Haplogroup J-M172

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Haplogroup J-M172
Possible time of origin 31700 ybp[1]
Possible place of origin Western Asia[2]
Ancestor J-P209
Defining mutations M172
Highest frequencies Ingush 88.8% (Balanovsky 2011), Chechens 55.2% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21% (Wells 2001)-72%, Azeris 24% (Di Giacomo 2004)-48% (Wells 2001), Iraqis 24%(Al-Zahery 2011)-25% Al-Zahery 2003 and Sanchez 2005, Uyghurs 34% (Shou 2010),[3] Yaghnobis 32% (Wells 2001), Uzbeks 30.4% (Shou 2010), Greeks 10%-48%(Martinez 2007), Muslim Kurds 28.4%(Nebel 2001), Lebanese 30% (Semino 2004)[dubious ](Wells 2001), Ashkenazi Jews 24%(Nebel 2001)-29% (Semino 2004), Turks 24% (Cinnioglu 2004)-40% (Semino 2000), Hazara 26.6% (Haber et al, 2012),[4] Kuwaiti 26% (Qassemi 2009) and (Wells 2001), Cypriots 12.9% (El-Sibai 2009)-37% (Capelli 2005),[5] Abkhaz 25% (Nasidze 2004), Iranians 22.5%(Grugni 2012)-24%,[6] Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Italians 9%-36%(Capelli 2007) and (Semino 2000), Armenians 21%(Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Mordvins 15.3%,[7] Kazan Tatars 15.1%,[7] Chuvash 14%,[7] Sephardi Jews 15% (Shen 2004)-29% (Nebel 2001), Ossetians 16%(Balanovsky 2011)-24%(Nasidze 2004), Circassians 21.8% (Balanovsky 2011), Maltese 21% (Capelli 2005), North Indian Shia Muslims 18% (Eaaswarkhanth 2009), Palestinians 17% (Nebel 2001)-35%[citation needed], Albanians 16% (Battaglia 2008)-23.5%[citation needed], Syrians 14% (Di Giacomo 2004)-29%[citation needed], and Kalash people 9.1%.[full citation needed][8]

In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.[Phylogenetics 2] J-M172 originates between the Caucasus Mountains, Mesopotamia and the region just north of Arabia known as the Levant.[9][10] J-M172 is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia and the Aegean.[11] The present-day ethnicities who have the strongest amounts of J2 include pre-Arabised Mesopotamians and Levantine peoples, Mediterranean/Aegean peoples, Greco-Anatolians, Caucasians, South and Central Asians.

It is further divided into two complementary clades, J-M410 and J-M12 (M12, M102, M221, M314).


The date of origin for haplogroup J-M172 was estimated by Batini et al in 2015 as between 19,000 and 24,000 Years Before Present (YBP).[12] Samino et al in 2004 dated the origin of the parent haplogroup, J-P209, to between 18,900 and 44,500 YBP.[13] Zalloua & Wells 2004 noted that J-M172 existed at least during the founding of Jericho (circa 10,500 YBP).[9]

Zalloua and Wells 2004 and al-Zaheri 2003 uncovered the earliest known migration of J2, from Sumeria to Canaan.[9][10] In what may or may not have been a reference to that particular migration from Sumeria to Canaan, Genesis 11:27-28 [3] says that the family of Abraham came from Ur, a Sumerian city; likewise, Sumeria has a myth of a flood, same gods in the Sumerian pantheon as some of those in the Canaanite religion and a creation myth similar to those of the Israelites.[14] In 2001, Nebel et al. found that, "According to Underhill et al. (2000), Eu 9 (H58) evolved from Eu 10 (H71) through a T→G transversion at M172 (emphasis added)," and that in today's populations, Eu 9 (the post-mutation form of M172) is strongest in the Caucasus, Asia Minor and the Levant, whilst Eu 10 becomes stronger and replaces the frequency of Eu 9 as one moves south into the Arabian Peninsula,[15] so that Eastern Europeans from the Caucasus met with Arabs near and between Mesopotamia (formerly Sumeria) and the Negev Desert, as Arabisation spread from Arabia to the Levant and Turkey, as well as many peoples (e.g. Jews, Armenians, Lebanese) having returned from diasporas.

Per research by Di Giacomo 2004, J-M172 haplogroup spread into Southern Europe" from either the Levant or Anatolia, likely parallel to the development of agriculture.[11] As to the timing of its spread into Europe, Di Giacomo points to events which post-date the Neolithic, in particular the demographic floruit associated with the rise of the Ancient Greek world. Semino et al. derived older age estimates for overall J2 (having used the Zhivitovksy method c.f. Di Giacomo), postulating its initial spread with Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, its subclade distribution, showing localized peaks in the Southern Balkans, southern Italy, north/central Italy and the Caucasus, does not conform to a single 'wave-of-advance' scenario, betraying a number of still poorly understood post-Neolithic processes which created its current pattern. Like Di Giacomo, the Bronze Age southern Balkans was suggested by Semino 2004 to have been an important vector of spread.[13]


J-M172 Distribution, "red" indicates Georgian Kazbegi people frequency 72%, and borders them the Ingush frequency 89%

Haplogroup J-M172 is found mainly in the Fertile Crescent, the Caucasus (Nasidze 2003), Anatolia, the Balkans, Italy, the Mediterranean littoral, and the Iranian plateau(Semino 2004).

The highest reported frequency of J-M172 ever was 87.4%, among Ingush in Malgobek (Balanovsky 2011).

More specifically it is found in Iraq (Al-Zahery 2003), Kuwait (Qassemi 2009), Syria (Luis 2004), Lebanon (Zalloua 2008l), Turkey (Cinnioglu 2004), Georgia (Nasidze 2003), Azerbaijan (Di Giacomo 2004), North Caucasus (Nasidze 2004), Armenia (Wells 2001), Iran (Nasidze 2004), Israel (Semino 2004), Palestine (Semino 2004), Cyprus (Capelli 2005), Greece (Martinez 2007), Albania (Semino 2000), Italy (Capelli 2007), and Spain (Di Giacomo 2003), and more frequently in Iraqis 24%Al-Zahery 2011, Chechens 51.0%-58.0% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21% (Wells 2001)-72% (Wells 2001), Lebanese 30%(Semino 2004), Ossetians 24%(Nasidze 2004), Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Syrians 23% (Luis 2004), Turks 13% (Cinnioglu 2004)-40% (Semino 2000), Cypriots 12.9% (El-Sibai 2009)-37%(Capelli 2005), Armenians 21% (Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Circassians 21.8%,(Balanovsky 2011) Iranians 10% (Nasidze 2004)-25%, (Wells 2001) Albanians 16% (Battaglia 2008)-24%, (Semino 2000) Italians 9%-36% (Capelli 2007), Sephardi Jews 15%(Nebel 2001)-29%, (Semino 2004) Maltese 21%(Capelli 2005), Palestinians 17%(Semino 2004), Saudis 14% (Abu-Amero 2009), Jordanians 14%, Omanis 10%-15% (Di Giacomo 2004) and (Luis 2004), and North Indian Shia Muslim 18% (Eaaswarkhanth 2009).

North Africa[edit]

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Tunisia Tunisia 62 8 El-Sibai 2009
Tunisia Sousse 220 8.2 Fadhlaoui-Zid 2014
Algeria Oran 102 4.9 Robino 2008
Egypt 124 7.6 El-Sibai 2009
Egypt 147 12.0 Abu-Amero 2009
Morocco 221 4.1 Fregel 2009
North Africa Algeria, Tunisia 202 3.5 Fregel 2009

Central Asia[edit]

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Afghanistan Hazara 60 26.6 Haber 2012
Afghanistan Uzbeks 126 16 Di Cristofaro 2013
Bukhara Uzbeks 58 16 Wells 2001
Dushanbe Tajiks 16 31 Wells 2001
East Turkestan, China Uyghurs 50 34 Shou 2010
East Turkestan, China Uzbeks 23 30.4 Shou 2010
East Turkestan, China Tajiks 31 16.1 Shou 2010
Kazakhstan Kazakhs 30 13.3 Karafet 2001
Kazakhstan Uyghurs 41 20 Wells 2001
Samarkand Uzbeks 45 16 Wells 2001
Samarkand Tajiks 40 20 Wells 2001
Surkhandarya Uzbeks 68 16 Wells 2001
Tajikistan Yaghnobis 31 32 Wells 2001
Tajikistan Tajiks 38 18.4 Wells 2001
Turkmenistan Turkmens 30 17 Wells 2001
Uzbekistan Uzbeks 366 13.4 Wells 2001

J-M172 is found at moderate frequencies among Central Asian people such as Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Tajiks, Kazakhs, and Yaghnobis. According to the genetic study in Northeast China by Shou et al. (2010), a notable high frequency of J-M172 is observed particularly in Uyghurs 34% and Uzbeks 30.4% in East Turkestan, China. J*-M304, which is the genetic marker to define Paragroup J-P209, is also found among Xibo, Kazakh, Dongxiang and Uzbek people in Northwest China. This study also displays how far lineage J2 reached eastward, and it is also noted that the estimated age of J2-M172 in this region seems more ancient than the history of Islam.(Shou 2010)

In 2015, two ancient samples of J2-M172 (J2a) were found in two different archaeological sites, Kytmanovo and Sary-bel kurgan, which are located in Altai, Russia. Both of the ancient samples are related to Iron Age cultures in Altai. Sary-bel J2a is dated to 50 BC whereas Kytmanovo sample is dated to 721-889 AD. Genetic admixture of these samples also displays that Iron age Altaians are more West Eurasian than contemporary Altaians, and these ancient J2a samples seem to be more related to present-day Turkic people based on Gedmatch results.[16][17][18]


Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Albania 55 19.9 Battaglia 2009
Bosnia-Herzegovina Serbs 81 8.7 Battaglia 2009
Cyprus 164 12.9 El-Sibai 2009
Greece Crete 143 35 El-Sibai 2009
Iberia 655 7 Fregel 2009
Iberia 1140 7.7 Adams 2008
Italy Sicily 212 22.6 El-Sibai 2009
Italy Mainland 699 20 Capelli 2007
Italy Central Marche 59 35.6 Capelli 2007
Italy West Calabria 57 35.1 Capelli 2007
Italy Val Badia 34 8.8 Capelli 2007
Malta 90 21.1 El-Sibai 2009
Portugal North, Center, South 303 6.9 El-Sibai 2009
Portugal Tras-os-Montes (Jews) 57 24.5 Nogueiro 2010
Sardinia 81 9.9 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Mallorca 62 8.1 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Sevilla 155 7.8 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Leon 60 5 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Ibiza 54 3.7 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Cantabria 70 2.9 El-Sibai 2009
Spain Galicia 292 13 Brion 2004
Spain Canary Islands 652 10.5 Fregel 2009

In Europe, the frequency of Haplogroup J-M172 drops as one moves northward away from the Mediterranean. In Italy, J-M172 is found with regional frequencies ranging between 9% and 36% (Capelli 2007). In Greece, it is found with regional frequencies ranging between 10% and 48%. Approximately 24% of Turkish men are J-M172 according to a recent study, (Cinnioglu 2004) with regional frequencies ranging between 13% and 40% (Semino 2000). Combined with J-M267, up to half of the Turkish population belongs to Haplogroup J-P209.

It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete. Haplogroup J-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%) (King 2008).

North Caucasus[edit]

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Caucasus Abkhaz 58 13.8 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Avar 115 6 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Chechen 330 57 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Circassians 142 21.8 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Dargins 101 1 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Ingush 143 88.8 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Kaitak 33 3 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Kumyks 73 21 Yunusbayev 2011
Caucasus Kubachi 65 0 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Lezghins 81 2.5 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Ossets 357 16 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus Shapsug 100 6 Balanovsky 2011
Caucasus 1525 28.1 Balanovsky 2011

J-M172 is found at very high frequencies in certain peoples of the Caucasus: among the Ingush 87.4% (Balanovsky 2011), Chechens 55.2% (Balanovsky 2011), Georgians 21%-72%, (Wells 2001), Azeris 24% (Di Giacomo 2004)-48%, (Wells 2001) Abkhaz 25%, (Nasidze 2004) Balkars 24% (Battaglia 2008), Ossetians 24% (Nasidze 2004), Armenians 21% (Wells 2001)-24% (Nasidze 2004), Circassians 21.8% (Balanovsky 2011), and other groups ( Nasidze 2004 and Nasidze 2003).

West Asia[edit]

Country/Region Sampling N J-M172 Study
Jewish Ashkenazim Jewish 442 19 Behar 2004
Iran 92 25 El-Sibai 2009
Iraq 154 24 Al-Zahery 2011[19]
Israel Akka 101 18.6 El-Sibai 2009
Jordan 273 14.6 El-Sibai 2009
Lebanon 951 29.4 El-Sibai 2009
Oman 121 10.0 Abu-Amero 2009
Pakistan 176 11.9 Abu-Amero 2009
Pakistan Chitral District Firasat 2007
Qatar 72 8.3 El-Sibai 2009
Saudi Arabia 157 14 Abu-Amero 2009[20]
Syria Syria 554 20.8 El-Sibai 2009
Turkey 523 24.2 El-Sibai 2009
UAE 164 10.3 El-Sibai 2009
Yemen 62 9.6 El-Sibai 2009

Sephardi Jews have about 15% (Nebel 2001)-29% (Semino 2004), of haplogroup J-M172, and Ashkenazi Jews have 15% (Shen 2004)-23% (Semino 2004). It was reported in an early study which tested only four STR markers (Malaspina 2001) that a small sample of Italian Cohens belonged to Network 1.2, an early designation for the overall clade now known as J-L26, defined by the deletion at DYS413. However, a large number of all Jewish Cohens in the world belong to haplogroup J-M267 (see Cohen modal haplotype).

Haplogroup J-M172 has been shown to have a more northern distribution in the Middle East, although it exists in significant amounts in the southern middle-east regions, a lesser amount of it was found when compared to its brother haplogroup, J-M267, which has a high frequency southerly distribution. It was believed that the source population of J-M172 originated from the Levant/Syria (Syrid-J-M172), and that its occurrence among modern populations of Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia was a sign of the neolithic agriculturalists. However, as stated it is now more likely to have originated in regions farther to the north, with the first metallurgists of the Middle East.

South Asia[edit]

J2-M172 was found to be significantly higher among Dravidian castes at 19% than among Indo-European castes at 11%. J2-M172 and J-M410 is found 21% among Dravidian middle castes, followed by upper castes, 18.6%, and lower castes 14%. [21] Subclades of M172 such as M67 and M92 were not found in either Indian or Pakistani samples which also might hint at a partial common origin.[22]

Haplogroup J-P209 was found to be more common in India's Shia Muslims, of which 28.7% belong to haplogroup J, with 13.7% in J-M410, 10.6% in J-M267 and 4.4% in J2b (Eaaswarkhanth 2009).

Subclade distribution[edit]

Haplogroup J-M172 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J-M410, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J-M12, defined by the M12 genetic marker.


J-M172 is typical of populations of the Near East, Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia and the Caucasus, with a moderate distribution through much of Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa.[citation needed]


J-M410 is found in Georgia, North Ossetia.


J-M47 is found with low frequency in Georgia, (Battaglia 2008) southern Iran (Regueiro 2006), Qatar (Cadenas 2008) Saudi Arabia (AbuAmero 2009), Syria (Di Giacomo 2004), Tunisia (Arredi 2004), Turkey (Di Giacomo 2004 and Cinnioglu 2004), the UAE, (Cadenas 2008), and Central Asia/Siberia (Underhill 2000).


J-M67 (Called J2f in older papers) has its highest frequencies associated with Nakh peoples. Found at very high (majority) frequencies among Ingush in Malgobek (87.4%), Chechens in Dagestan (58%), Chechens in Chechnya (56.8%) and Chechens in Malgobek, Ingushetia (50.9%) (Balanovsky 2011). In the Caucasus, it is found at significant frequencies among Georgians (13.3%) (Semino 2004), Iron Ossetes (11.3%), South Caucasian Balkars (6.3%) (Semino 2004), Digor Ossetes (5.5%), Abkhaz (6.9%), and Cherkess (5.6%) (Balanovsky 2011). It is also found at notable frequencies in the Mediterranean and Middle East, including Cretans (10.2%), North-central Italians (9.6%), Southern Italians (4.2%; only 0.8% among N. Italians), Anatolian Turks (2.7-5.4%), Greeks (4-4.3%), Albanians (3.6%), Ashkenazi Jews (4.9%), Sephardis (2.4%), Catalans (3.9%), Andalusians (3.2%), Calabrians (3.3%), Albanian Calabrians (8.9%) (see Di Giacomo 2004 and Semino 2004).


J-M319 is found with low to moderate frequency in Cretan Greeks (Martinez 2007 and King 2008), Iraqi Jews (Shen 2004), and Moroccan Jews (Shen 2004).


J-M158 (location under L24 uncertain) J-M158 is found with low frequency in Turkey (Cinnioglu 2004), South Asia (Sengupta 2006 and Underhill 2000), Indochina (Underhill 2000), and Iberian Peninsula.


In Y-chromosome phylogenetics, subclades are the branches of haplogroups. These subclades are also defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or unique event polymorphisms (UEPs).

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
J-12f2a 9 VI Med 23 Eu10 H4 B J* J J J - - - - - - J
J-M62 9 VI Med 23 Eu10 H4 B J1 J1a J1a J1a - - - - - - Private
J-M172 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2* J2 J2 J2 - - - - - - J2
J-M47 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2a J2a J2a1 J2a4a - - - - - - J2a1a
J-M68 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2b J2b J2a3 J2a4c - - - - - - J2a1c
J-M137 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2c J2c J2a4 J2a4h2a1 - - - - - - J2a1h2a1a
J-M158 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2d J2d J2a5 J2a4h1 - - - - - - J2a1h1
J-M12 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e* J2e J2b J2b - - - - - - J2b
J-M102 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e1* J2e1 J2b J2b - - - - - - J2b
J-M99 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2e1a J2e1a J2b2a J2b2a - - - - - - Private
J-M67 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f* J2f J2a2 J2a4b - - - - - - J2a1b
J-M92 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f1 J2f1 J2a2a J2a4b1 - - - - - - J2a1b1
J-M163 9 VI Med 24 Eu9 H4 B J2f2 J2f2 J2a2b J2a4b2 - - - - - - Private

Research publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

There are several confirmed and proposed phylogenetic trees available for haplogroup J-M172. The scientifically accepted one is the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) one published in Karafet 2008 and subsequently updated. A draft tree that shows emerging science is provided by Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center in Houston, Texas. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) also provides an amateur tree.[Phylogenetics 3][Phylogenetics 4]

The Genomic Research Center draft tree[edit]

This is Thomas Krahn at the Genomic Research Center's draft tree Proposed Tree for haplogroup J-M172 (Krahn & FTDNA 2013). For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

  • M172, L228
    • M410, L152, L212, L505, L532, L559
      • M289
      • L26, L27, L927
        • M47, M322
        • M67, L558
        • M319
        • M339
        • M419
        • P81
        • L24, L207.1
        • L88.2, L198
        • L250.2, L251.2
        • L267
        • P329.2
      • L581
    • M12, M102, M221, M314, L282
      • M205
      • M241
        • M99
        • M280
        • M321
        • P84
        • L283

The Y-Chromosome Consortium tree[edit]

This is the official scientific tree produced by the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). The last major update was in 2008 (Karafet 2008). Subsequent updates have been quarterly and biannual. The current version is a revision of the 2010 update.[23]

The ISOGG tree[edit]

Below are the subclades of Haplogroup J-M172 with their defining mutation, according to the ISOGG tree (as of November 2014). Note that the descent-based identifiers may be subject to change, as new SNPs are discovered that augment and further refine the tree. For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades are shown.

  • J2 M172/Page28/PF4908, L228/PF4895/S321
    • J2a M410, L152, L212/PF4988, L559/PF4986
      • J2a1 DYS413≤18, L26/Page55/PF5110/S57, F4326/L27/PF5111/S396
        • J2a1a M47, M322
        • J2a1b M67/PF5137/S51
        • J2a1c M68
        • J2a1d M319
        • J2a1e M339
        • J2a1f M419
        • J2a1g P81/PF4275
        • J2a1h L24/S286, L207.1
        • J2a1i L88.2, L198
      • J2a2 L581/PF5026/S398
        • J2a2a P279/PF5065
    • J2b L282, M12, M102, M221, M314/PF4939
      • J2b1 M205
      • J2b2 M241
        • J2b2a L283

See also[edit]


Y-DNA J Subclades[edit]

Y-DNA Backbone Tree[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [n 3]
A0 A1[n 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
I J LT [n 5]  K2
L T NO [n 6] K2b [n 7]   K2c K2d K2e [n 8]
N O K2b1 [n 9]    P
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) was previously known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as K2a and "Haplogroup X".
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) has a complex internal structure, which is broader than the former Haplogroup MS.


  1. ^ J2, YFull Experimental YTree v3.9
  2. ^ The extent of differentiation of Hg J, observed both with the biallelic and microsatellite markers, points to the Middle East as its likely homeland. In this area, J-M172 and J-M267 are equally represented and show the highest degree of internal variation, indicating that it is most likely that these subclades also arose in the Middle East. (Di Giacomo 2004)
  3. ^ Shou et al (2010), Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians, Journal of Human Genetics 55, 314-322 (May 2010) | doi:10.1038/jhg.2010.30, Link to the table of haplogroup distribution and Y-chromosome diversity in 14 northwestern populations, Quote: "Uygurs, J2-M172 17/50=34%"
  4. ^ Haber M, Platt DE, Ashrafian Bonab M, Youhanna SC, Soria-Hernanz DF, Martínez-Cruz B, Douaihy B, Ghassibe-Sabbagh M, Rafatpanah H, Ghanbari M, Whale J, Balanovsky O, Wells RS, Comas D, Tyler-Smith C, Zalloua PA (2011). Kayser M, ed. "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events". PLoS ONE 7 (3): e34288. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...734288H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288. PMC 3314501. PMID 22470552. 
  5. ^ C. Capelli, N. Redhead, V. Romano et al., "Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective," Annals of Human Genetics (2005)
  6. ^ Y haplogroup J in Iran by Alfred A. Aburto Jr.
  8. ^ A genetic study published led by Firasat (2007) on Kalash individuals found high and diverse frequencies.
  9. ^ a b c Zalloua & Wells: National Geographic Magazine, October 2004. [1] and [2].
  10. ^ a b "N. Al-Zahery et al. "Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations" (2003)" (PDF). Family Tree DNA. Retrieved 1 September 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Di Giacomo F, Luca F, Popa LO, Akar N, Anagnou N, Banyko J, Brdicka R, Barbujani G, Papola F, Ciavarella G, Cucci F, Di Stasi L, Gavrila L, Kerimova MG, Kovatchev D, Kozlov AI, Loutradis A, Mandarino V, Mammi' C, Michalodimitrakis EN, Paoli G, Pappa KI, Pedicini G, Terrenato L, Tofanelli S, Malaspina P, Novelletto A (2004). "Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe". Human Genetics 115 (5): 357–71. doi:10.1007/s00439-004-1168-9. PMID 15322918. 
  12. ^ "TMRCAs of major haplogroups in Europe estimated using two methods. : Large-scale recent expansion of European patrilineages shown by population resequencing : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group". www.nature.com. Retrieved 2015-05-20. 
  13. ^ a b Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, Lin AA, Al-Zahery N, Battaglia V, Maccioni L, Triantaphyllidis C, Shen P, Oefner PJ, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, Torroni A, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS (May 2004). "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area". AJHG 74 (5): 1023–34. doi:10.1086/386295. PMC 1181965. PMID 15069642. 
  14. ^ White, C.M.; "In Search of... The Origin of Nations," pg. 311. AuthorHouse; 1 June 2003.
  15. ^ Nebel A, Filon D, Brinkmann B, Majumder PP, Faerman M, Oppenheim A (Nov 2001). "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East". AJHG 69 (5): 1095–1112. doi:10.1086/324070. PMC 1274378. PMID 11573163.  See especially Figure Six. Semino 2000 is a source which also states that Eu 9 descends from Eu 10 (Eu 10 is a different subclade of Haplogroup J (mtDNA)).
  16. ^ Allentoft et al. 2015, Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia, Nature 522, 167–172 (11 June 2015) doi:10.1038/nature14507
  17. ^ C. Rоttensteiner, J2a2-PH3085,SK1403: Ancient Altai, modern Uygur and Turkish, J2-M172 Haplogroup Research.
  18. ^ F. Immanuel, Codes for Gedmatch Results, Ancient DNA page, F999962 for RISE504, Kytmanovo sample, and F999965 for RISE602, Sary-bel sample.
  19. ^ Al-Zahery et al, 2011, Additional file 3. Absolute frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups and sub-haplogroups in the 48 populations included in the PCA. Note: Only 37 of 154 samples (24%) are J2 in Iraq according to the list of Al-Zahery 2011. 43.6% is the frequency of J2 among all J haplogroup Iraqis, not all haplogroups.
  20. ^ Abu-Amero (2009), Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions, Quote: The most abundant haplogroups in Saudi Arabia, J1-M267 (42%), J2-M172 (14%), E1-M2 (8%), R1-M17 (5%) and K2-M184 (5%) are also well represented in other Arabian populations (Table (Table1).1).
  21. ^ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/
  22. ^ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/
  23. ^ "Y-DNA Haplotree".  Family Tree DNA uses the Y-Chromosome Consortium tree and posts it on their website.


  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Nebel A, Filon D, Brinkmann B, Majumder PP, Faerman M, Oppenheim A (2001). "The Y chromosome pool of Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69 (5): 1095–112. doi:10.1086/324070. PMC 1274378. PMID 11573163. 
  3. ^ Malaspina P, Tsopanomichalou M, Duman T, Stefan M, Silvestri A, Rinaldi B, Garcia O, Giparaki M, Plata E, Kozlov AI, Barbujani G, Vernesi C, Papola F, Ciavarella G, Kovatchev D, Kerimova MG, Anagnou N, Gavrila L, Veneziano L, Akar N, Loutradis A, Michalodimitrakis EN, Terrenato L, Novelletto A (2001). "A multistep process for the dispersal of a Y chromosomal lineage in the Mediterranean area". Ann. Hum. Genet. 65 (Pt 4): 339–49. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2001.6540339.x. PMID 11592923. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups [n 1] [n 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [n 3]
A0 A1[n 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
I J LT [n 5]  K2
L T NO [n 6] K2b [n 7]   K2c K2d K2e [n 8]
N O K2b1 [n 9]    P
  1. ^ Van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 
  2. ^ International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG; 2015), Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015. (Access date: 1 February 2015.)
  3. ^ Haplogroup A0-T is also known as A0'1'2'3'4.
  4. ^ Haplogroup A1 is also known as A1'2'3'4.
  5. ^ Haplogroup LT (L298/P326) is also known as Haplogroup K1.
  6. ^ Haplogroup NO (M214) is also known as Haplogroup K2a (although the present K2e was also previously known as "K2a").
  7. ^ Haplogroup K2b (M1221/P331/PF5911) was previously known as Haplogroup MPS.
  8. ^ Haplogroup K2e (K-M147) was previously known as K2a and "Haplogroup X".
  9. ^ Haplogroup K2b1 (P397/P399) has a complex internal structure, which is broader than the former Haplogroup MS.

Phylogenetic notes[edit]

  1. ^ This table shows the historic names for J-M172 in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-M172
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 9
    Underhill 2000 VI
    Hammer 2001 Med
    Karafet 2001 24
    Semino 2000 Eu9
    Su 1999 H4
    Capelli 2001 B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) J2*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) J2
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) J2
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) J2
  2. ^ This table shows the historic names for J-P209 (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304) in published peer reviewed literature. Note that in Semino 2000 Eu09 is a subclade of Eu10 and in Karafet 2001 24 is a subclade of 23.
    YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) J-P209
    (AKA J-12f2.1 or J-M304)
    Jobling and Tyler-Smith 2000 9
    Underhill 2000 VI
    Hammer 2001 Med
    Karafet 2001 23
    Semino 2000 Eu10
    Su 1999 H4
    Capelli 2001 B
    YCC 2002 (Longhand) J*
    YCC 2005 (Longhand) J
    YCC 2008 (Longhand) J
    YCC 2010r (Longhand) J
  3. ^ http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpJ.html
  4. ^ http://thegeneticatlas.com/J2_Y-DNA.htm
  1. ^ Renfrew AC (1998). Archaeology and language: the puzzle of Indo-European origins (Pimlico ed.). London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6612-5.