jardim da Serra

In agriculture, the state stands out in the production of rice, apple and onion, in addition to significant production of soy, maize, banana, grape, garlic, barley, wheat and yerba mate.

With only 1.12% of the national territory, Santa Catarina was the 8th largest producer of maize and the 11th largest producer of soybeans in Brazil, in the year 2017. When production per unit area is considered, the State becomes the national leader in corn, with an average of 8.1 thousand kilos per hectare, and second in soybeans, with 3.580 kilos per hectare. In 15 years, there has been a 118% growth in corn productivity and 58% in soybean.[43] In 2019, corn production in the state reached 2.8 million tons (in 2018, Brazil was the 3rd largest producer in the world, with 82 million tons.[44][45] However, the annual demand for corn in the state is 7 million tons – 97% is for animal consumption, especially for pigs and broilers (83.8%), as Santa Catarina has the largest pig population among Brazilian states and the second largest in poultry. The corn deficit is covered by interstate imports, mainly from Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná and Goiás, and from countries like Argentina and Paraguay.[46] In soy production, in 2019 the state harvested 2.3 million tons (Brazil produced 116 million tons this year, being the largest producer in the world).[47]

The state was the 2nd largest rice producer in the country in 2020, second only to Rio Grande do Sul,[48] harvesting around 1.1 million tons of the product. Total national production was 10.5 million tons this year.[49]

The three Southern States of the country are responsible for 95% of the national apple production, and Santa Catarina tops, competing with Rio Grande do Sul. The São Joaquim region is responsible for 35% of the apple planting.[50]

Santa Catarina is also a national leader in the production of onions. In 2017, it produced 630 thousand tons, especially in the municipalities of Alfredo Wagner, Angelina and Rancho Queimado.[51][52]

In banana production, Santa Catarina was the 4th largest national producer in 2018.[53]

Santa Catarina was the third largest producer of garlic in Brazil in 2018, with a planted area of approximately two thousand hectares. The Curitibanos region is the largest producer in the state.[54][55]

Santa Catarina is one of the few states in the country that cultivate barley. In the 2007–2011 period, the state had 2.5% of national production. The cultivation was concentrated in the microregions of Canoinhas (57.6%), Curitibanos (26.5%) and Xanxerê (11.5%). It's also one of the few states that cultivate wheat, due to favourable climate. In 2019 the estimated production of the state was 150 thousand tons, still small compared to the 2.3 million tons produced by both Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná. Since the country has to import these 2 cereals in high volume every year, the State has been trying to stimulate the production of winter grain crops with incentive programs.[56][57][58]

Santa Catarina produced close to 100 thousand tons of yerba mate in 2018, mainly in the cities of Chapecó and Canoinhas.[59]

Cattle in Santa Catarina.
Poultry in Campos Novos.

The state had an annual production of about 23 thousand tons of grapes in 2019, with 86% of the state production located in the municipalities of Caçador, Pinheiro Preto, Tangará and Videira. Most of the national production, however, is located in Rio Grande do Sul (664.2 thousand tons in 2018).[60][61]

BR 101 highway in Barra Velha, Santa Catarina.

Santa Catarina is the largest producer of pork in Brazil. The State is responsible for 28.38% of the country's slaughter and 40.28% of Brazilian pork exports. The number of pigs in Brazil was 41.1 million in 2017. Santa Catarina had 19.7% of the total.[62][63][64]

The number of chickens in Brazil was 1.4 billion in 2017. Santa Catarina had 10.8% of the national total, the 4th largest in the country.[64]

Brazil is the fifth largest milk producer in the world, having producedalmost 34 billion liters in 2018, 4% of world production. Santa Catarina was responsible for 8.78% of the national production, almost 3 billion liters of milk. In the production of chicken eggs, Santa Catarina represented 4.58% of the national total, which was 3.6 billion dozens in 2018. The State alone was responsible for 165 million dozens.[65]

In cattle raising, Brazil had almost 215 million head in 2017. Santa Catarina had about 5 million head of cattle in 2018.[64][66]

Santa Catarina was the 5th largest honey producer in the country in 2017, with 10.2% of the national total.[64]

Fishing plays an important role in the state's economy. The production of oysters, scallops and mussels in Brazil was 20.9 thousand tons in 2017. Santa Catarina was the main producer, responsible for 98.1%. Palhoça, Florianópolis and Bombinhas led the ranking of municipalities.[64]

Sunset in Criciúma.

Santa Catarina is the largest coal producer in Brazil, mainly in Criciúma city and its surroundings. The production of crude mineral coal in Brazil was 13.6 million tons in 2007. Santa Catarina produced 8.7 Mt (million tons); Rio Grande do Sul, 4.5 Mt; and Paraná, 0.4 Mt. Despite the extraction of mineral coal in Brazil, the country still needs to import about 50% of the coal consumed, as the coal produced in the country is of low quality, with a lower concentration of carbon. Brazil's coal reserves are 32 billion tons and are mainly in Rio Grande do Sul (89.25% of the total), followed by Santa Catarina (10.41%). The Candiota Deposit (RS) alone has 38% of all national coal. As it is coal of inferior quality, it is used only in the generation of thermoelectric energy and at the site of the deposit. The oil crisis in the 1970s led the Brazilian government to create the Energy Mobilization Plan, with intense efforts to discover new coal reserves. The Geological Survey of Brazil, through works carried out in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, greatly increased the reserves of coal previously known, between 1970 and 1986 (mainly between 1978 and 1983). In 2011, coal accounted for only 5.6% of the energy consumed in Brazil, but it is a strategic alternate source which can be activated when, for example, low water levels in dams reduce hydroelectric power generation. This happened in 2013, when several thermoelectric plants were shut down, to maintain the necessary supply, albeit at higher cost.[67][68]

Santa Catarina had an industrial GDP of R $63.2 billion in 2017, equivalent to 5.3% of the national industry. It employs 761,072 workers in industry. The main sectors are: Construction (17.9%), Food (15.9%), Clothing (7.4%), Industrial Public Utility Services, such as Electricity and Water (6.9%), and Textiles (6.0%). These 5 sectors constitute 54.1% of the state's industry.[69]

The main industrial centers in Santa Catarina are Jaraguá do Sul, Joinville, Chapecó and Blumenau. The first is diversified, with factories of fabrics, food products, foundries and mechanical industry. Chapecó's economy is based on agribusiness. Blumenau concentrates on textile industry (together with Gaspar and Brusque) and recently also on software. In the interior of the state, there are numerous small manufacturing centers, linked to both the use of wood in industry and processing of agricultural and pastoral products.

Hering headquarters, in Blumenau
Perdigão Headquarters, in Videira

In Textile industry, Santa Catarina stands out. Brazil, despite being among the 5 largest producers in the world in 2013, and a large consumer of textile and clothing, does not participate proportionately in global trade. In 2015, Brazilian imports ranked 25th (US$5.5 billion), and in exports, it was only 40th in the world. At 0.3% marketshare in global textile and clothing trade, Brazil is constrained by uncompetitive pricing compared to producers in China and India. The gross value of production, which includes consumption of intermediate goods and services, by the Brazilian textile industry corresponded to almost R $40 billion in 2015, 1.6% of the gross value of Industrial Production in Brazil. The South has 32.65% of production, Among the main textile clusters in Brazil, the Vale do Itajaí (SC) stand out. In 2015, Santa Catarina was the 2nd largest textile and clothing employer in Brazil. It led in the manufacture of pillows and is the largest producer in Latin America and the second in the world in woven labels. It is the largest exporter in the country of toilet / kitchen clothes, cotton terry cloth fabrics and cotton knit shirts. Some of the most famous companies in the region are Hering, Malwee, Karsten and Haco.[70]

In Food industry, Brazil was the 2nd largest exporter of processed foods in the world in 2019, with a value of U $34.1 billion in exports. The Brazilian food and beverage industry's revenue in 2019 was R $699.9 billion, 9.7% of the country's Gross Domestic Product. In 2015, the industrial food and beverage sector in Brazil comprised 34,800 companies (not counting bakeries), the vast majority of which were small. These companies employed more than 1,600,000 workers, making the food and beverage industry the largest employer in the manufacturing industry. There are around 570 large companies in Brazil, which constitute a major proportion of industry revenues.[71][72][73] Companies such as Sadia and Perdigão (which later merged into BRF), Seara Alimentos (which today belongs to JBS), Aurora (all meat specialists), Gomes da Costa (fish and canned), Eisenbahn Brewery and Hemmer Alimentos (specialist in preserves such as cucumber, beet, heart of palm, among others) are based in Santa Catarina.

In the automotive sector, the state has GM and BMW plants.[74]

The Port of Itajaí is one of the main ports of Brazil.

The wood and paper industry is concentrated in (Canoinhas, Três Barras and Mafra) in the north of Santa Catarina, due to raw material availability in the region. In the Serra industries (Rio Negrinho and São Bento do Sul), wood processing works are carried out, producing various derivatives and final products. The state stands out nationally in the production of wooden furniture. Most companies in this sector are based in these cities, together with Palhoça. The state's industry accounts for 7.5% of the national sector. The state is the second largest furniture exporter in the country (2014). The Santa Catarina timber industry stands out with a 17.1% share in Brazil. It is among the largest in the country in the production of wooden doors and is a national leader in frames.[75]

Beto Carrero World is the largest theme park in Latin America.

Responsible for handling R$6.5 billion in gross value of the Industrial Production of Santa Catarina, the paper and cellulose sector is one of the most important economic vocations in the mountainous part of the state. The sector is 8th in exports and 10th in job creation in Santa Catarina, with more than 20.2 thousand vacancies, according to data from 2015. The municipalities of Lages and Otacílio Costa together represent about 47% of the exports of the Pulp and Paper sector State role.[76]

Brazil's ceramic tile factories are mainly based in the south of Santa Catarina (including the cities of Imbituba, Tubarão, Criciúma, Forquilhinha, Içara and Urussanga). The state of Santa Catarina also leads the country in the production of crockery and crystals.

The northeast of the state is notable for the production of moto-compressors, auto parts, refrigerators, engines and electrical components, industrial machines, tubes and connections. Its compressor production makes it a leader in exports among Brazil's states. It is also an important producer of forestry equipment. In metallurgy, the state has the largest national manufacturer of stainless steel sinks, vats and tanks, trophies and medals, fixing elements (screws, nuts, etc.), jacketed tanks for fuels, industrial pressure vessels and of malleable iron connections. It is a world leader in engine blocks and iron heads, being Brazil's largest exporter of this product.[77]

In the leather-footwear sector (Footwear industry),the state has a production center in São João Batista.[78]

In the household appliances industry, sales of white goods (refrigerators, air conditioning and others) were 12.9 million units in 2017. The sector had its peak in 2012, with 18.9 million units. The brands that sold the most were Brastemp, Electrolux, Consul and Philips. Consul is originally from Santa Catarina, having merged with Brastemp and now a part of the multinational Whirlpool Corporation.[79]

The major cities and their respective fields are:

View of Itajaí

Statistics[edit]

Vehicles: 2,489,343 (March/2007); Mobile phones: 3.7 million (April/2007); Telephones: 1.6 million (April/2007). Cities: 293 (2007).[80]

Education[edit]

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. English, Spanish and sometimes German are part of the official high school curriculum.

There are more than 105 universities in the state of Santa Catarina.[81]

Colleges and Universities[edit]

Catarinense Academy of Letters.
  • Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) (Federal University of Santa Catarina) (Public);
  • Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS) (Federal University of the Southern Border)(Public);
  • Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC) (University of the State of Santa Catarina) (Public);
  • Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC) (Federal Institute of Santa Catarina) (Public);
  • Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC) (Santa Catarina's Federal Institute) (Public);
  • Fundação Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB) (Regional University Foundation of Blumenau) (Public, but paid);
  • Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL) (University of Southern Santa Catarina) (Private);
  • Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI) (University of the Itajaí Valley) (Private);
  • Universidade da Região de Joinville (UNIVILLE) (University of the Region of Joinville) (Private);
  • Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Alto Vale do Itajaí (UNIDAVI) (University for the development of the upper valley of the Itajaí) (Private);
  • Centro Universitário Leonardo da Vinci (UNIASSELVI) (University Center Leonardo da Vinci) (Private);
  • Universidade Católica de Santa Catarina (Catholic University of Santa Catarina) (Private);
  • Universidade do Contestado (UnC) (University of Contestado) (Private);
  • Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina (Unoesc) (University of Western Santa Catarina) (Private);
  • Universidade do Planalto de Santa Catarina (Uniplac) (University of the Plateau of Santa Catarina) (Private);
  • Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (Unesc) (University of Southernmost Santa Catarina) (Private);
  • Sociedade Educacional de Santa Catarina (SOCIESC) (Educational Society for Santa Catarina)(Private);

Infrastructure[edit]

International Airport[edit]

Florianópolis is served by Hercílio Luz International Airport for both domestic and international flights. The traffic has grown significantly and in October 2019, a new airport was opened to serve 2.7 million passengers a year. The architectural design of the new airport was chosen by a public competition held by Infraero in partnership with the Brazilian Architects Institute (IAB). Among the over 150 original entries, the proposal of São Paulo architect Mário Bizelli was chosen. The construction work will be tendered in 2005 and should be finished in two years.

Tourism[edit]

Snow in the Alps of Santa Catarina.

Santa Catarina offers a number of destinations and events throughout the year: rural tourism, thermal resorts, ecological tourism and adventure sports, historic monuments and sights, religious tourism, Beto Carrero World and Unipraias parks in Balneário Camboriú, and beach resorts of Florianópolis, Laguna, Porto Belo and Itajaí.

Some of these sights can only be seen in the off-season, like the snow on the Catarinense Mountain Range – one of the places in Brazil where it snows every year.

Between July and November, southern right whales visit the state's coast. The municipality of Timbó is a center for adventure sports like rafting and canyoning.

The popular festivities take place in October. The Oktoberfest of Blumenau is Brazil's largest and the world's second largest (after Germany's Munich).[82]

Joinville is the host city in July to the widely acclaimed "Joinville Dance Festival", the annual "Festival of Flowers" in November which showcases orchids produced in the region, and several business events in its Convention Center.

Florianópolis, the city/island State Capital attracts a large numbers of tourists during the summer months who visit its 42 beaches.

There are also many smaller resort towns, including the capital of the microlight aircraft tour flights Itapema, Piçarras, Barra Velha and Penha, home to the famous amusement park Beto Carrero World.

An interesting collaboration between humans and wildlife has developed in Laguna (birthplace of Anita Garibaldi, the wife and comrade-in-arms of Italian Unification revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi): a pod of bottlenose dolphins drive fish towards fishermen who stand at the beach in shallow waters. Then one dolphin rolls over, which the fishermen take as a sign to cast their nets. The dolphins feed on the escaping fish. The dolphins were not trained for this behavior; the collaboration has been reported since 1847.[83][84] Southern right whales also can be seen in Laguna from the shore during winter to spring seasons.[85]

The 17,491 hectares (43,220 acres) Turvo State Park, created in 1947, is in the northwest of the state.[86] It contains the Yucumã Falls (Portuguese: Salto do Yucumã, Spanish: Saltos del Moconá), a dramatic waterfall on the Uruguay River on the Argentinian border. Many tourists come to the park to see the falls, which are 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) long and up to 20 metres (66 ft) high.[87]

Sports[edit]

Football[edit]

The major football clubs of Santa Catarina are:

Criciuma EC from Criciúma. Criciúma EC, also known as "Tigre" (Tiger), was champion in the Copa do Brasil (Brazilian Cup) in 1991, the most important championship won by a Santa Catarina team in a very long time. Criciúma is the only team from Santa Catarina that played Libertadores of America Cup, in 1992, when it was 5th. Criciúma also won the Brazilian 2002 second series, and 2006 C series. Criciuma is currently playing Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, the Brazilian national second division.

Sandboarder on Florianópolis dunes.

Figueirense FC black and white from Florianópolis. Its nicknames are Figueira (Fig tree) and O Furacão do Estreito (The Hurricane of Estreito). Its stadium is the Orlando Scarpelli, located in the Estreito neighborhood in the mainland part of the city. Figueirense is currently playing in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, the second division of Brazilian football.

Avaí FC, blue and white from Florianópolis. It is also known as O Leão da Ilha (The Lion of the Island). Its stadium is the Aderbal Ramos da Silva, popularly known as Ressacada, located in the Carianos neighborhood, in the south part of the island. Avaí is currently playing in Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, the second division of Brazilian football.

Joinville Esporte Clube from Joinville. It is also known as "Tricolor" or "JEC". JEC won the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, the second division of Brazilian football, in 2014 and was promoted to the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the first division, but currently plays in Campeonato Brasileiro Série C, the third division, after two consecutive relegations.

Associação Chapecoense de Futebol from Chapecó. Chapecoense is playing in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the first and major division of Brazilian football. The club is currently recovering from the loss of virtually all of its first team in a 2016 plane crash.

Surfing[edit]

Campeche beach in Florianópolis
Praia do Rosa in Imbituba

The Campeche Island is generally considered to have the best and most consistent waves in Brazil, and in April of each year hosts what is currently South America's only ASP (Association of Surfing Professionals) World Championship Tour professional surfing competition. Brazil has played host to many ASP tour events over the past 30 years. Former contest sites include Rio de Janeiro, Barra de Tijuca and Saquarema, but the past four years have seen the tour set up shop in Florianópolis. Previously held towards the end of the tour, the past few years have seen several ASP world champions crowned in Brazil. In 2004 it was Andy Irons, and in 2005 it was Kelly Slater (who had his 2006 ASP World Title already stitched up by Brazil).

Tennis[edit]

Florianópolis is the hometown of Brazilian former tennis player Gustavo Kuerten.

Minority languages[edit]

In the region of Pomerode, Hunsrückisch and East Pomeranian are two of the minor languages.

The minority languages of the state of Santa Catarina can be divided into two distinct groups:

In some cities and villages, German or Talian are still the main spoken languages and enjoy co-official status.[88][89][90][91]

Conservationism[edit]

Santa Catarina is the one of the few Brazilian states with a negative deforestation index, meaning that forest coverage grows faster than it is chopped down, thanks to advances in agricultural technology that increases productivity while reducing the space needed.[92]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". IBGE. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  2. ^ "Radar IDHM: evolução do IDHM e de seus índices componentes no período de 2012 a 2017" (PDF) (in Portuguese). PNUD Brasil. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  3. ^ Brazilian Official Territorial Area
  4. ^ "2014 IBGE Estimates – Estimates of Resident Population in Brazil, Federative Units and Municipalities" (PDF) (in Portuguese). IBGE.gov.br. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  5. ^ População cresce menos do que a média nacional no último ano, diz IBGE
  6. ^ "IBGE | Cities | Santa Catarina | Joinville". cidades.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  7. ^ a b Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Stape, José Luiz; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; de Moraes Gonçalves, José Leonardo; Sparovek, Gerd (December 2013). "Köppen's climate classification map for Brazil". www.ingentaconnect.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  8. ^ CABRAL, Oswaldo R. História de Santa Catarina. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Laudes, 1970.
  9. ^ MATOS, Jacinto Antônio de. Colonização do Estado de Santa Catarina, Tip. de "O Dia": Florianópolis, 1917. 241 p.
  10. ^ EL-KHATIB, Faissal. História de Santa Catarina. Curitiba, PR: Grafipar, 1970. 4 v.
  11. ^ "Federation Units – Life expectancy at birth – Brazil – Total – 2017" (PDF). IBGE. p. 11. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  12. ^ "Complete mortality table for Brazil – 2015" (PDF). IBGE. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  13. ^ "Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua – PNAD Contínua | IBGE". www.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  14. ^ Pontes, Helena Maria Mattos. "Contas Regionais 2015: queda no PIB atinge todas as unidades da federação pela primeira vez na série". IBGE – Agência de Notícias (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  15. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Santa Catharina" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 185.
  16. ^ a b Ferreira Levy, Maria Stella. (in Portuguese) O Papel da Migração Internacional na Evolução da População Brasileira. pp. 58, 79

    Santa Catarina, tem como grupo nacional mais importante os alemães cujas proporções oscilam ao redor de 40%, seguidos pelos italianos, com aproximadamente 17%, até o censo de 1950. Em 1970, a proporção de imigrantes italianos reduz-se a metade. As outras nacionalidades que tem expressão são poloneses, russos e austríacos com proporções entre 6 e 11%, considerando-se inclusive o censo de 1970.

    — Page 58
  17. ^ "Tabela 2094: População residente por cor ou raça e religião". sidra.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  18. ^ Source: PNAD.
  19. ^ Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PDF) (in Portuguese). Santa Catarina, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. ISBN 978-85-240-3919-5. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
  20. ^ Santa Catarina – Terra de Contrastes – Os Jeitos da Terra Archived 12 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Saloum De Neves Manta, Fernanda; Pereira, Rui; Vianna, Romulo; Rodolfo Beuttenmüller De Araújo, Alfredo; Leite Góes Gitaí, Daniel; Aparecida Da Silva, Dayse; De Vargas Wolfgramm, Eldamária; Da Mota Pontes, Isabel; Ivan Aguiar, José; Ozório Moraes, Milton; Fagundes De Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor (20 September 2013). "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels". PLOS ONE. Plosone.org. 8 (9): e75145. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...875145S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075145. PMC 3779230. PMID 24073242.
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "ESTIMATIVAS DA POPULAÇÃO RESIDENTE NOS MUNICÍPIOS BRASILEIROS COM DATA DE REFERÊNCIA EM 2018" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 3 September 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  25. ^ IGBE
  26. ^ Nova Veneza Archived 19 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ POMERODE-SC
  28. ^ História de Treze Tílias Archived 2 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ "Regiões de origem e de destino dos imigrantes teutônicos". ibge. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  30. ^ a b "Os imigrantes teutônicos no Brasil- alemães, austríacos, luxemburgueses, pomeranos e volga". ibge. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  31. ^ a b "Regiões de origem e de destino dos imigrantes teutônicos". ibge. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  32. ^ "Katharinensisch". universal_lexikon.deacademic. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  33. ^ "Províncias de origem dos imigrantes italianos". ibge. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  34. ^ Marília D. Klaumann Cánovas (2004). "A GRANDE IMIGRAÇÃO EUROPÉIA PARA O BRASIL E O IMIGRANTE ESPANHOL NO CENÁRIO DA CAFEICULTURA PAULISTA: ASPECTOS DE UMA (IN)VISIBILIDADE" [The great European immigration to Brazil and immigrants within the Spanish scenario of the Paulista coffee plantations: one of the issues (in) visibility] (PDF) (in Portuguese). cchla.ufpb.br. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2009.
  35. ^ "Principais levas de imigração para o Brasil". Abril. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  36. ^ "Entrada de estrangeiros no Brasil". Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  37. ^ "Regiões de destino dos imigrantes italianos". ibge. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  38. ^ Wojciech Tyciński, Krzysztof Sawicki, Departament Współpracy z Polonią MSZ (2009). "Raport o sytuacji Polonii i Polaków za granicą (The official report on the situation of Poles and Polonia abroad)" (PDF). Warsaw: Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland). pp. 1–466. Archived from the original (PDF file, direct download 1.44 MB) on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  39. ^ "Joinville e Orleans, imigração para Santa Catarina". IBGE. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  40. ^ "Base de dados de emigrantes açorianos para o Brasil nos séculos XVIII e XIX". Observatório da Emigração. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  41. ^ «Censo 2010». IBGE
  42. ^ «Análise dos Resultados/IBGE Censo Demográfico 2010: Características gerais da população, religião e pessoas com deficiência» (PDF)
  43. ^ Produtividade de milho cresce 118% em 15 anos em SC
  44. ^ Produção de Milho no Nordeste
  45. ^ Produção de grãos cresce 14% e Piauí se consolida como 3º maior produtor do Nordeste
  46. ^ Produção de milho em 2018/19 em SC chega a 2,8 milhões de toneladas
  47. ^ Confira como está a colheita da soja em cada estado do país
  48. ^ IBGE prevê safra recorde de grãos em 2020
  49. ^ Safra do arroz deve atingir mais de 1,14 milhão de toneladas em Santa Catarina
  50. ^ Safra da maçã deve render 600 mil toneladas em Santa Catarina
  51. ^ Epagri marca seus 28 anos de fundação com lançamento de cultivar de feijão em Chapecó na quarta-feira
  52. ^ Santa Catarina é o maior produtor de cebola do país e encerra safra com recorde na produção
  53. ^ Produção brasileira de banana em 2018
  54. ^ Epagri inicia nova etapa de programa que garante alta produtividade do alho catarinense
  55. ^ Produtores consideram safra de alho a pior dos últimos 48 anos em SC
  56. ^ A Cevada no Brasil
  57. ^ Área de cultivo de trigo em SC reduz 8% em 2019
  58. ^ Santa Catarina lança Programa de Incentivo ao Plantio de Grãos de Inverno
  59. ^ Canoinhas é o segundo maior produtor de erva-mate de Santa Catarina, diz IBGE
  60. ^ Vale do Rio do Peixe produz 86% da uva em SC
  61. ^ Produção de uva no Rio Grande do Sul cai quase 40% frente a 2018
  62. ^ REGIÃO SUL DO BRASIL É O MAIOR CENTRO PRODUTIVO DE PROTEÍNA ANIMAL DO MUNDO
  63. ^ PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados
  64. ^ a b c d e PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados
  65. ^ Leite e ovos: setores que se reinventam com tecnologia
  66. ^ Novos tempos para a bovinocultura de corte em SC
  67. ^ Carvão Mineral
  68. ^ Carvão mineral no Brasil e no mundo
  69. ^ Santa Catarina Industry Profile
  70. ^ Hering, Malwee, Lunelli e Kyly produzem artigos médicos para doação
  71. ^ A indústria de alimentos e bebidas na sociedade brasileira atual
  72. ^ Faturamento da indústria de alimentos cresceu 6,7% em 2019
  73. ^ https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/economia/noticia/2020-02/industria-de-alimentos-e-bebidas-faturaram-r-6999-bi-em-2019
  74. ^ O novo mapa das montadoras
  75. ^ Página 18
  76. ^ Setor aposta na “Compre de SC” para estimular consumo de papel e celulose
  77. ^ Página 17
  78. ^ Polo Calçadista
  79. ^ Um setor em recuperação
  80. ^ Source: IBGE.
  81. ^ "Universidades em Santa Catarina". Seruniversitario.com.br. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  82. ^ "Top 10 Oktoberfest's around the world". Skyscanner. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  83. ^ The Daily Telegraph (2006), "Brazil's sexiest secret", article retrieved 20 March 2009.
  84. ^ Dr. Moti Nissani (2007) Bottlenose Dolphins in Laguna Requesting a Throw Net (video). Supporting material for Dr. Nissani's presentation at the 2007 International Ethological Conference. Video retrieved 20 March 2009.
  85. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "BALEIA E SEU FILHOTE PRAIA DO MAR GROSSO LAGUNA". YouTube.
  86. ^ PES do Turvo (in Portuguese), ISA: Instituto Socioambiental, retrieved 11 November 2016
  87. ^ Parque Estadual do Turvo (in Portuguese), SEMA: Secretaria do Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Rio Grande do Sul, 19 September 2010, archived from the original on 12 November 2016, retrieved 11 November 2016
  88. ^ "Hunsrückish". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  89. ^ "Standard German". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  90. ^ "Olivet Second Most Spoken Languages Around the World". olivet.edu. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  91. ^ "Venetian or Talian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  92. ^ "Santa Catarina aumentou área de vegetação nativa entre 1980 e 2017". Globo Rural. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2021.

External links[edit]