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A tawaif was a highly successful entertainer who catered to the nobility of the Indian subcontinent, particularly during the Mughal era. The tawaifs excelled in and contributed to music, dance (mujra), theatre, and the Urdu literary tradition,[1] and were considered an authority on etiquette. Tawaifs were largely a North Indian institution central to Mughal court culture from the 16th century onwards[2] and became even more prominent with the weakening of Mughal rule in the mid-18th century.[3] They contributed significantly to the continuation of traditional dance and music forms[4] and then emergence of modern Indian cinema.


The patronage of the Mughal court before and after the Mughal Dynasty in the Doab region and the artistic atmosphere of 16th century Lucknow made arts-related careers a viable prospect. Many girls were taken at a young age and trained in both performing arts (such as Kathak and Hindustani classical music) as well as literature (ghazal, thumri) to high standards.[5] Once they had matured and possessed a sufficient command over dancing and singing, they became a tawaif, high-class courtesans who served the rich and noble.[6]

The tawaif's introduction into her profession was marked by a celebration, the so-called missī ceremony, that customarily included the inaugural blackening of her teeth.[7]

It is also believed that young nawabs-to-be were sent to these "tawaifs" to learn "tameez" and "tehzeeb" which included the ability to differentiate and appreciate good music and literature, perhaps even practice it, especially the art of ghazal writing. By the 18th century, they had become the central element of polite, refined culture in North India.

The tawaifs would dance, sing (especially ghazals), recite poetry (shairi) and entertain their suitors at mehfils. Like the geisha tradition in Japan,[8] their main purpose was to professionally entertain their guests, and while sex was often incidental, it was not assured contractually. High-class or the most popular tawaifs could often pick and choose among the best of their suitors.

Some of the popular tawaifs were Begum Samru (who rose to rule the principality of Sardhana in western Uttar Pradesh), Moran Sarkar (who became the wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh), Wazeeran (patronised by Lucknow's last nawab Wajid Ali Shah), Begum Hazrat Mahal (Wajid Ali's first wife who played an important role in the Indian Rebellion), Gauhar Jaan (a notable classical singer who sang for India's first-ever record), and Zohrabai Agrewali.


Singer and dancer, Gauhar Jaan (1873–1930)

The annexation of Oudh by the East India Company in 1856 sounded the first death-knell for this medieval-era institution. It was soon looked upon with disfavour by the colonial government, and the tawaif were eventually forced to go into prostitution due to a lack of employment opportunities. Social reformers in India opposed them as social decadence.[9] The institutions survived until India's independence in 1947. Some of the famous tawaifs include:[10]

They used to be the only source of popular music and dance and were often invited to perform on weddings and other occasions. Some of them became concubines of maharajas and wealthy individuals. With the emergence of movies and record industry, however, they lost popularity.

Popular culture[edit]

The image of the tawaif has had an enduring appeal, immortalized in Bollywood movies and Pakistani dramas. Bollywood has a famous saying that an actress who cannot light up the character of a tawaif is not a real actress. Films with a tawaif as a central character include Devdas (1955), Pyaasa (1957), Sadhna (1958), Zindagi Ya Toofan (1958), Sharafat (1970), Pakeezah (1972), Gomti Ke Kinare (1972), Amar Prem (1972), Umrao Jaan (1981), Tawaif (1985), Angaaray (1986), Inteqam (1988), Pati Patni Aur Tawaif (1990), Dil Aashna Hai (1992), Devdas (2002),[13], Mangal Pandey: The Rising (2005), Umrao Jaan (2006),[14] Bol (2011), Mah e Mir (2016), Kalank (2019), and documentary film, The Other Song (2009). Other films depict a tawaif in a supporting role, often in situations where a man in a loveless marriage goes to her.[15] Pakistani dramas based on tawaifs as a central character are Deewar-e-Shab (2019),[16] Umrao Jan Ada (2003) and Anjuman (a television film) while many other dramas also depict with life of tawaifs as a supporting characters such as Sitam (2006), Alif Allah Aur Insaan (2017), Raqs e Bismil (2020), and Khuda Aur Mohabbat (season 3) (2021).

See also[edit]

  • Similar professions in other nations
    • Almeh, a similar profession in the Middle East
    • Ca trù, a similar profession in Vietnam
    • Geisha, a similar profession in Japan
    • Kisaeng, a similar profession in Korea
    • Oiran, a similar profession in ancient Japan
    • Nagarvadhu, a similar profession in ancient India
    • Shamakhi dancers, a similar profession in Azerbaijan
    • Yiji, a similar profession in China


  1. ^ "Mapping cultures". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 11 August 2004. Archived from the original on 27 November 2004.
  2. ^ Schoffield, Katherine Butler (April 2012). "The Courtesan Tale: Female Musicians and Dancers in Mughal Historical Chronicles, c.1556–1748". Gender & History. 24 (1): 150–171. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0424.2011.01673.x.
  3. ^ "Fall of a culture". Tribune India. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  4. ^ Dance in Thumri, Projesh Banerji, Abhinav Publications, 1986, p. 31
  5. ^ "A hundred years of unsung love". Mid Day. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  6. ^ "The Last Song of Awadh". Indian Express. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  7. ^ "Zumbroich, Thomas J. (2015) 'The missī-stained finger-tip of the fair': A cultural history of teeth and gum blackening in South Asia. eJournal of Indian Medicine 8(1): 1–32". Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  8. ^ "Courtesans resisted male dominance". The Times of India. 29 December 2002. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  9. ^ Indian Classical Dance and the Making of Postcolonial National Identities: Dancing on Empire's Stage, Sitara Thobani, Routledge, 27 March 2017
  10. ^ A Few Famous Tawaifs of the Time, THE TAWAIF, THE ANTI – NAUTCH MOVEMENT, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC: Part 6 – The Passing of the Torch, David Courtney, 23 February 2016
  12. ^ "Zareena Begum, Awadh's last royal singer, dies at 88". www.hindustantimes.com. 12 May 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  13. ^ "Umrao Jaan". The Times of India. 4 November 2006. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  14. ^ "Ash glows at the mahurat of Umrao Jaan". Rediff. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  15. ^ "The Black Woman". Washington Bangla Radio. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2012.
  16. ^ ""Deewar-e-Shab" Teaser Is All About An Artisan's Love Story [Video]". propakistani.pk. Retrieved 2 February 2021.

Further reading[edit]

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