Республика Тыва (Russian)
Тыва Республика (Tyvan)
|— Republic —|
|Economic region||East Siberian|
|Established||October 13, 1944|
|Government (as of August 2010)|
|• Chairman of the Government||Sholban Kara-ool|
|• Legislature||Great Khural|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|• Total||170,500 km2 (65,800 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Density||1.81/km2 (4.7/sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||KRAT (UTC+07:00)|
|Official languages||Russian; Tyvan|
The Tyva Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Тыва́, tr. Respublika Tyva; IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva]; Tuvan: Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika, [təˈvɑ risˈpublikɑ]), Tyva or Tuva (Tuvan: Тыва, Russian: Тува́), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a State ). It lies in the geographical center of Asia, in southern Siberia. The republic borders with the Altai Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, and the Republic of Buryatia in Russia and with Mongolia to the south. Its capital is the city of Kyzyl. Population: 307,930 (2010 Census).
From 1921 until 1944, Tuva constituted a sovereign, independent nation, under the name of Tannu Tuva – officially, the Tuvan People's Republic, or People's Republic of Tannu Tuva. The independence of Tannu Tuva, however, was only recognized by its then neighbors the Soviet Union and Mongolia.
Forests, mountains, and steppe make up a large part of the geography of Tuva.
A majority of the people are Tyvans, but Russian is also spoken extensively. Tuva is governed by the Great Khural which elects a chairman for a four-year term. The current chairman is Sholban Kara-ool.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Administrative divisions
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Politics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Tourism
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Culture
- 10 Sports
- 11 Education
- 12 Miscellaneous
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The Xiongnu Empire (209 BC–93 CE) governed the territory of modern Tyva. The identity of the ethnic core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses. Proposals by scholars include Mongolic and Turkic. Tatar Mongols lived in Tyva and they moved to Lake Hulun. The Oirat Mongols lived in eastern Tyva and they moved to the south.
The territory of Tyva has been ruled by the Mongolic Xianbei state (93–234), Rouran Khaganate (330–555), Mongol Empire (1206–1368), Northern Yuan (1368–1691), Khotgoid Khanate and Zunghar Khanate (1634–1758). The historic region of Tannu Uriankhai, of which Tyva is a part, was controlled by the Mongols from 1207 to 1758, when it was brought under Manchu rule (Qing Dynasty until 1911).
During the 1911 revolution in China, tsarist Russia formed a separatist movement among the Tyvans. Tsar Nicholas II ordered Russian troops into Tyva in 1912, as Russian settlers were allegedly being attacked. Tyva became nominally independent as the Urjanchai Republic before being brought under Russian protectorate as Uryankhay Kray under Tsar Nicholas II on 17 April 1914. This move was apparently requested by a number of prominent Tyvans, including the High Lama, although it is possible they were actually acting under the coercion of Russian soldiers. A Tyvan capital was established, called Belotsarsk (Белоца́рск; literally, "(Town) of the White Tsar"). Meanwhile, in 1911, Mongolia became independent, though under Russian protection.
Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 which ended the imperial autocracy, most of Tyva was occupied from 5 July 1918 to 15 July 1919 by Aleksandr Kolchak's "White" Russian troops. Pyotr Ivanovich Turchaninov was named governor of the territory. In the autumn of 1918 the southwestern part was occupied by Chinese troops and the southern part by Mongol troops led by Khatanbaatar Magsarjav. From July 1919 to February 1920 the communist Red Army controlled Tyva, but from 19 February 1920 to June 1921 it was occupied by China (governor was Yan Shichao [traditional, Wade–Giles transliteration: Yan Shi-ch'ao]).
On August 14, 1921 the Bolsheviks established a Tuvan People's Republic, popularly called Tannu-Tuva. In 1926, the capital (Belotsarsk; Khem-Beldyr since 1918) was renamed Kyzyl, meaning "red". Tyva was de jure an independent state between the World Wars. The state's first ruler, Prime Minister Donduk, sought to strengthen ties with Mongolia and establish Buddhism as the state religion. This unsettled the Kremlin, which orchestrated a coup carried out in 1929 by five young Tyvan graduates of Moscow's Communist University of the Toilers of the East. In 1930 the pro-Soviet region discarded the state's Mongol script in favor of a Latin alphabet designed for Tyva by Russian linguists, and in 1943 Cyrillic script replaced the Latin. Under the leadership of Party Secretary Salchak Toka, ethnic Russians were granted full citizenship rights and Buddhist and Mongol influences on the Tuvan state and society were systematically reduced.
Tyva voluntarily became a part of The Soviet Union in 1944, with the approval of Tyva's Little Khural (parliament). The exact circumstances surrounding Tannu-Tuva's incorporation into the USSR in 1944 remain obscure. Salchak Toka, the leader of Tyvan communists, was given the title of First Secretary of the Tyvan Communist Party, and became the de facto ruler of Tyva until his death in 1973. Tyva was made the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast and then became the Tuva ASSR on October 10, 1961.
In February 1990, the Tuvan Democratic Movement was founded by Kaadyr-ool Bicheldei, a philologist at Kyzyl University. The party aimed to provide jobs and housing (both were in short supply), and also to improve the status of Tyvan language and culture. Later on in the year there was a wave of attacks against Tyva's sizeable Russian community, including sniper attacks on trucks and attacks on outlying settlements with 168 murdered. Russian troops eventually were called in. Many Russians moved out of the republic during this period. To this day, Tyva remains remote and difficult to access.
Tyva was a signatory to the March 31, 1992 treaty that created the Russian Federation. A new constitution for the republic was drawn up on October 22, 1993. This created a 32-member parliament (Supreme Khural) and a Grand Khural, which is responsible for foreign policy and any possible changes to the constitution, and ensures that Tyvan law is given precedence. The constitution also allowed for a referendum if Tyva ever sought independence. This constitution was passed by 53.9% (or 62.2%, according to source) of Tyvans in a referendum on December 12, 1993. At the same time, the official name was changed from Tuva (Тува) to Tyva (Тыва).
The republic is situated in the far south of Siberia. Its capital city of Kyzyl is located near the geographic "center of Asia". The eastern part of the republic is forested and elevated, and the west is a drier lowland.
- Highest point: Mount Mongun-Tayga, 3,970 meters (13,020 ft)
- Maximum N → S distance: 450 kilometers (280 mi)
- Maximum E → W distance: over 700 kilometers (430 mi)
- Area: 170,427 square kilometers (65,802 sq mi)
There are over 8,000 rivers in the republic. The area includes the upper course of the Yenisei River, the fifth longest river in the world. Most of the republic's rivers are Yenisei tributaries. There are also numerous mineral springs in the area.
Major rivers include:
- Bolshoy Yenisei River (also called Ulug-Khem)
- Kantegir River
- Khemchik River
- Maly Yenisei River (also called Ka-Khem or Kaa-Khem)
- Upper Yenisei River (also called Biy-Khem or Bii-Khem)
There are numerous lakes on the republic's territory, many of which are glacial and salt lakes. Major lakes include:
- Todzha Lake, a.k.a. Azas Lake (100 km²)—the largest in the republic
- Uvs Lake – shared with Mongolia and a World Heritage Site
- Kadysh Lake
- Many-Khol Lake
The area of the republic is a mountain basin, ca. 600 m high, encircled by the Sayan and Tannu-Ola ranges. Mountains and hills cover over 80% of the republic's territory. Mount Mongun-Tayga 'Silver Mountain' (3,970 m) is the highest point in the republic and is named from its glacier.
Major natural mineral resources of Tyva include coal, iron ore, gold, and cobalt. Asbestos was formerly important. Wildlife is varied: wolves and bears, snow leopards, ground squirrels, flying foxes, eagles, and fish – some very large.
- Average January temperature: −32 °C (−26 °F)
- Average July temperature: +18 °C (64 °F)
- Average annual precipitation: 150 millimeters (5.9 in) (plains) to 1,000 millimeters (39 in) (mountains)
- Much of the territory is affected by permafrost
The Tyva Republic is administratively divided into seventeen districts and two cities under republic jurisdiction (urban okrugs) (Kyzyl and Ak-Dovurak). The districts are further subdivided into sumons (rural settlements), towns under district jurisdiction (urban settlements), and urban-type settlements.
|Years||Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Fertility rates|
- Average life expectancy: Tuva: 56.5 (average male and female, UNDP data); Russia: (UN data) Male 59 (world rank 166); Female 73 (127)
According to the 2010 Census, Tyvans make up 82.0% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (16.3%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.
|1959 census||1970 census||1979 census||1989 census||2002 census||2010 census1|
|1 8,689 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
As can be seen above, during the period 1959–2010 there has been more than a doubling of ethnic Tyvans. The Russian population growth slowed by the 1980s and decreased by 50% since 1989.
Official languages are Tyvan (Turkic) and Russian (Slavic). Outside Kyzyl, settlements have few if any Russian inhabitants and in general Tyvans use their original language as their first language. However, there is a small population of Old believers in the republic scattered in some of the most isolated areas. Before the Soviet rule, there were a number of large ethnic Russian old believer villages, but as the atheist ideology crept in, the believers moved deeper and deeper into the Taiga in order to avoid contact with outsiders. Major Old believer villages are Erzhei, Uzhep, Unzhei, Zhivei and Bolee Malkiye (all in the Kaa-Khemsky District). Smaller ultra-Orthodox settlements are found further upstream.
Ethnic Russians make up 38.68% of the population (as of 2002 Census) in Kaa-Khemsky District, one of the most remote regions in Tyva. The population is mostly Old believers. Russians account for 34.12% of the population in Piy-Khemsky and 19.80% in Todzhinsky. In Kyzyl, they account for 37.02%.
Tyvans are closely related ethnically and linguistically to the Khakas to their north and the Altai to their west, but closer culturally to the Mongolians to their south and the related Buryats to their east, with whom they share their Tibetan Buddhism.
Two religions are widespread among the people of Tyva: Tibetan Buddhism and shamanism. Tibetan Buddhism's present-day spiritual leader is Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama. In September 1992, the fourteenth Dalai Lama visited Tyva for three days. On September 20, he blessed and consecrated the new yellow-blue-white flag of Tuva, which had just been officially adopted three days previously.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, Tibetan Buddhism gained popularity in Tyva. An increasing number of new and restored temples are coming into use, as well as novices being trained as monks and lamas. Religious practice declined under the restrictive policies of the Soviet period but is now flourishing. Shamanism is being revived as well, also in organized Tengrian forms.
As of a 2012 official survey 61.8% of the population of Tyva adheres to Buddhism, 8% to Tengrism or Tyvan shamanism, 1.5% to the Russian Orthodox Church, Starovery or other forms of Christianity, 1% to Protestantism. In addition, 7.7% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey, 8% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 12% to be atheist.
The head of the government in Tyva is the Chairman of the Government, who is elected for a four-year term. The first Chairman of the Government was Sherig-ool Oorzhak. As of 2007, the Chairman of the Government was Sholban Kara-ool. Tyva's legislature, the Great Khural, has 162 seats; each deputy is elected to serve a four-year term.
The present flag of Tyva — yellow for prosperity, blue for courage and strength, white for purity — was adopted on September 17, 1992. See above under Religion.
The republic's Constitution was adopted on October 23, 1993.
On April 3, 2007, Russian president Vladimir Putin nominated Sholban Kara-ool, 40, a former champion wrestler, as the Chairman of the Government of Tuva. Sholban's candidacy was approved by the Khural on April 9, 2007.
Tyva has a developing mining industry (coal, cobalt, gold, and more). Food processing, timber, and metal working industries are also well-developed. Most of the industrial production is concentrated in the capital Kyzyl and in Ak-Dovurak. According to the HDI, the republic of Tyva is the least developed region in Russia.
Tyva is a region with a unique history, culture and nature. All native zones of the Earth except savanna (even rain forest, see Southern Siberian rainforest) are featured in Tyva. Tyva is well known for its spa-tourism. There are more than 100 mineral springs in Tyva. The biggest of them are the warm mineral springs Ush-Beldir and Tarys, the temperature of the water is 52-85 °C. Cold mineral springs and salty lakes are popular among tourists and the general population for their medicinal qualities. The geographical location of Tyva between the east-Siberian taiga and central-Asian landscape engenders a wealth of flora and fauna. More than 90% of the territory is chase. Rare animals such as sable, lynx, wolverine, weasel, maral, Siberian ibex, and musk deer are only the part of Tyvan fauna.
Historical objects and ethnic culture are of interest: traditional habitat – yurts, national cuisine and handicraft, tuvan throat singing khomeii, national sports – wrestling competition Khuresh and horse riding. Annual festival "Ustuu-Khuree" and Naadym are of interest to tourists.
Tyva has as yet no railway — although famous postage stamps in the 1930s, designed in Moscow during the time of Tyvan independence, mistakenly depict locomotives as demonstrating Soviet-inspired progress there. There is however a plan for construction of a railway line from the capital Kyzyl to Kuragino in Krasnoyarsk Krai. The railway will run for 410 kilometers (250 mi). The main purpose for building the railway is to transport coal from coal mines in Kyzyl.
There are three roads leading to Tyva,a paved highway over the passes between Khakassia (Abakan) and Kyzyl and a dirt track over the mountains from Khakassia to Ak Dovurak,: both of these can be cut off by snowfall and avalanches from time to time in winter. The third road goes south, turning into a track before entering Mongolia. The only external bus and taxi services are between Khakassia (Abakan) and Kyzyl.
Kyzyl has both large public buses and private minibus services.Both buses and taxis also connect Kyzyl with the larger settlements.
Passenger ferries ply the Greater Yenisei (Bii-Khem) between Kyzyl and Toora-Khem in Todzha (Upper Tyva) when there is neither too little nor too much water over the rapids.
There is a small airfield in Kyzyl with intermittent flights.
Sainkho Namtchylak is one of the few singers from Tyva to have an international following. She is also very involved with Tyvan culture. Every year she invites Western musicians to perform in Kyzyl and to learn about the country, its culture and its music. In recent years Kongar-ool Ondar has become well known in the West as well, in large part because of the film Genghis Blues featuring Ondar and American blues singer Paul Pena. Huun-Huur-Tu has been one of the most well known Tyvan music ensembles since the late 1990s, while the Alash ensemble came to prominence in the early 2000s.
The Tyvan language is Turkic, although with many loan-words from Mongolian. It is currently written with a modified Cyrillic alphabet, previously used Turkic runes, later Mongolian, then Latin alphabets. Then, Tyva was administered as part of Outer Mongolia, and the language difference was a determining factor in Tyva seeking full independence from Mongolia following the collapse of the Qing Dynasty.
The Tuvan people have a rich tradition of orally transmitted folklore, including many genres, ranging from very brief riddles and aphorisms, to tongue twisters, magical tales, hero tales, scary stories, and epics that would take many hours to recite. A few examples and excerpts of the epic genres, such as Boktu-Kirish, Bora-Sheelei have been published. This art form is now endangered as the traditional tale-tellers grow old and are not replaced by younger practitioners.
The most important facilities of higher education include the Tuvan State University and the Tyvan Institute of Humanities, both located in the capital Kyzyl.
- In the 1920s and 1930s, postage stamps from Tuva were issued. Many philatelists, including the physicist Richard Feynman, have been fascinated with Tuva because of these stamps. The stamps were issued mainly during the brief period of Tuvan independence, and were not accepted by serious collectors until recently as they were thought to be produced in Moscow and not to represent a genuine postal service. The stamps have been partly rehabilitated in philatelic circles recently. Feynman's efforts to reach Tuva are chronicled in the book Tuva or Bust! and the video The Quest For Tannu Tuva: Richard Feynman – The Last Journey of a Genius (1988) which can be viewed online on YouTube. Project Tuva was named in honor of his efforts.
- Tuva was featured prominently in the award-winning documentary Genghis Blues.
- United Nations Human Development Index: Russian Federation – Republic of Tyva, rank: 79/79 (the lowest).
- Tuvan stamps are mentioned in a line of Gregory Corso's poem Marriage.
- Tuvan Sergey Shoygu, Russia's Minister for Emergency Situations since 1994, is Russia's longest-serving minister, and a leader of Russia's governing party 'Unity'.
- Tuvans make wishes each morning, sprinkling milk on the ground, to the north, south, east and west, with a special wooden spoon with nine small hollows for the various milk products made.
- According to Ilya Zakharov of Moscow's Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, genetic evidence suggests that the modern Tuvan people are the closest genetic relatives to the native peoples of North and South America.
- Some Tuvans, even near Kyzyl, still live in traditional yurts, round, demountable and portable dwellings with sectional lath trellis walls, decorated pole roofs and covered with white felt and canvas, with colourful cloth lining. There is a central smoke-hole above the hearth or stove. It is used to tell the time as the sunlight moves around inside the yurt. The interior is arranged with the man's side to the left, the woman's to the right of the door facing East, with the altar cupboard facing that.
- Tuvans, as traditional nomads, knew no fixed national borders, which has led to small numbers being in areas outside the present Republic's boundaries, including as follows.
- China – Xinjiang: 'Tuwa' by Lake Kanas, Altay Prefecture.
- Russia – Irkutsk Oblast: 'Tofa' adjacent to north-east Tyva; Buryatia: 'Soyot' of the Upper Oka river.
- Mongolia – northern: 'Tsaatan'; north-western: 'Dukha/Duva'; western: 'Tsengel'.
- Sayan Mountains in Tuva was featured in Bear Grylls' Man vs Wild popular adventure TV show.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Official website of the Government of the Tyva Republic. Sholban Valeryevich Kara-ool (Russian)
- Constitution, Article 10.3
- Constitution, Article 10.2
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
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- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
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- "Philately's Ugliest Ducklings: Rehabilitating the 1934–36 Issues of Tannu Tuva" at the Wayback Machine (archived July 14, 2011) by James Negus at TTCS. Originally published in The Philatelic Journal, July–September 1960.
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- DONAHOE, Brian 2002. "Hey, you! Get offa my taiga!": Comparing the sense of property rights among the Tofa and Tozhu-Tyva. Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology working papers, nº 38. Halle/Saale: Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. ISSN 1615-4568
- 6 мая 2001 г. «Конституция Республики Тыва», в ред. Конституционного закона №748 ВХ-2 от 7 июля 2008 г. (May 6, 2001 Constitution of the Tyva Republic, as amended by the Constitutional Law #748 VKh-2 of July 7, 2008. ).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tuva.|
- (Russian) Official website of Tuva
- Photos from Tuva by Stanislav Krupar
- Research among the Tyvans of South Siberia
- World Statesmen – Russia
- Singing Stones – The Republic of Tuva
- (Russian) Website of Tuva
- (English) Friends of Tuva website
- (English) (Japanese) Friends of Tuva, Japan
- (English) Some Tuvan stamps issued in 1920s/1930s
- (English) Genghis Blues, official movie site
- (English) Animated slideshow presentations of Tuva
- (English) (Russian) (Japanese) (Esperanto)More complete collection of Tuva Stamps (1926–1943)
- (English) TyvaWiki:Main Page
- (English) The Tuva Trader; Tuva and Richard Feynman media, products and information
- (English) Buga-shadara A traditional Tuvan boardgame
- Audio of the Tuvan national anthem recorded by the Tuvan National Orchestra. The orchestral arrangement was composed by Ayana Samiyaevna Mongush.
- (Russian) (Japanese) Map of Republic of Tuva (in Tuvan) Slavic-Eurasian Research Center, Hokkaido University
- Tuva's contribution to the Second World War (in Russian)