Владимирская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Established||August 14, 1944|
|Government (as of October 2014)|
|- Governor||Svetlana Orlova|
|- Legislature||Legislative Assembly|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||29,000 km2 (11,000 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||49.78/km2 (128.9/sq mi)|
|Population (December 2013 est.)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
Vladimir Oblast (Russian: Влади́мирская о́бласть, Vladimirskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Vladimir, which is located 190 kilometers (120 mi) east of Moscow. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast's population was 1,443,693.
Vladimir Oblast borders Moscow, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Ryazan, and Nizhny Novgorod Oblasts. The oblast is situated in the center of the East European Plain. The Klyazma and the Oka are the most important rivers. There are approximately three hundred lakes. The oblast is situated in a zone of mixed forests.
The oblast's fauna currently includes more than fifty species of mammals (some examples including elk, wild boar, roe deer, red and sika deer, lynx, wolf, squirrel, rabbit, marten, fox, weasel, badger and other fur-bearing animals), five species of reptiles, and ten species of amphibians. The semiaquatic Russian desman is listed in the Russian Red Book of endangered species. The region is inhabited by 216 species of birds, among which are the capercaillie, black grouse, grouse, partridge, woodcock, goose, duck, etc. The lesser white-fronted goose is listed in the Red Book.
Hunting season runs from October to February with the following license and permit restrictions:
- Elk, wild boar, red deer, and sika deer from mid-November through mid-January
- Hare from October through January
- Grouse, black grouse, woodcock, duck and goose for 10 days in April.
Bodies of water in the region are rich in numerous species (about 40) of fresh-water fish (e.g. eel, roach, pike, perch, bream, rudd, and sturgeon in the Klyazma River), which support ice fishing in winter. Additionally, the oblast has several hunting farms.
The total expanse of the oblast's surface waters is 32.9 hectares.
The region has hundreds of rivers with a total length of more than 8.6 million kilometers--there are 560 rivers and streams throughout the oblast. The Klyazma River flows into the Oka River on the south-eastern edge of the oblast's border with the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The Klyazma River's major tributaries in the Vladimir Region are the Sherna (with the Molokcha flowing into it), the Kirzhach (with its own tributaries being the Big and Small Kirzhach), the Peksha, the Koloksha, the Nerl, the Sudogda, the Uvod, the Lukh and the Suvorosch. Tributaries of the Oka within Vladimir oblast are the Gus, Unzha, and Ushna rivers. The Dubna River, a tributary of the Volga River, originates near the town of Alexandrov. The Oka River is navigable throughout the region (157 km). The rivers in the region are characterized by their flat currents, broad valleys and meandering channels. Water levels are characterized by their high spring tides, low water periods over summer-autumn with occasional flooding during heavy rains, and stable/low levels throughout the winter.
There are about three hundred lakes covering an area of five thousand hectares. Most of them are small and undrained and many are overgrown with a peat layer. The origin of the lakes varies. Numerous oxbow lakes are scattered along the river valleys. The largest of them are Lake Urvanovskoe (12 km long) and Lake Visha (length about 10 km). In the Meshchera Lowlands and in the northwest of the oblast are lakes of ancient alluvial valleys: Isikhry, Svyatoe and others. Lakes of karst origin, located in the lower reaches of the Klyazma and in the center of Vyaznikovsky District (a northeastern district in the oblast), have highly mineralized water and are associated with underground watercourses. The largest and deepest of them is Lake Kshchara. In the districts of Alexandrov and Yuryev-Polsky glacial lakes are small in size.
The main masses of wetlands in the region (total area of 37.4 thousand hectares ) occur in Meshchera and Balakhna (in the northeast of the oblast) lowlands.
The territory of modern Vladimir Oblast has been populated since ancient times. The oldest known traces of human settlement date to the Upper Paleolithic. A settlement of Homo Sapiens dating back to 25,000 BCE was discovered in the area of Sungir. Archaeological excavations of Volga Finn settlements document the Finno-Ugric roots of this land. Merya, Muromian, and Meshchera inhabited territory of the region during this period.
Since the 10th century CE, Slavic colonization of the area began in Murom and Suzdal. The current territory of Vladimir Oblast became part of the Old Russian state. In the 11th century, the region became part of the Rostov-Suzdal principality and in the 12th century the Vladimir-Suzdal principality. In the early 12th century, Vladimir emerged as did Yaropolch-Zalessky. The Vladimir region rapidly developed in the mid-12th century during the rule of Yuri Dolgorukiy and Andrey Bogolyubsky. New townships arose--Yuriev-Polsky, Gorokhovets, Starodub-on-the-Klyazma, Mstislavl--along with the princely residences Kideksha and Bogolyubovo. The visibility of historical monuments preserves cities reminiscent of medieval Russian history and detailed documents about the history of the last hundred years records the peak of the cultural development of these places (Vladimirskaya guberniya, Vladimir Highway).
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Vladimir CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Vladimir Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Vladimir Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Economy and transportation
- Births (2012): 16 445 (11.5 per 1000)
- Deaths (2012): 23 733 (16.6 per 1000) 
- Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.46 | 2010 - 1.46 | 2011 - 1.50 | 2012 - 1.62 | 2013 - 1.59 | 2014 - 1.65(e)
Ethnic composition (2010):
- Russians: 95.6%
- Ukrainians: 0.9%
- Tatars: 0.5%
- Armenians: 0.5%
- Belarusians: 0.3%
- Others: 2.2%
- 95,410 people were registered from administrative databases, and did not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to a 2012 official survey 42.3% of the population of Vladimir Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, and 1% to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism). In addition, 32% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 14% is atheist, and 4.7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vladimir Oblast.|
- Article 6 of the Charter of Vladimir Oblast states that the oblast may have an anthem, providing a law is adopted to that effect. As of 2014, no such law is in place.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Charter of Vladimir Oblast, Article 1
- Official website of Vladimir Oblast. Svetlana Yuryevna Orlova, Governor of Vladimir Oblast
- Charter of Vladimir Oblast, Article 3
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Vladimir Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Основные демографические показатели Владимирской области (Russian)
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". Gks.ru. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". Gks.ru. 2010-05-08. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Законодательное Собрание Владимирской области. Постановление №285 от 14 августа 2001 г. «Устав (Основной Закон) Владимирской области», в ред. Закона №17-ОЗ от 18 марта 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав (Основной Закон) Владимирской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования (23 августа 2001 г.). Опубликован: "Владимирские ведомости", №152–153, 23 августа 2001 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vladimir Oblast. Resolution #285 of August 14, 2001 Charter (Basic Law) of Vladimir Oblast, as amended by the Law #17-OZ of March 18, 2014 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Vladimir Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication (August 23, 2001).).