Haplogroup IJ

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Haplogroup IJ
Possible time of origin approximately 44,400 years BP[1]
Possible place of origin West Asia
Ancestor IJK
Descendants I, J
Defining mutations M429/P125, P123, P124, P126, P127, P129, P130, S2, S22

Haplogroup IJ (M429/P125) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, an immediate descendant of Haplogroup IJK (formerly known as Haplogroup F-L15).[2] IJK is a branch of Haplogroup HIJK.

The immediate descendants of IJ are Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J. Its sole sibling is K (which includes most of the world's male population).

Haplogroup IJ derived populations account for a significant proportion of the pre-modern populations of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. As a result of mass migrations during the modern era, they are now also significant in The Americas and Australasia.

Origin[edit]

While old estimates suggested that the most recent common ancestor of haplogroup IJ could have lived 30,500 years ago, the latest estimates suggest that he lived 42,400–46,400 years before present.[1][3]

Both of the primary branches of haplogroup IJ – I-M170 and J-M304 – are found among modern populations of the Caucasus, Anatolia, and Southwest Asia. This tends to suggest that Haplogroup IJ branched from IJK in West Asia and/or the Middle East.

Examples of the basal/paragroup Haplogroup IJ* (M429) were first reported in a 2012 study of genetic diversity in Iran, by Grugni et al. These individuals were reported to be positive for M429 and negative for the SNPs M170 and M304, which define haplogroup I and haplogroup J respectively. However, because the researchers filtered for relatively few SNPs, these individuals may have carried less well-known SNPs equivalent to M170 and M304.[4][5] Given the limited scope of the testing – and the small number of haplogroup IJ samples that were discovered – few firm conclusions have yet been drawn.

An inference may also be made that both IJ (M429) and its sole sibling, Haplogroup K (M9) diverged from the parent Haplogroup IJK closer to the Middle East than to East Asia, due to the evolutionary distance of IJK from its direct ancestor, haplogroup HIJK.[citation needed]

IJ split in a typical, disjunctive, almost mutually-exclusive geographical pattern, with J-M304 far more common in the Middle East and I-M170 far more common in Europe; the age of IJ and its subclades suggest that IJ probably entered Europe through the Balkans, some time before the last glacial maximum (about 26,500 years BP). The same geographic corridor (the Balkans) is likely to have supported subsequent gene flows, including some identified with early European farmers (from about 9,000 years BP).

Subclades[edit]

  • IJ (M429, P123, P124, P125, P126, P127, P129, P130, S2, S22) per ISOGG 2008

Found at low frequency in parts of Iran [1]

    • I (M170, P19, M258, P38, P212, U179) Haplogroup I notation updated to ISOGG 2008
      • I*
      • I1 (M253, M307, M450/S109, P30, P40, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111) (formerly I1a) Typical of populations of Scandinavia and Northwest Europe, with a moderate distribution throughout Eastern Europe

I L41, M170, M258, P19_1, P19_2, P19_3, P19_4, P19_5, P38, P212, U179 I* - (unobserved) I1 L64, L75, L80, L81, L118, L121/S62, L123, L124/S64, L125/S65, L157.1, L186, L187, L840, M253, M307.2/P203.2, M450/S109, P30, P40, S63, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111 I1* -

  • I1a DF29/S438
    • I1a* -
    • I1a1 M227
      • I1a1* -
      • I1a1a M72
    • I1a2 L22/S142
      • I1a2* -
      • I1a2a P109
      • I1a2b L205
      • I1a2c L287
        • I1a2c* -
        • I1a2c1 L258/S335
          • I1a2c1* -
          • I1a2c1a L296
      • I1a2d L300/S241
      • I1a2e L813/Z719
    • I1a3 S244/Z58
      • I1a3* -
      • I1a3a S246/Z59
        • I1a3a* -
        • I1a3a1 S337/Z60, S439/Z61, Z62
          • I1a3a1a Z140, Z141
          • I1a3a1a* -
          • I1a3a1a1 L338
          • I1a3a1b Z73
          • I1a3a1c L573
        • I1a3a1d L803
        • I1a3a2 Z382
      • I1a3b S296/Z138, Z139
    • I1a4 S243/Z63
  • I1b Z131 [6]
      • I2 (M438/P215/S31) (formerly I1b)
        • I2*
        • I2a (P37.2) (formerly I1b1) Typical of the South Slavic peoples of the Balkans, especially the populations of Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia ; also found with high haplotype diversity values, but lower overall frequency, among the West Slavic populations of Slovakia and the Czech Republic; a node of elevated frequency in Moldavia correlates with that observed for Haplogroup I2a (but not for Haplogroup I1)
          • I2a*
          • I2a1 (M423)
            • I2a1*
            • I2a1a (P41.2/M359.2) (formerly I1b1a)
          • I2a2 (M26) (formerly I1b1b) Typical of the population of the so-called "archaic zone" of Sardinia; also found at low frequencies among populations of Southwest Europe, particularly in Castile, Béarn, and the Basque Country
            • I2a2*
            • I2a2a (M161) (formerly I1b1b1)
        • I2b (M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32) (formerly I1b2)
          • I2b*
          • I2b1 (M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120, P222/U250/S118, P223/S117) (formerly I1b2a - old I1c) Occurs at a moderate frequency among populations of Northwest Europe, with a peak frequency in the region of Lower Saxony in central Germany; minor offshoots appear in Moldavia and Russia (especially around Vladimir, Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and the Republic of Mordovia)
            • I2b1*
            • I2b1a (M284) (formerly I1b2a1) Generally limited to a low frequency in Great Britain
            • I2b1b (M379) (formerly I1b2a2)
            • I2b1c (P78) (formerly I1b2a3)
            • I2b1d (P95) (formerly I1b2a4)
    • J (12f2.1, M304, S6, S34, S35)

References[edit]

See also[edit]


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
H IJK
IJ   K
I J   LT [χ 5]  K2
L T [χ 6] NO [χ 7] K2b [χ 8]     K2c  K2d  K2e [χ 9]
N O   K2b1 [χ 10]     P
K2b1a [χ 11]    K2b1b K2b1c    M P1 P2
K2b1a1   K2b1a2   K2b1a3   S [χ 12] Q   R
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Between 2002 and 2008, Haplogroup T (M184) was known as "Haplogroup K2" – that name has since been re-assigned to K-M526, the sibling of Haplogroup LT.
  7. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present Haplogroup K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) is also known as Haplogroup MPS.
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as "Haplogroup X" and "K2a" (but is a sibling subclade of the present K2a, also known as Haplogroup NO).
  10. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) is similar to the former Haplogroup MS, but has a broader and more complex internal structure.
  11. ^ Haplogroup K2b1a has also been known as Haplogroup S-P405.
  12. ^ Haplogroup S (S-M230), also known as K2b1a4, was previously known as Haplogroup K5.