Haplogroup IJ

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Haplogroup IJ
Possible time of origin 46600 years before present[1]
Possible place of origin West Asia
Ancestor IJK
Descendants I, J
Defining mutations M429/P125, P123, P124, P126, P127, P129, P130, S2, S22

Haplogroup IJ (M429/P125) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a descendant branch of Haplogroup IJK (previously known as Haplogroup F-L15).[2] which in turn derives from Haplogroup F.

The immediate descendants of IJ are Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J. Its sole sibling is K (which includes most of the world's male population).

Haplogroup IJ derived populations account for a significant proportion of the pre-modern populations of Europe, Western Eurasia and North Africa. As a result of mass migrations during the modern era, they are now also significant in The Americas and Australasia.


The estimated time to MRCA for the IJ clade is 38,500 (30.5–46.2 kya).[3]

The existence of the Haplogroup IJ node has been inferred from the fact that certain mutations are shared in common among all Y-chromosomes belonging to the descendant haplogroups I and J. Until very recently, the lack of examples of Haplogroup IJ* complicated any attempt to deduce the geographical location where Haplogroup IJ first appeared. Both Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J are found among modern populations of the Caucasus, Anatolia, and Southwest Asia tends to support the hypothesis that Haplogroup IJ derived from IJK in the vicinity of West Asia or the Middle East and subsequently spread throughout Western Eurasia.

A recent study by Grugni et al. 2012 of genetic diversity in Iran found some examples of Haplogroup IJ (M429). These individuals were reported to be ancestral (negative) for the primary SNPs that define both haplogroup I (M170) and haplogroup J (M304) and therefore appear to represent a yet undefined genetic branch. Because only a select few SNPs were tested, one cannot rule out that these individuals would test positive for one of the other SNPs thought to be phyloequivalent to M170 and M304.[4][5] It may be difficult to draw conclusions given the relatively small number of haplogroup IJ samples that were discovered given the limited scope of testing that was done.

The role of the Balkans as a corridor to Europe from the Near East is suggested by the phylogenetic unification of haplogroups I and J in IJ (M429). This proof of common ancestry suggests that IJ probably entered Europe through the Balkans sometime before the last glacial maximum. It probably split subsequently into J and I in the Middle East or Europe (in a typical disjunctive phylogeographic pattern. This apparent geographic corridor is likely to have supported subsequent gene flows, including some identified with early European farmers.

An inference may also be made from the existence of the parent haplogroup IJK and its evolutionary distance from haplogroup HIJK, that both IJ (M429) and K (M9) arose closer to the Middle East than to East Asia.[citation needed]


Haplogroup I Distribution
Haplogroup J Distribution
  • IJ (M429, P123, P124, P125, P126, P127, P129, P130, S2, S22) per ISOGG 2008

Found at low frequency in parts of Iran [1]

    • I (M170, P19, M258, P38, P212, U179) Haplogroup I notation updated to ISOGG 2008
      • I*
      • I1 (M253, M307, M450/S109, P30, P40, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111) (formerly I1a) Typical of populations of Scandinavia and Northwest Europe, with a moderate distribution throughout Eastern Europe

I L41, M170, M258, P19_1, P19_2, P19_3, P19_4, P19_5, P38, P212, U179 I* - (unobserved) I1 L64, L75, L80, L81, L118, L121/S62, L123, L124/S64, L125/S65, L157.1, L186, L187, L840, M253, M307.2/P203.2, M450/S109, P30, P40, S63, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111 I1* -

  • I1a DF29/S438
    • I1a* -
    • I1a1 M227
      • I1a1* -
      • I1a1a M72
    • I1a2 L22/S142
      • I1a2* -
      • I1a2a P109
      • I1a2b L205
      • I1a2c L287
        • I1a2c* -
        • I1a2c1 L258/S335
          • I1a2c1* -
          • I1a2c1a L296
      • I1a2d L300/S241
      • I1a2e L813/Z719
    • I1a3 S244/Z58
      • I1a3* -
      • I1a3a S246/Z59
        • I1a3a* -
        • I1a3a1 S337/Z60, S439/Z61, Z62
          • I1a3a1a Z140, Z141
          • I1a3a1a* -
          • I1a3a1a1 L338
          • I1a3a1b Z73
          • I1a3a1c L573
        • I1a3a1d L803
        • I1a3a2 Z382
      • I1a3b S296/Z138, Z139
    • I1a4 S243/Z63
  • I1b Z131 [6]
      • I2 (M438/P215/S31) (formerly I1b)
        • I2*
        • I2a (P37.2) (formerly I1b1) Typical of the South Slavic peoples of the Balkans, especially the populations of Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia ; also found with high haplotype diversity values, but lower overall frequency, among the West Slavic populations of Slovakia and the Czech Republic; a node of elevated frequency in Moldavia correlates with that observed for Haplogroup I2a (but not for Haplogroup I1)
          • I2a*
          • I2a1 (M423)
            • I2a1*
            • I2a1a (P41.2/M359.2) (formerly I1b1a)
          • I2a2 (M26) (formerly I1b1b) Typical of the population of the so-called "archaic zone" of Sardinia; also found at low frequencies among populations of Southwest Europe, particularly in Castile, Béarn, and the Basque Country
            • I2a2*
            • I2a2a (M161) (formerly I1b1b1)
        • I2b (M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32) (formerly I1b2)
          • I2b*
          • I2b1 (M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120, P222/U250/S118, P223/S117) (formerly I1b2a - old I1c) Occurs at a moderate frequency among populations of Northwest Europe, with a peak frequency in the region of Lower Saxony in central Germany; minor offshoots appear in Moldavia and Russia (especially around Vladimir, Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and the Republic of Mordovia)
            • I2b1*
            • I2b1a (M284) (formerly I1b2a1) Generally limited to a low frequency in Great Britain
            • I2b1b (M379) (formerly I1b2a2)
            • I2b1c (P78) (formerly I1b2a3)
            • I2b1d (P95) (formerly I1b2a4)
    • J (12f2.1, M304, S6, S34, S35)


See also[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [n 3]
A0 A1[n 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
I J LT [n 5]  K2
L T NO [n 6] K2b [n 7]   K2c K2d K2e [n 8]
N O K2b1 [n 9]    P
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) was previously known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as K2a and "Haplogroup X".
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) has a complex internal structure, which is broader than the former Haplogroup MS.