Haplogroup IJK

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Haplogroup IJK
Possible time of origin 47,000-60,000[1]
Possible place of origin Southwest Asia
Ancestor Haplogroup HIJK
Descendants IJ, K
Defining mutations L15/S137, L16/S138, L69.1(=G)/S163.1

Haplogroup IJK is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. IJK is a primary branch of the macrohaplogroup HIJK. Its direct descendants are Haplogroup IJ and Haplogroup K.[2]

Distribution and structure[edit]

The basal paragroup HIJK* has not been identified in living males or ancient remains.

Populations with high proportions of males who belong to descendant major haplogroups of Haplogroup HIJK live across widely dispersed areas and populations. Subclades of IJK are now concentrated in males native to:


Basic phylogeny[edit]

  • IJK
    • IJK (L15/S137, L16/S138, L69.1(=G)/S163.1)
      • IJ (M429/P125, P123, P124, P126, P127, P129, P130, S2, S22)
      • K (M9, P128, P131, P132)

Phylogenetic tree[edit]

Haplogroup IJK

I1 found mainly in Northern Europe.

I2found mainly in Southern Europe


J1 found mainly in the Middle East.

J2 found mainly in the Middle East, Caucasus, Central Asia, South Asia and Southeast Europe.


L found mainly in Central Asia, South Asia and Western Asia.

T now concentrated in the Horn of Africa, the Arabian subcontinent, India and Eurasia.


K2* – the basal subclade is found at significant levels among indigenous Australians.

  NO* † (found only in the remains of Ust'-Ishim man,
 dating from 45,000 BP [3]) → NO1 (K2a) 


N found mainly in Northern Asia and Northern Europe.

O found mainly in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania.


K2b1*† – subclades of K2b1 include the major haplogroups M and S; these are now found mainly among Papuan peoples, Micronesian peoples, indigenous Australians, and Polynesians

 P (K2b2)

P* rare; found mostly in Island South East Asia, Eastern Siberia and Central Asia

P1 – the primary subclades are major haplogroups Q and R, which are now numerically dominant in Central Asia, Europe, South Asia, the Middle East and among Native Americans

P2 extremely rare and found only in the Philippines

 K2c – rare lineage, found mainly in males from Bali [4]

 K2d – rare lineage, found mainly in Java

 K2e – rare lineage, found only in two living males from South India [4]

† = A basal haplogroup that has not been documented among living individuals.

(Based on the YCC 2008 tree and subsequent published research.[5])



The defining SNP L15 is located at Y chromosomal location rs9786139 with the ancestral value being A and the derived value being G.


The defining SNP L16 is at location rs9786714 with the ancestral value being G and the derived value being A.

See also[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
IJ   K
I J     LT [χ 5]  K2
L     T [χ 6] K2a [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]   K2c   K2d  K2e [χ 9]  
K2a1                    K2b1 [χ 10]    P [χ 11]
NO    S [χ 12]  M [χ 13]    P1     P2
NO1    Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. PMID 24166809. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2a (M2308) and the new subclade K2a1 (M2313) were separated from Haplogroup NO (F549) in 2016. (This followed the publication of: Poznik GD, Xue Y, Mendez FL, et al. (2016). "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences". Nature Genetics. 48 (6): 593–9. PMC 4884158Freely accessible. PMID 27111036. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.  In the past, other haplogroups, including NO1 (M214) and K2e had also been identified with the name "K2a".
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is also known as Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup P (P295) is also klnown as K2b2.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1a. (Previously the name Haplogroup S was assigned to K2b1a4.)
  13. ^ Haplogroup M, as of 2017, is also known as K2b1b. (Previously the name Haplogroup M was assigned to K2b1d.)


  1. ^ The remains of Ust'-Ishim man, dating from 45,000 BP have been found to be NO*, meaning that IJK must be significantly older. [1]
  2. ^ FTDNA Advanced SNP Descriptions
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ a b Tatiana M. Karafet, Fernando L. Mendez, Herawati Sudoyo, J. Stephen Lansing and Michael F. Hammer; 2015, "Improved phylogenetic resolution and rapid diversification of Y-chromosome haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia", European Journal of Human Genetics, no. 23 (March), pp. 369–73.
  5. ^ Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). "New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree". Genome Research. 18 (5): 830–8. PMC 2336805Freely accessible. PMID 18385274. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. 

External links[edit]