Haplogroup J-M172

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Haplogroup J-M172
Possible time of origin32000 ybp[1]
Coalescence age28000 ybp[1]
Possible place of originUpper Mesopotamia, Western Iran[2]
Defining mutationsM172
Highest frequenciesIngush 88.8% (Balanovsky 2011), Chechens 56.7% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21% (Wells 2001)-72%, Azeris 24% (Di Giacomo 2004)-48% (Wells 2001), Iraqis 24%(Al-Zahery 2011)-25% Al-Zahery 2003 and Sanchez 2005, Cretans 35% (El-Sibai 2009), Uyghurs 34% (Shou 2010),[3] Yaghnobis 32% (Wells 2001), Uzbeks 30.4% (Shou 2010), Greeks 10%-48%(Martinez 2007), Muslim Kurds 28.4%(Nebel 2001), Lebanese 30% (Semino 2004)[dubious ](Wells 2001), Ashkenazi Jews 24-30%(Nebel 2001) (Semino 2004), Turks 24% (Cinnioglu 2004)-40% (Semino 2000), Hazara 26.6% (Haber et al, 2012),[4] Kuwaiti 26%[citation needed] and (Wells 2001), Cypriots 12.9% (El-Sibai 2009)-37% (Capelli 2005),[5] Abkhaz 25% (Nasidze 2004), Iranians 22.5%(Grugni 2012)-24%,[6] Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Italians 9%-36%(Capelli 2007) and (Semino 2000), Armenians 21%(Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Palestinians 29%(Nebel 2001)[citation needed], Mordvins 15.3%,[7] Kazan Tatars 15.1%,[7] Chuvash 14%,[7] Sephardi Jews 15 -20% (Shen 2004)-29% (Nebel 2001), Ossetians 16%(Balanovsky 2011)-24%(Nasidze 2004), Circassians 21.8% (Balanovsky 2011), Maltese 21% (Capelli 2005), Lemba 20.8% (Soodyall 2013), North Indian Shia Muslims 18% (Eaaswarkhanth 2009), Albanians 16% (Battaglia 2008), Syrians 14% (Di Giacomo 2004)-29%[citation needed], and Kalash people 9.1%.(Firasat 2007)[8]

In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-M304.[Phylogenetics 2] Haplogroup J-M172 is common in modern populations in Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, Southern Europe, Northwestern Iran and North Africa. It is thought that J-M172 may have originated between the Caucasus, Anatolia and/or Western Iran.[9][10]

It is further divided into two complementary clades, J-M410 and J-M12 (M12, M102, M221, M314).


The date of origin for haplogroup J-M172 was estimated by Batini et al in 2015 as between 19,000 and 24,000 years before present (BP).[11] Samino et al in 2004 dated the origin of the parent haplogroup, J-P209, to between 18,900 and 44,500 YBP.[12] Ancient J-M410, specifically subclade J-Y12379*, has been found, in a mesolithic context, in a tooth from the Kotias Klde Cave in western Georgia dating 9.529-9.895 cal. BP.[13] This sample has been assigned to the Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) autosomal component.[14] J-M410, more specifically its subclade J-PF5008, has also been found in a mesolithic sample from the Hotu and Kamarband Caves located in Mazandaran Province of Iran, dating back to 9,100-8,600 B.C.E (approximately 11,000 ybp).[15] Both samples belong to the Trialetian Culture. It is likely that J2 men had settled over most of Anatolia, the South Caucasus and the Zagros mountains by the end of the Last Glaciation 12,000 years ago.[16]

Zalloua and Wells 2004 and al-Zaheri 2003 claimed to have uncovered the earliest known migration of J2, expanded possibly from Anatolia and the Caucasus.[9][10][17] In 2001, Nebel et al. found that, "According to Underhill et al. (2000), Eu 9 (H58) evolved from Eu 10 (H71) through a T→G transversion at M172 (emphasis added)," and that in today's populations, Eu 9 (the post-mutation form of M172) is strongest in the Caucasus, Asia Minor and the Levant, whilst Eu 10 becomes stronger and replaces the frequency of Eu 9 as one moves south into the Arabian Peninsula,[18] so that people from the Caucasus met with Arabs near and between Mesopotamia (Sumer/Assyria) and the Negev Desert, as "Arabisation" spread from Arabia to the Fertile Crescent and Turkey.

Per research by Di Giacomo 2004, J-M172 haplogroup spread into Southern Europe from either the Levant or Anatolia, likely parallel to the development of agriculture.[19] As to the timing of its spread into Europe, Di Giacomo points to events which post-date the Neolithic, in particular the demographic floruit associated with the rise of the Ancient Greek world. Semino et al. derived older age estimates for overall J2 (having used the Zhivotovsky method c.f. Di Giacomo), postulating its initial spread with Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, its subclade distribution, showing localized peaks in the Southern Balkans, southern Italy, north/central Italy and the Caucasus, does not conform to a single 'wave-of-advance' scenario, betraying a number of still poorly understood post-Neolithic processes which created its current pattern. Like Di Giacomo, the Bronze Age southern Balkans was suggested by Semino 2004 to have been an important vector of spread.[12]


Haplogroup J-M172 is found mainly in the Fertile Crescent, the Caucasus (Nasidze 2003), Anatolia, Italy, the Mediterranean littoral, and the Iranian plateau (Semino 2004). Y-DNA: J2 (J-M172): Syrid/Nahrainid Arabid(s).

The highest reported frequency of J-M172 ever was 87.4%, among Ingush in Malgobek (Balanovsky 2011).

More specifically it is found in Iraq (Al-Zahery 2003), Kuwait,[20] Syria (Luis 2004), Lebanon (Zalloua 2008l), Turkey (Cinnioglu 2004), Georgia (Nasidze 2003), Azerbaijan (Di Giacomo 2004), North Caucasus (Nasidze 2004), Armenia (Wells 2001), Iran (Nasidze 2004), Israel (Semino 2004), Palestine (Semino 2004), Cyprus (Capelli 2005), Greece (Martinez 2007), Albania (Semino 2000), Italy (Capelli 2007), Spain (Di Giacomo 2003), and more frequently in Iraqis 24% (Al-Zahery 2011), Chechens 51.0%-58.0% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21% (Wells 2001)-72% (Wells 2001), Lebanese 30% (Semino 2004), Ossetians 24% (Nasidze 2004), Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Syrians 23% (Luis 2004), Turks 13% (Cinnioglu 2004)-40% (Semino 2000), Cypriots 12.9% (El-Sibai 2009)-37% (Capelli 2005), Armenians 21% (Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Circassians 21.8%(Balanovsky 2011), Iranians 10% (Nasidze 2004)-25% (Wells 2001), Albanians 16% (Battaglia 2008) and (Semino 2000), Italians 9%-36% (Capelli 2007), Sephardi Jews 15% (Nebel 2001)-29%(Semino 2004), Maltese 21% (Capelli 2005), Palestinians 17% (Semino 2004), Saudis 14% (Abu-Amero 2009), Jordanians 14%, Omanis 10%-15% (Di Giacomo 2004) and (Luis 2004) and North Indian Shia Muslim 18% (Eaaswarkhanth 2009).

North Africa[edit]

Haplogroup J2 is found with low frequencies in North Africa. with a hotspot in Sousse region Fadhlaoui-Zid 2014 most of Sousse samples have the same haplotypes found in Haplogroup J-L271 which was found in Msaken.

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Tunisia Tunisia 62 8 El-Sibai 2009
Tunisia Sousse 220 8.2 Fadhlaoui-Zid 2014
Algeria Oran 102 4.9 Robino 2008
Egypt 124 7.6 El-Sibai 2009
Egypt 147 12.0 Abu-Amero 2009
Morocco 221 4.1 Fregel 2009
North Africa Algeria, Tunisia 202 3.5 Fregel 2009

Central Asia[edit]

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Xinjiang Lop Uyghurs 64 57.8 Liu 2018
Xinjiang Uyghurs 50 34 Shou 2010
Tajikistan Yaghnobis 31 32 Wells 2001
Dushanbe Tajiks 16 31 Wells 2001
Xinjiang Uzbeks 23 30.4 Shou 2010
Afghanistan Hazara 60 26.6 Haber 2012
Xinjiang Keriyan Uyghurs 39 25.6 Liu 2018
Kazakhstan Uyghurs 41 20 Wells 2001
Samarkand Tajiks 40 20 Wells 2001
Tajikistan Tajiks 38 18.4 Wells 2001
Turkmenistan Turkmens 30 17 Wells 2001
Xinjiang Pamiri Tajiks 31 16.1 Shou 2010
Afghanistan Uzbeks 126 16 Di Cristofaro 2013
Bukhara Uzbeks 58 16 Wells 2001
Samarkand Uzbeks 45 16 Wells 2001
Surkhandarya Uzbeks 68 16 Wells 2001
Uzbekistan Uzbeks 366 13.4 Wells 2001
Kazakhstan Kazakhs 30 13.3 Karafet 2001
Turpan area Uyghurs 143 9.8 [citation needed]
Hotan area Uyghurs 478 9.2 [citation needed]
Changji Hui 175 9.1 [citation needed]
Xinjiang Dolan Uyghurs 76 7.9 Liu 2018
Ningxia Hui 65 7.7 [citation needed]
Kizilsu Kyrgyz 241 6.64% Guo 2020
Kazakhstan Kazakhs 1294 4.33% Ashirbekov 2017
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz 132 3.79% Di Cristofaro 2013

J-M172 is found at moderate frequencies among Central Asian people such as Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Tajiks, Kazakhs, and Yaghnobis. According to the genetic study in Northwest China by Shou et al. (2010), a notable high frequency of J-M172 is observed particularly in Uyghurs 34% and Uzbeks 30.4% in Xinjiang, China. Liu Shuhu et al. (2018) found J2a1 (L26/Page55/PF5110/S57, L27/PF5111/S396) in 43.75% (28/64) and J2a2 (L581/S398) in 14.06% (9/64) of a sample of Lop Uyghurs from Qarchugha Village of Yuli (Lopnur) County, Xinjiang, J2a1b1 (M92, M260/Page14) in 25.64% (10/39) of a sample of Keriyan Uyghurs from Darya Boyi Village of Yutian (Keriya) County, Xinjiang, and J2a1 (L26/Page55/PF5110/S57, L27/PF5111/S396) in 3.95% (3/76) and J2a2 (L581/S398) in 3.95% (3/76) of a sample of Dolan Uyghurs from Horiqol Township of Awat County, Xinjiang.[21] Only far northwestern ethnic minorities had haplogroup J in Xinjiang, China. Uzbeks in the sample had 30.4% J2-M172 and Tajiks of Xinjiang and Uyghurs also had it.[22]

The haplogroup has an ancient presence in Central Asia and seems to have preceded the spread of Islam (Shou 2010). In addition, the immediate ancestor of J-M172, namely J* (J-M304*, a.k.a. J-P209*, J-12f2.1*) is also found among Xibo, Kazakh, Dongxiang and Uzbek people in Northwest China.

In 2015, two ancient samples belonging to J-M172 or J-M410 (J2a) were found at two different archaeological sites in Altai, eastern Russia: Kytmanovo and Sary-bel kurgan. Both of the ancient samples are related to Iron Age cultures in Altai. Sary-bel J2/J2a is dated to 50 BC whereas Kytmanovo sample is dated to 721-889 AD. Genetic admixture analysis of these samples also suggests that the individuals were more closely related to West Eurasians than other Altaians from the same period, although they also seem to be related to present-day Turkic peoples of the region.[23][24][25]


Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Albania 55 19.9%
Battaglia 2009
Bosnia-Herzegovina Serbs 81 8.7 Battaglia 2009
Cyprus 164 12.9 El-Sibai 2009
Greece Crete 143 35 El-Sibai 2009
Iberia 655 7 Fregel 2009
Iberia 1140 7.7 Adams 2008
Italy Sicily 212 22.6 El-Sibai 2009
Italy Mainland 699 20 Capelli 2007
Italy Central Marche 59 35.6 Capelli 2007
Italy West Calabria 57 35.1 Capelli 2007
Italy Val Badia 34 8.8 Capelli 2007
Malta 90 21.1 El-Sibai 2009
Portugal North, Center, South 303 6.9 El-Sibai 2009
Portugal Tras-os-Montes (Jews) 57 24.5 Nogueiro 2010
Sardinia 81 9.9 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Mallorca 62 8.1 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Sevilla 155 7.8 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Leon 60 5 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Ibiza 54 3.7 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Cantabria 70 2.9 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Galicia 292 13 [citation needed]
Spain Canary Islands 652 10.5 Fregel 2009

In Europe, the frequency of Haplogroup J-M172 drops as one moves northward away from the Mediterranean. In Italy, J-M172 is found with regional frequencies ranging between 9% and 36% (Capelli 2007). In Greece, it is found with regional frequencies ranging between 10% and 48%. Approximately 24% of Turkish men are J-M172 according to a recent study, (Cinnioglu 2004) with regional frequencies ranging between 13% and 40% (Semino 2000). Combined with J-M267, up to half of the Turkish population belongs to Haplogroup J-P209.

It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete. Haplogroup J-M172 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%) (King 2008).

North Caucasus[edit]

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Caucasus Abkhaz 58 13.8 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Avar 115 6 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Chechen 330 57 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Adyghe 142 21.8 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Dargins 101 1 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Ingush 143 88.8 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Kaitak 33 3 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Kumyks 73 21 Yunusbayev 2012
Caucasus Kubachi 65 0 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Lezghins 81 2.5 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Ossets 357 16 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Shapsug 100 6 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus 1525 28.1 Balanovsky 2011

J-M172 is found at very high frequencies in certain peoples of the Caucasus: among the Ingush 87.4% (Balanovsky 2011), Chechens 55.2% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21%-72%, (Wells 2001), Azeris 24% (Di Giacomo 2004)-48%, (Wells 2001) Abkhaz 25%, (Nasidze 2004) Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Ossetians 24% (Nasidze 2004), Armenians 21% (Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Adyghe 21.8% (Balanovsky 2011), and other groups ( Nasidze 2004 and Nasidze 2003).

West Asia[edit]

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Jewish Ashkenazim Jewish 442 19 Behar 2004
Iran 92 25 El-Sibai 2009
Iraq 154 24 Al-Zahery 2011[26]
Palestinian Arab Akka 101 18.6 El-Sibai 2009
Jordan 273 14.6 El-Sibai 2009
Lebanon 951 29.4 El-Sibai 2009
Oman 121 10.0 Abu-Amero 2009
Qatar 72 8.3 El-Sibai 2009
Saudi Arabia 157 14 Abu-Amero 2009[27]
Syria Syria 554 20.8 El-Sibai 2009
Turkey 523 24.2 El-Sibai 2009
UAE 164 10.3 El-Sibai 2009
Yemen 62 9.6 El-Sibai 2009

Sephardi Jews have about 15% (Nebel 2001)-29% (Semino 2004), of haplogroup J-M172, and Ashkenazi Jews have 15% (Shen 2004)-23% (Semino 2004). It was reported in an early study which tested only four STR markers (Malaspina 2001) that a small sample of Italian Cohens belonged to Network 1.2, an early designation for the overall clade now known as J-L26, defined by the deletion at DYS413. However, a large number of all Jewish Cohens in the world belong to haplogroup J-M267 (see Cohen modal haplotype).

Haplogroup J-M172 has been shown to have a more northern distribution in the Middle East, although it exists in significant amounts in the southern middle-east regions, a lesser amount of it was found when compared to its brother haplogroup, J-M267, which has a high frequency southerly distribution. It was believed that the source population of J-M172 originated from the Levant/Syria (Syrid-J-M172), and that its occurrence among modern populations of Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia was a sign of the neolithic agriculturalists. However, as stated it is now believed more likely to have been spread in waves, as a result of post-Neolithic processes .

South Asia[edit]

Haplogroup J2 has been present in South Asia mostly as J2a-M410 and J2b-M102, since neolithic times (9500 YBP).[28][29] J2-M172 was found to be significantly higher among Dravidian castes at 19% than among Indo-Aryan castes at 11%. J2-M172 and J-M410 is found 21% among Dravidian middle castes, followed by upper castes, 18.6%, and lower castes 14%.[30] Among caste groups, the highest frequency of J2-M172 was observed among Tamil Vellalars of South India, at 38.7%.[30] J2 is present in Indian tribals too and has a frequency of 11% in Austro-Asiatic tribals. Among the Austro-Asiatic tribals, the predominant J2 occurs in the Asur tribe (77.5%) albeit with a sample size of 40[28] and in the Lodha (35%) of West Bengal.[30] J2 is also present in the South Indian hill tribe Toda at 38.46% albeit with a sample size of only 26,[31] in the Andh tribe of Telangana at 35.19%,[32] in the Narikuravar tribe at 57.9%[28] and in the Kol tribe of Uttar Pradesh at a frequency of 33.34%.[33] Haplogroup J-P209 was found to be more common in India's Shia Muslims, of which 28.7% belong to haplogroup J, with 13.7% in J-M410, 10.6% in J-M267 and 4.4% in J2b (Eaaswarkhanth 2009).

In Pakistan, the highest frequencies of J2-M172 were observed among the Parsis at 38.89%, the Dravidian speaking Brahui's at 28.18% and the Makrani Balochs at 24%.[34] It also occurs at 18.18% in Makrani Siddis and at 3% in Karnataka Siddis.[34][35]

J2-M172 is found at an overall frequency of 16.1% in the people of Sri Lanka.[36] In Maldives, 22% of Maldivian population were found to be haplogroup J2 positive.[37] Subclades of M172 such as M67 and M92 were not found in either Indian or Pakistani samples which also might hint at a partial common origin.[30]

J2-M172 has been observed in 15.9% (20/164 J2a-M410, 6/164 J2b2-M241) of Tharu from Uttar Pradesh,[38] 13.4% (19/202 J2a-M410, 8/202 J2b2-M241) of Tharu from Nepal,[39][38] and 8.9% (4/45 J2a-M410) of Tharu from Uttarakhand.[38]

Subclade distribution[edit]

Haplogroup J-M172 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J-M410, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J-M12, defined by the M12 genetic marker.


J-M172 is typical of populations of the Near East, Southern Europe, Southwest Asia and the Caucasus, with a moderate distribution through much of Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa.[40]


J-M410* is found in Georgia, North Ossetia.[41]


J-M47 is found with low frequency in Georgia, (Battaglia 2008) southern Iran (Regueiro 2006), Qatar (Cadenas 2008) Saudi Arabia (Abu-Amero 2009), Syria (Di Giacomo 2004), Tunisia (Arredi 2004), Turkey (Di Giacomo 2004 and Cinnioglu 2004), the UAE, (Cadenas 2008), and Central Asia/Siberia (Underhill 2000).


J-M67 (called J2f in older papers) has its highest frequencies associated with Nakh peoples. Found at very high (majority) frequencies among Ingush in Malgobek (87.4%), Chechens in Dagestan (58%), Chechens in Chechnya (56.8%) and Chechens in Malgobek, Ingushetia (50.9%) (Balanovsky 2011). In the Caucasus, it is found at significant frequencies among Georgians (13.3%) (Semino 2004), Iron Ossetes (11.3%), South Caucasian Balkars (6.3%) (Semino 2004), Digor Ossetes (5.5%), Abkhaz (6.9%), and Cherkess (5.6%) (Balanovsky 2011). It is also found at notable frequencies in the Mediterranean and Middle East, including Cretans (10.2%), North-central Italians (9.6%), Southern Italians (4.2%; only 0.8% among N. Italians), Anatolian Turks (2.7-5.4%), Greeks (4-4.3%), Albanians (3.6%), Ashkenazi Jews (4.9%), Sephardis (2.4%), Catalans (3.9%), Andalusians (3.2%), Calabrians (3.3%), Albanian Calabrians (8.9%) (see Di Giacomo 2004 and Semino 2004).

J-M92/M260, a subclade of J-M67, has been observed in 25.64% (10/39) of a sample of Keriyan Uyghurs from Darya Boyi Village of Yutian (Keriya) County, Xinjiang.[21] This Uyghur village is located in a remote oasis in the Taklamakan Desert.


J-M319 is found with low to moderate frequency in Cretan Greeks (Martinez 2007 and King 2008), Iraqi Jews (Shen 2004), and Moroccan Jews (Shen 2004).


J-M158 (location under L24 uncertain) J-M158 is found with low frequency in Turkey (Cinnioglu 2004), South Asia (Sengupta 2006 and Underhill 2000), Indochina (Underhill 2000), and Iberian Peninsula.


In Y-chromosome phylogenetics, subclades are the branches of haplogroups. These subclades are also defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or unique event polymorphisms (UEPs).

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
J-12f2a 9 VI Med 23 Eu10 H4 B J* J J J - - - - - - J
J-M62 9 VI Med 23 Eu10 H4 B J1 J1a J1a J1a - - - - - - Private
J-M172 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2* J2 J2 J2 - - - - - - J2
J-M47 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2a J2a J2a1 J2a4a - - - - - - J2a1a
J-M68 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2b J2b J2a3 J2a4c - - - - - - J2a1c
J-M137 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2c J2c J2a4 J2a4h2a1 - - - - - - J2a1h2a1a
J-M158 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2d J2d J2a5 J2a4h1 - - - - - - J2a1h1
J-M12 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e* J2e J2b J2b - - - - - - J2b
J-M102 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e1* J2e1 J2b J2b - - - - - - J2b
J-M99 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e1a J2e1a J2b2a J2b2a - - - - - - Private
J-M67 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f* J2f J2a2 J2a4b - - - - - - J2a1b
J-M92 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f1 J2f1 J2a2a J2a4b1 - - - - - - J2a1b1
J-M163 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f2 J2f2 J2a2b J2a4b2 - - - - - - Private

Research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup J-M172. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) also provides an amateur tree.[Phylogenetics 3][42]

The Genomic Research Center draft tree[edit]

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup J-M172 (Krahn & FTDNA 2013). For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

  • M172, L228
    • M410, L152, L212, L505, L532, L559
      • PF5008
        • Y182822
          • L581
            • Z37823
      • PF4610
        • Z6046
        • L26
    • M12, M102, M221, M314, L282
      • M205
      • M241
        • M99
        • M280
        • M321
        • P84
        • L283

The Y-Chromosome Consortium tree[edit]

This is the official scientific tree produced by the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). The last major update was in 2008 (Karafet 2008). Subsequent updates have been quarterly and biannual. The current version is a revision of the 2010 update.[43]

The ISOGG tree[edit]

Below are the subclades of Haplogroup J-M172 with their defining mutation, according to the ISOGG tree (as of January 2020). Note that the descent-based identifiers may be subject to change, as new SNPs are discovered that augment and further refine the tree. For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

  • J2 M172/Page28/PF4908, L228/PF4895/S321
    • J2a M410, L152, L212/PF4988, L559/PF4986
      • J2a1 DYS413≤18, L26/Page55/PF5110/S57, F4326/L27/PF5111/S396
        • J2a1a M47, M322
        • J2a1b M67/PF5137/S51
        • J2a1c M68
        • J2a1d M319
        • J2a1e M339
        • J2a1f M419
        • J2a1g P81/PF4275
        • J2a1h L24/S286, L207.1
        • J2a1i L88.2, L198
      • J2a2 L581/PF5026/S398
        • J2a2a P279/PF5065
    • J2b M12
      • J2b1 M205
        • J2b1a~ A11525, PH4306, Y22059, Y22060, Y22061, Y22062, Y22063
        • J2b1b~ CTS1969
      • J2b2~ CTS2622/Z1827, CTS11335/Z2440, Z575
        • J2b2a M241

See also[edit]


Other Y-DNA J Subclades[edit]

Y-DNA Backbone Tree[edit]


  1. ^ a b "YFull YTree v7.05.00". yfull.com. Archived from the original on 2019-06-18. Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  2. ^ The extent of differentiation of Hg J, observed both with the biallelic and microsatellite markers, points to the Middle East as its likely homeland. In this area, J-M172 and J-M267 are equally represented and show the highest degree of internal variation, indicating that it is most likely that these subclades also arose in the Middle East. (Di Giacomo 2004)
  3. ^ Shou, Wei-Hua; Qiao, En-Fa; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Yong-Li; Tan, Si-Jie; Shi, Hong; Tang, Wen-Ru; Xiao, Chun-Jie (2010). "Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians". Journal of Human Genetics. 55 (5): 314–322. doi:10.1038/jhg.2010.30. PMID 20414255.
  4. ^ Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, Martínez-Cruz B, et al. (2012). "Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events". PLOS ONE. 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552.
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  18. ^ Nebel A, Filon D, Brinkmann B, Majumder PP, Faerman M, Oppenheim A (Nov 2001). "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East". American Journal of Human Genetics. 69 (5): 1095–1112. doi:10.1086/324070. PMC 1274378. PMID 11573163. See especially Figure Six. Semino 2000 is a source which also states that Eu 9 descends from Eu 10 (Eu 10 is a different subclade of Haplogroup J (mtDNA)).
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  21. ^ a b Liu Shuhu; Nizam Yilihamu; Rabiyamu Bake; Abdukeram Bupatima; Dolkun Matyusup (2018). "Yìngyòng Y rǎnsètǐ SNP duì Xīnjiāng sān gè gélí rénqún yíchuán duōyàng xìng de yánjiū" 应用 Y 染色体 SNP 对新疆三个隔离人群遗传多样性的研究 [A study of genetic diversity of three isolated populations in Xinjiang using Y-SNP]. Rénlèixué xuébào / Acta Anthropologica Sinica (in Chinese). 37 (1): 146–156. doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2017.0067.
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  24. ^ C. Rоttensteiner, J2a2-PH3085, SK1403: Ancient Altai, modern Uygur and Turkish Archived 2015-06-26 at the Wayback Machine, J2-M172 Haplogroup Research.
  25. ^ F. Immanuel, Codes for Gedmatch Results, Ancient DNA page Archived 2015-09-05 at the Wayback Machine, F999962 for RISE504, Kytmanovo sample, and F999965 for RISE602, Sary-bel sample.
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Sources for conversion tables[edit]


  1. ^ Renfrew AC (1998). Archaeology and language: the puzzle of Indo-European origins (Pimlico ed.). London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-6612-1.
  2. ^ Nebel A, Filon D, Brinkmann B, Majumder PP, Faerman M, Oppenheim A (2001). "The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69 (5): 1095–112. doi:10.1086/324070. PMC 1274378. PMID 11573163.
  3. ^ Malaspina P, Tsopanomichalou M, Duman T, Stefan M, Silvestri A, Rinaldi B, et al. (2001). "A multistep process for the dispersal of a Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area" (PDF). Ann. Hum. Genet. 65 (Pt 4): 339–49. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2001.6540339.x. hdl:2108/44448. PMID 11592923. S2CID 221448190.


External links[edit]

Phylogenetic notes[edit]

  1. ^ This table shows the historic names for J-M172 in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-M172
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 9
    Underhill 2000 VI
    Hammer 2001 Med
    Karafet 2001 24
    Semino 2000 Eu9
    Su 1999 H4
    Capelli 2001 B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) J2*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) J2
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) J2
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) J2
  2. ^ This table shows the historic names for J-P209 (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304) in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-P209
    (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304)
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 9
    Underhill 2000 VI
    Hammer 2001 Med
    Karafet 2001 23
    Semino 2000 Eu10
    Su 1999 H4
    Capelli 2001 B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) J*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) J
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) J
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) J
  3. ^ "ISOGG 2018 Y-DNA Haplogroup J". www.isogg.org. Archived from the original on 2017-08-18. Retrieved 2010-04-11.