Republics of Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Republics
Republics of Russia English.png
CategoryFederated state
LocationRussian Federation
Number21 (without Crimea)
22 (with Crimea)
PopulationsSmallest: Altai, 206,195
Largest: Bashkortostan, 4,072,102
AreasSmallest: Ingushetia, 3,123 km2 (1,206 sq mi)
Largest: Sakha, 3,083,523 km2 (1,190,555 sq mi)
Government
  • Republican government
Subdivisions

According to its constitution, the Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects, 22[a] of which are republics (Russian: республика, romanizedrespublika; plural: республики, respubliki). Republics are administrative divisions originally created as nation states to represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity. The indigenous ethnic group that gives its name to the republic is referred to as the titular nationality. However, due to centuries of Russian migration, each nationality is not necessarily a majority of a republic's population.

Formed in the early 20th century by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks after the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, republics were meant to be nominally independent regions of Soviet Russia with the right to self-determination. Lenin's conciliatory stance towards Russia's minorities made them allies in the Russian Civil War and with the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922 the regions became Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSR), a third order of autonomy, subordinate to a union republic. While officially autonomous, ASSRs were in practice hypercentralized and largely under the control of the Soviet Union and its leadership. Throughout their history the ASSRs experienced varying periods of Russification and cultural revival depending on who led the country. The 1980s saw an increase in the demand of autonomy as the Soviet Union began large scale reforms of its centralized system. In 1990 the ASSRs declared their sovereignty and renounced their status as autonomous republics. The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and Russia became independent. The current day republics were established with the signing of the Federation Treaty in 1992, which gave them substantial rights and autonomy.

Republics differ from other subjects in that they have more powers devolved to them. Republics have their own constitutions, official languages, and national anthems. Due to this, Russia is an asymmetrical federation as the other subjects do not have these rights. Powers vary between republic and largely depends on their economic power. Through the signing of bilateral treaties with the federal government, republics had extensive authority over their economies, internal policies, and even foreign relations in the 1990s. However, at the turn of the century, Vladimir Putin's centralization reforms steadily eradicated all autonomy the republics had with the exception of Chechnya. The bilateral agreements were abolished and in practice all power rests with the federal government. With the termination of the final bilateral treaty in 2017, some commentators expressed that Russia ceased to be a federation.

History[edit]

The republics were established in early Soviet Russia after the collapse of the Russian Empire. On 15 November 1917, Vladimir Lenin issued the Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia, giving Russia's minorities the right to self-determination.[2] This declaration, however, was never truly meant to grant minorities the right to independence and was only used to garner support among minority groups for the fledgling Soviet state in the ensuing Russian Civil War.[3] Attempts to create independent states using Lenin's declaration were suppressed throughout the civil war by the Bolsheviks. When the Soviet Union was formally created on 30 December 1922, the minorities of the country were relegated to Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSR), which had less power than the union republics and were subordinate to them. In the aftermath of the civil war the Bolsheviks began a process of delimitation in order to draw the borders of the country. Through Joseph Stalin's theory on nationality, borders were drawn to create national homelands for various recognized ethnic groups.[4] Early republics like the Kazakh ASSR and the Turkestan ASSR in Central Asia were dissolved and split up to create new union republics.[5] With delimitation came the policy of indigenization which encouraged the de-Russification of the country and promotion of minority languages and culture.[6] This policy also affected ethnic Russians and was particularly enforced in ASSRs where indigenous people were already a minority in their own homeland, like the Buryat ASSR.[7] Language and culture flourished and ultimately institutionalized ethnicity in the state apparatus of the country.[8] Despite this, the Bolsheviks worked to isolate the country's new republics by surrounding them within Russian territory for fear of them seeking independence. In 1925 the Bashkir ASSR lost its border with the future Kazakh SSR with the creation of the so-called "Orenburg corridor", thereby enclaving the entire Volga region.[9] The Komi-Zyryan Autonomous Oblast lost access to the Barents Sea and became an enclave on 15 July 1929 prior to being upgraded to the Komi ASSR in 1936.[10]

Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on the incorporation of Tuva into the Soviet Union as an autonomous oblast, 11 October 1944. Tuva would not become an ASSR until 1961.

By the 1930s the mood shifted as the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin stopped enforcing indigenization and began purging non-Russians from government and intelligentsia. Thus, a period of Russification set in.[6] Russian became mandatory in all areas of non-Russian ethnicity and the Cyrillic script became compulsory for all languages of the Soviet Union.[11] The constitution stated that the ASSRs had power to enforce their own policies within their territory,[12] but in practice the ASSRs and their titular nationalities were some of the most affected by Stalin's purges and were strictly controlled by Moscow.[13] From 1937, the "bourgeois nationalists" became the "enemy of the Russian people" and indigenization was abolished.[11] On 22 June 1941 Germany invaded the Soviet Union, forcing it in to the Second World War, and advanced deep in to Russian territory. In response, Stalin abolished the Volga German ASSR on 7 September 1941 and exiled the Volga Germans to Central Asia and Siberia.[14] When the Soviets gained the upper hand and began recapturing territory in 1943, many minorities of the country began to be seen as German collaborators by Stalin and were accused of treason, particularly in southern Russia.[15] Between 1943 and 1945 ethnic Balkars,[16] Chechens,[17] Crimean Tatars,[18] Ingush,[17] and Kalmyks[19] were deported en masse from the region to remote parts of the country. Immediately after the deportations the Soviet government passed decrees that liquidated the Kalmyk ASSR on 27 December 1943,[19] the Crimean ASSR on 23 February 1944,[20] the Checheno-Ingush ASSR on 7 March 1944,[17] and renamed the Kabardino-Balkar ASSR the Kabardian ASSR on 8 April 1944.[21] After Stalin's death on 5 March 1953 the new government of Nikita Khrushchev sought to undo his controversial legacy. During his Secret speech on 25 February 1956 Khrushchev rehabilitated Russia's minorities.[22] The Kabardino-Balkar ASSR[14] and the Checheno-Ingush ASSR[23] were restored on 9 January 1957 while the Kalmyk ASSR was restored on 29 July 1958.[23] The government, however, refused to restore the Volga German ASSR[24] and the Crimean ASSR, the latter of which was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR on 19 February 1954.[20]

The autonomies of the ASSRs varied greatly throughout the history of the Soviet Union but Russification would nevertheless continue unabated and internal Russian migration to the ASSRs would result in various indigenous people becoming minorities in their own republics. At the same time, the number of ASSRs grew; the Karelian ASSR was formed on 6 July 1956 after being a union republic from 1940[25] while the partially recognized state of Tuva was annexed by the Soviets on 11 October 1944 and became the Tuvan ASSR on 10 October 1961.[26] By the 1980s General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's introduction of glasnost began a period of revitalization of minority culture in the ASSRs.[27] From 1989 Gorbachev's Soviet Union and the Russian SFSR, led by Boris Yeltsin, were locked in a power struggle. Yeltsin sought support from the ASSRs by promising more devolved powers and to build a federation "from the ground up".[28] On 12 June 1990 the Russian SFSR issued a Declaration of State Sovereignty, proclaiming Russia a sovereign state whose laws take priority over Soviet ones.[29] The following month Yeltsin told the ASSRs to "take as much sovereignty as you can swallow" during a speech in Kazan, Tatar ASSR.[30] These events prompted the ASSRs to assert themselves against a now weakened Soviet Union. Throughout 1990 and 1991 most of the ASSRs followed Russia's lead and issued "declarations of sovereignty", elevating their statuses to that of union republics within a federal Russia.[31] The Dagestan ASSR and Mordovian ASSR were the only republics that did not proclaim sovereignty.[32]

In the final year of the Soviet Union, negotiations were underway for a new treaty to restructure the country in to a loose confederation. Gorbachev invited the ASSRs to be participants in the drafting of the treaty, thereby recognizing them as equal to the union republics.[33] However, a coup attempt in August 1991 derailed the negotiations and the union republics began to declare their independence throughout the year.[33] The Soviet Union collapsed on 26 December 1991 and the position of the ASSRs became uncertain. By law, the ASSRs did not have the right to secede from the Soviet Union like the union republics did[34][35] but the question of independence from Russia nevertheless became a topic of discussion in some of the ASSRs. The declarations of sovereignty adopted by the ASSRs were divided on the topic of secession. Some advocated the integrity of the Russian Federation, others were muted on the subject, while the Komi ASSR,[36] Mari ASSR,[37] and Tuvan ASSR[38] reserved the right to self-determination. Yeltsin was an avid supporter of national sovereignty and recognized the independence of the union republics in what was called a "parade of sovereignties".[34] In regards to the ASSRs, however, Yeltsin did not support secession and tried to prevent them from declaring independence. The Checheno-Ingush ASSR, led by Dzhokhar Dudayev, unilaterally declared independence on 1 November 1991[39] and Yeltsin would attempt to retake it on 11 December 1994, beginning the First Chechen War.[40] When the Tatar ASSR held a referendum on whether to declare independence on 21 March 1992, he had the ballot declared illegal by the Constitutional Court.[41]

Killed civilians on a truck in Chechnya during the battle of Grozny, January 1995.

On 31 March 1992, every subject of Russia except the Tatar ASSR and the de facto state of Chechnya signed the Treaty of Federation with the government of Russia, solidifying its federal structure and Boris Yeltsin became the country's first president.[42] The ASSRs were dissolved and became the modern day republics. The number of republics increased dramatically as the autonomous oblasts of Adygea, Gorno-Altai, Khakassia, and Karachay-Cherkessia were elevated to full republics,[43] while the Ingush portion of the Checheno-Ingush ASSR refused to be part of the breakaway state and rejoined Russia as the Republic of Ingushetia on 4 June 1992.[44] The Republic of Tatarstan demanded its own agreement to preserve its autonomy within the Russian Federation and on 15 February 1994, Moscow and Kazan signed a power-sharing deal, in which the latter was granted a high degree of autonomy.[45] 45 other regions, including the other republics, would go on to sign autonomy agreements with the federal center.[46] By the mid 1990s, the overly complex structure of the various bilateral agreements between regional governments and Moscow sparked a call for reform.[46] The constitution of Russia was the supreme law of the country, but in practice, the power-sharing agreements superseded it while the poor oversight of regional affairs left the republics to be governed by authoritarian leaders who ruled for personal benefit.[47] Meanwhile, the war in Chechnya entered a stalemate as Russian forces were unable to wrest control of the republic despite capturing the capital Grozny on 8 February 1995 and killing Dudayev months later in an airstrike.[48] Faced with a demoralized army and universal public opposition to the war, Yeltsin was forced to sign the Khasavyurt Accord with Chechnya on 30 August 1996 and eventually withdrew troops.[49] A year later Chechnya and Russia signed the Moscow Peace Treaty, ending Russia's attempts to retake the republic.[50] As the decade drew to a close, the fallout from the failed Chechen war and the subsequent financial crisis in 1998 resulted in Yeltsin resigning on 31 December 1999.[51]

Yeltsin declared Vladimir Putin as interim president and his successor. Despite maintaining de facto independence following the war, Chechnya under Aslan Maskhadov proved incapable of fixing the republic's devastated economy and maintaining order as the territory became increasingly lawless and a breeding ground for Islamic fundamentalism.[52] Using this lawlessness extremists invaded neighboring Dagestan and bombed various apartment blocks in Russia, resulted in Putin sending troops into Chechnya again on 1 October 1999.[53] Chechen resistance quickly fell apart in the face of a federal blitzkrieg and indiscriminate bombing campaign as troops captured Grozny on 6 February 2000 and pushed rebels in to the mountains.[54] Moscow imposed direct rule on Chechnya on 9 June 2000[55] and the territory was officially reintegrated in to the Russian Federation as the Chechen Republic on 24 March 2003.[56] Putin would participate in the 26 March 2000 election on the promise of completely restructuring the federal system and restoring the authority of the central government.[57] The power-sharing agreements began to gradually expire or be terminated and after 2003 only Tatarstan and Bashkortostan continued to negotiate on their treaties' extensions.[46] Bashkortostan's power-sharing treaty expired on 7 July 2005,[58] leaving Tatarstan as the sole republic to maintain its autonomy, which was renewed on 11 July 2007.[59] After an attack by Chechen separatists at a school in Beslan, North Ossetia, Putin abolished direct elections for governors and assumed the power to personally appoint and dismiss them.[60] Throughout the decade, influential regional leaders like Mintimer Shaimiev of Tatarstan[61] and Murtaza Rakhimov of Bashkortostan,[62] who were adamant on extending their bilateral agreements with Moscow, were dismissed, removing the last vestiges of regional autonomy from the 1990s. On 24 July 2017, Tatarstan's power-sharing agreement with Moscow expired, making it the last republic to lose its special status. After the agreement's termination, some commentators expressed the view that Russia ceased to be a federation.[63][45]

Constitutional status[edit]

Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Tatarstan President Mintimer Shaimiev shaking hands after signing an agreement to grant Tatarstan devolved powers in 1994. During the 1990s the republics had significant autonomy.

Republics differ from other federal subjects in that they have the right to establish their own official language,[64] have their own constitution, and have a national anthem. Other federal subjects, such as krais and oblasts, are not explicitly given this right. During Boris Yeltsin's presidency, the republics were the first subjects to be granted extensive power from the federal government, and were often given preferential treatment over other subjects, which has led to Russia being characterized as an "asymmetrical federation".[65][66] The Treaty of Federation signed on 31 March 1992 stipulated that the republics were "sovereign states" that had expanded rights over natural resources, external trade, and internal budgets.[67] The signing of bilateral treaties with the republics would grant them additional powers, however, the amount of autonomy given differed by republic and was mainly based on their economic wealth rather than ethnic composition.[68] Sakha, for example, was granted more control over its resources, being able to keep most of its revenue and sell and receive its profits independently due to its vast diamond deposits.[69] North Ossetia on the other hand, a poorer republic, was mainly granted more control over defense and internal security due to its location in the restive North Caucasus.[70] Tatarstan and Bashkortostan had the authority to establish their own foreign relations and conduct agreements with foreign governments.[71] This has led to criticism from oblasts and krais. After the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, the current constitution was adopted but the republics were no longer classified as "sovereign states" and all subjects of the federation were declared equal, though maintaining the validity of the bilateral agreements.[69]

In theory, the constitution of Russia was the ultimate authority over the republics, but the power-sharing treaties held greater weight in practice. Republics often created their own laws which contradicted the constitution.[71] Yeltsin, however, made little effort to rein in renegade laws, preferring to turn a blind eye to violations in exchange for political loyalty.[72] Vladimir Putin's election on 26 March 2000 began a period of extensive reforms to centralize authority with the federal government and bring all laws in line with the constitution.[73] His first act as president was the creation of federal districts on 18 May 2000, which were tasked with exerting federal control over the country's subjects.[74] Putin later established the so-called "Kozak Commission" in June 2001 to examine the division of powers between the government and regions.[75] The Commission's recommendations focused mainly on minimizing the basis of regional autonomy and transferring lucrative powers meant for the republics to the federal government.[76] Centralization of power would continue as the republics gradually lost more and more autonomy to the federal government, leading the European Parliament to conclude that Russia functions as a unitary state despite officially being a federation.[77] On 29 December 2010, President Dmitry Medvedev signed a law banning the leaders of the republics from holding the title of 'president'.[78] Tatarstan, however, resisted attempts to abolish its presidential post and remained the only republic to maintain the title.[79] Putin subsequently signed a law forcing Tatarstan to abolish its title by June 2022.[80] On 19 June 2018 a bill was passed that elevated the status of the Russian language at the expense of other official languages in the republics.[81] The bill authorized the abolition of mandatory minority language classes in schools and for voluntary teaching to be reduced to two hours a week.[82]

Chechnya is the sole exception to Putin's centralization efforts. With the republic's reentry into Russia after the Second Chechen War, Chechnya was given broad autonomy in exchange for remaining within the country. At the end of the war, Putin bought the loyalty of local elites and granted Chechnya the right to manage its own affairs in dealing with separatists and governing itself outside of Russian control in a process called "Chechenization".[83] With the appointment of Ramzan Kadyrov by Putin to lead the republic in 2007, the independence of Chechnya has grown significantly. The Russian government gives Chechnya generous subsidies in exchange for loyalty and maintaining security in the region.[84] Observers have noted Putin's reluctance or inability to exert control over Kadyrov's rule for fear it could trigger another conflict.[85] Chechnya under Kadyrov operates outside of Russian law,[86] has its own independent security force,[87] and conducts its own de facto foreign policy.[88] This has led to Chechnya being characterized as a "state within a state".[89]

There are secessionist movements in most republics, but these are generally not very strong. The constitution makes no mention on whether a republic can legally secede from the Russian Federation. However, the Constitutional Court of Russia ruled after the unilateral secession of Chechnya in 1991 that the republics do not have the right to secede and are inalienable parts of the country.[90] Despite this, some republican constitutions in the 1990s had articles giving them the right to become independent. This included Tuva, whose constitution had an article explicitly giving it the right to secede.[71] However, following Putin's centralization reforms in the early 2000s, these articles were subsequently dropped. The Kabardino-Balkar Republic, for example, adopted a new constitution in 2001 which prevents the republic from existing independently of the Russian Federation.[91] After Russia's annexation of Crimea, the State Duma adopted a law making it illegal to advocate for the secession of any region on 5 July 2014.[92]

Status of Crimea[edit]

On 18 March 2014, Russia annexed the Autonomous Republic of Crimea of Ukraine after an unrecognized referendum.[93] The peninsula subsequently became the Republic of Crimea, the 22nd republic of Russia. However, Ukraine and most of the international community do not recognize Crimea's annexation[94] and the United Nations General Assembly declared the vote to be illegitimate.[95]

Republics[edit]

Symbols Map Name
Domestic common and formal names
Capital
Titular Nationality
Population (2010)[96]
Area
Flag of Adygea

Coat of arms of Adygea.svg
Map showing Adygea in Russia
Adygea

Republic of Adygea
Russian: Адыгея — Республика Адыгея (Adygeya — Respublika Adygeya)

Adyghe: Адыгэ — Адыгэ Республик (Adıgə — Adıgə Respublik)
Russian: Майкоп (Maykop)


Adyghe: Мыекъуапэ (Mıequapə)
439,996
7,792 km2 (3,009 sq mi)
Flag of the Altai Republic

Coat of Arms of Altai Republic.svg
Map showing Altai in Russia
Altai

Altai Republic
Russian: Алтай — Республика Алтай (Altay — Respublika Altay)

Altay: Алтай — Алтай Республика (Altay — Altay Respublika)

Kazakh: Алтай – Алтай Республикасы (Altai — Altai Respublikasy)

Russian: Горно-Алтайск (Gorno-Altaysk)

Altay: Улалу (Ulalu)

Kazakh: Горно-Алтайск (Gorno-Altaisk)
Altai
Increase33.9%
206,168
92,903 km2 (35,870 sq mi)
Flag of Bashkortostan

Coat of Arms of Bashkortostan.svg
Map showing Bashkortostan in Russia
Bashkortostan

Republic of Bashkortostan
Russian: Башкортостан — Республика Башкортостан (Bashkortostan — Respublika Bashkortostan)

Bashkir: Башҡортостан — Башҡортостан Республикаһы (Başqortostan — Başqortostan Respublikahı)
Russian: Уфа (Ufa)

Bashkir: Өфө (Öfö)
4,072,292
142,947 km2 (55,192 sq mi)
Flag of Buryatia

Coat of Arms of Buryatia.svg
Map showing Buryatia in Russia
Buryatia

Republic of Buryatia
Russian: Бурятия — Республика Бурятия (Buryatiya — Respublika Buryatiya)

Buryat: Буряадия — Буряад Улас (Buryaadiya — Buryaad Ulas)
Russian: Улан-Удэ (Ulan-Ude)

Buryat: Улаан Үдэ (Ulaan Üde)
972,021
351,334 km2 (135,651 sq mi)
Flag of Chechnya

Coat of arms of Chechnya.svg
Map showing Chechnya in Russia
Chechnya

Chechen Republic
Russian: Чечня — Чеченская Республика (Chechnya — Chechenskaya Respublika)

Chechen: Нохчийчоь — Нохчийн Республика (Noxçiyçö — Noxçiyn Respublika)
Russian: Грозный (Grozny)

Chechen: Соьлжа-ГӀала (Sölƶa-Ġala)
1,268,989
16,165 km2 (6,241 sq mi)
Flag of Chuvashia

Coat of Arms of Chuvashia.svg
Map showing Chuvashia in Russia
Chuvashia

Chuvash Republic
Russian: Чувашия — Чувашская Республика (Chuvashiya — Chuvashskaya Respublika)

Chuvash: Чӑваш Ен — Чӑваш Республики (Čăvaš Jen — Čăvaš Respubliki)
Russian: Чебоксары (Cheboksary)

Chuvash: Шупашкар (Šupaškar)
Chuvash
Increase67.7%
1,251,619
18,343 km2 (7,082 sq mi)
Flag of Crimea

Emblem of Crimea.svg
Map showing Crimea in Russia
Crimea[a]

Republic of Crimea
Russian: Крым — Республика Крым (Krym — Respublika Krym)

Ukrainian: Крим — Республіка Крим (Krym — Respublika Krym)

Crimean Tatar: Къырым — Къырым Джумхуриети (Qırım — Qırım Cumhuriyeti)
Russian: Симферополь (Simferopol)

Ukrainian: Сiмферополь (Simferopol)

Crimean Tatar: Акъмесджит (Aqmescit)
[b]
1,913,731
26,081 km2 (10,070 sq mi)
Flag of Dagestan

Coat of Arms of Dagestan.svg
Map showing Dagestan in Russia
Dagestan

Republic of Dagestan
Russian: Дагестан — Республика Дагестан (Dagestan — Respublika Dagestan)
Thirteen other official names
  • Aghul: Дагъустан — Республика Дагъустан (Daġustan — Respublika Daġustan)
    Avar: Дагъистаналъул — Дагъистаналъул Жумгьурият (Daġistanałul — Daġistanałul Jumhuriyat)
    Azerbaijani: Дағыстан — Дағыстан Республикасы (Dağıstan — Dağıstan Respublikası)
    Chechen: Дегӏестан — Дегӏестан Республика (Deġestan — Deġestan Respublika)
    Dargwa: Дагъистан — Дагъистан Республика (Daġistan — Daġistan Respublika)
    Kumyk: Дагъыстан — Дагъыстан Жумгьурият (Dağıstan — Dağıstan Cumhuriyat)
    Lak: Дагъусттаннал — Дагъусттаннал Республика (Daġusttannal — Daġusttannal Respublika)
    Lezgian: Дагъустан — Республика Дагъустан (Daġustan — Respublika Daġustan)
    Nogai: Дагыстан — Дагыстан Республикасы (Dağıstan — Dağıstan Respublikası)
    Rutul: Дагъустан — Республика Дагъустан (Daġustan — Respublika Daġustan)
    Tabassaran: Дагъустан — Дагъустан Республика (Daġustan — Daġustan Respublika)
    Tat: Догъисту — Республикей Догъисту (Doġistu — Respublikei Doġistu)
    Tsakhur: Дагъустан — Республика Дагъустан (Daġustan — Respublika Daġustan)
Russian: Махачкала (Makhachkala)
Thirteen indigenous nationalities
2,910,249
50,270 km2 (19,409 sq mi)
Flag of Ingushetia

Coat of Arms of Ingushetia.svg
Map showing Ingushetia in Russia
Ingushetia

Republic of Ingushetia
Russian: Ингушетия — Республика Ингушетия (Ingushetiya — Respublika Ingushetiya)

Ingush: ГӀалгӀайче — ГӀалгӀай Мохк (Ġalġayçe — Ġalġay Moxk)
Russian: Магас (Magas)

Ingush: Магас (Magas)
Ingush
Increase94.1%
412,529
3,123 km2 (1,206 sq mi)
Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria

Coat of Arms of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg
Map showing Kabardino-Balkaria in Russia
Kabardino-Balkaria

Kabardino-Balkar Republic
Russian: Кабардино-Балкария — Кабардино-Балкарская Республика (Kabardino-Balkariya — Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika)

Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэрия — Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ (Qəbərdey-Batlqəriya — Qəbərdey-Batlqər Respublikə)

Karachay-Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъария — Къабарты-Малкъар Республика (Qabartı-Malqariya — Qabartı-Malqar Respublika)
Russian: Нальчик (Nalchik)

Kabardian: Налщӏэч (Nalş’əç)

Karachay-Balkar: Нальчик (Nalchik)
859,939
12,470 km2 (4,815 sq mi)
Flag of Kalmykia

Coat of Arms of Kalmykia.svg
Map showing Kalmykia in Russia
Kalmykia

Republic of Kalmykia
Russian: Калмыкия — Республика Калмыкия (Kalmykiya — Respublika Kalmykiya)

Kalmyk: Хальмг — Хальмг Таңһч (Haľmg — Haľmg Tañğç)
Russian: Элиста (Elista)

Kalmyk: Элст (Elst)
Kalmyks
Increase57.4%
289,481
74,731 km2 (28,854 sq mi)
Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia

Coat of Arms of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg
Map showing Karachay-Cherkessia in Russia
Karachay-Cherkessia

Karachay-Cherkess Republic
Russian: Карачаево-Черкесия — Карачаево-Черкесская Республика (Karachayevo-Cherkesiya — Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Respublika)

Karachay-Balkar: Къарачай-Черкесия — Къарачай-Черкес Республика (Qaraçay-Çerkesiya — Qaraçay-Çerkes Respublika)

Kabardian: Къэрэшей-Шэрджэсия — Къэрэшей-Шэрджэс Республикэ (Qərəṩey-Ṩərcəsiya — Qərəṩey-Ṩərcəs Respublikə)
Russian: Черкесск (Čerkessk)

Karachay-Balkar: Черкесск (Çerkessk)

Kabardian: Шэрджэс къалэ (Ṩərcəs qalə)
477,859
14,277 km2 (5,512 sq mi)
Flag of the Republic of Karelia

Coat of Arms of Republic of Karelia.svg
Map showing Karelia in Russia
Karelia

Republic of Karelia
Russian: Карелия — Республика Карелия (Kareliya — Respublika Kareliya)

Karelian: Karjala — Karjalan tazavaldu[c]
Russian: Петрозаводск (Petrozavodsk)

Karelian: Petroskoi
643,548
180,520 km2 (69,699 sq mi)
Flag of Khakassia

Coat of arms of Khakassia.svg
Map showing Khakassia in Russia
Khakassia

Republic of Khakassia
Russian: Хакасия — Республика Хакасия (Khakasiya — Respublika Khakasiya)

Khakas: Хакасия — Хакас Республиказы (Khakasiya — Khakas Respublikazy)
Russian: Абакан (Abakan)

Khakas: Абахан (Abakhan)
Khakas
Increase12.1%
532,403
61,569 km2 (23,772 sq mi)
Flag of the Komi Republic

Coat of Arms of the Komi Republic.svg
Map showing Komi in Russia
Komi

Komi Republic
Russian: Коми — Республика Коми (Komi — Respublika Komi)

Komi: Коми — Коми Республика (Komi — Komi Respublika)
Russian: Сыктывкар (Syktyvkar)

Komi: Сыктывкар (Syktyvkar)
Komi
Decrease23.7%
901,189
416,774 km2 (160,917 sq mi)
Flag of Mari El

Coat of Arms of Mari El.svg
Map showing Mari El in Russia
Mari El

Mari El Republic
Russian: Марий Эл — Республика Марий Эл (Mariy El — Respublika Mariy El)

Hill Mari: Мары Эл — Мары Эл Республик (Mary El — Mary El Republik)

Meadow Mari: Марий Эл — Марий Эл Республик (Mariy El — Mariy El Republik)
Yoshkar-Ola

Russian: Йошкар-Ола (Yoshkar-Ola)

Hill Mari: Йошкар-Ола (Yoshkar-Ola)

Meadow Mari: Йошкар-Ола (Yoshkar-Ola)
Mari
Increase43.9%
696,459
23,375 km2 (9,025 sq mi)
Flag of Mordovia

Coat of Arms of Mordovia.svg
Map showing Mordovia in Russia
Mordovia

Republic of Mordovia
Russian: Мордовия — Республика Мордовия (Mordoviya — Respublika Mordoviya)

Erzya: Мордовия — Мордовия Республикась (Mordovija — Mordovija Respublikas)

Moksha: Мордовия — Мордовия Pеспубликась (Mordovija — Mordovija Respublikas)
Russian: Саранск (Saransk)

Erzya: Саран ош (Saran osh)

Moksha: Саранош (Saranosh)
834,755
26,128 km2 (10,088 sq mi)
Flag of North Ossetia–Alania

Wapen Ossetien.svg
Map showing North Ossetia–Alania in Russia
North Ossetia–Alania

Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
Russian: Северная Осетия–Алания — Республика Северная Осетия–Алания (Severnaya Osetiya–Alaniya — Respublika Severnaya Osetiya–Alaniya)

Ossetian: Цӕгат Ирыстон–Алани — Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон–Алани (Cægat Iryston–Alani — Respublikæ Cægat Iryston–Alani)
Russian: Владикавказ (Vladikavkaz)

Ossetian: Дзӕуджыхъӕу (Dzæudžyqæu)
712,980
7,987 km2 (3,084 sq mi)
Flag of the Sakha Republic

Coat of Arms of Sakha (Yakutia).svg
Map showing the Sakha Republic in Russia
Sakha

Sakha Republic
Russian: Саха — Республика Саха (Sakha — Respublika Sakha)

Yakut: Caxa Сирэ — Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ (Sakha Sire — Sakha Öröspüübülükete)
Russian: Якутск (Yakutsk)

Yakut: Дьокуускай (Dokuuskay)
Yakuts
Increase49.9%
958,528
3,083,523 km2 (1,190,555 sq mi)
Flag of Tatarstan

Coat of Arms of Tatarstan.svg
Map showing Tatarstan in Russia
Tatarstan

Republic of Tatarstan
Russian: Татарстан — Республика Татарстан (Tatarstan — Respublika Tatarstan)

Tatar: Татарстан — Татарстан Республикасы (Tatarstan — Tatarstan Respublikası)
Russian: Казань (Kazan)

Tatar: Казан (Kazan)
Tatars
Increase53.2%
3,786,488
67,847 km2 (26,196 sq mi)
Flag of Tuva

Coat of arms of Tuva.svg
Map showing Tuva in Russia
Tuva

Tuva Republic
Russian: Тува — Республика Тува (Tuva — Respublika Tuva)

Tuvan: Тыва — Тыва Республика (Tyva — Tyva Respublika)
Russian: Кызыл (Kyzyl)

Tuvan: Кызыл (Kızıl)
307,930
168,604 km2 (65,098 sq mi)
Flag of Udmurtia

Coat of arms of Udmurtia.svg
Map showing Udmurtia in Russia
Udmurtia

Udmurt Republic
Russian: Удмуртия — Удмуртская Республика (Udmurtiya — Udmurtskaya Respublika)

Udmurt: Удмуртия — Удмурт Элькун (Udmurtiya — Udmurt Elkun)
Russian: Ижевск (Izhevsk)

Udmurt: Ижкар (Ižkar)
1,521,420
42,061 km2 (16,240 sq mi)

Attempted republics[edit]

In response to the apparent federal inequality, in which the republics were given special privileges during the early years of Yeltsin's tenure at the expense of other subjects, Eduard Rossel, then governor of Sverdlovsk Oblast and advocate of equal rights for all subjects, attempted to transform his oblast into the Ural Republic on 1 July 1993 in order to receive the same benefits.[99] Initially supportive, Yeltsin later dissolved the republic and fired Rossel on 9 November 1993.[100] The only other attempt to formally create a republic occurred in Vologda Oblast when authorities declared their wish to create a "Vologda Republic" on 14 May 1993. This declaration, however, was ignored by Moscow and eventually faded from public consciousness.[101] Other attempts to unilaterally create a republic never materialized. These included a "Pomor Republic" in Arkhangelsk Oblast,[101] a "Southern Urals Republic" in Chelyabinsk Oblast,[102] a "Chukotka Republic" in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug,[103] a "Yenisei Republic" in Irkutsk Oblast,[102] a "Leningrad Republic" in Leningrad Oblast,[101] a "Nenets Republic" in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug,[104] a "Siberian Republic" in Novosibirsk Oblast,[101] a "Primorsky Republic" in Primorsky Krai,[102] a "Neva Republic" in the city of Saint Petersburg,[102] and a republic consisting of eleven regions in western Russia centered around Oryol Oblast.[101]

Other attempts to create republics came in the form of splitting up already existing territories. After the Soviet Union's collapse, a proposal was put forth to split the Karachay-Cherkess Republic into multiple smaller republics. The idea was rejected by referendum on 28 March 1992.[105] A similar proposal occurred in the Republic of Mordovia to divide it to separate Erzyan and Mokshan homelands. The proposal was rejected in 1995.[106]

Entities outside Russia[edit]

A billboard in Tiraspol, Transnistria, with Soviet symbolism. Nostalgia for the Soviet Union and Russian influence remain common in Transnistria, which has made repeated requests to join Russia.

Abkhazia[edit]

After the brief 2008 Russo-Georgian War, Russia secured the de facto independence of Abkhazia from Georgia and promptly recognized it. Georgian officials have expressed worry that Russia will seek to absorb the region. On 25 November 2014 Abkhazia signed a treaty integrating its economy and military with Russia,[107] which Georgia described as a step to "toward de facto annexation".[108] However, the idea of joining Russia has little to no support either among the political elite or the general public[109] and Abkhaz do not wish to see their region swallowed by Russia.[110] Despite this, Abkhazia relies entirely on Russia for financial support and much of its state structure is highly integrated with Russia; it uses the Russian ruble, its foreign policy is coordinated with Russia, and a majority of its citizens have Russian passports.[111] On 12 November 2020, Abkhazia and Russia signed a new integration agreement expanding on their previous one from 2014, which Georgia condemned as another step toward annexation.[112] The new agreement envisioned further harmonization of Abkhazia with Russian law and was criticized within the region for risking the loss of Abkhazia's sovereignty, which the government denied.[113]

Artsakh[edit]

The Republic of Artsakh, located in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh, is a breakaway state that declared independence from Azerbaijan after the Soviet Union's collapse. A region mainly inhabited by ethnic Armenians, it fought a war against Azerbaijan with direct support from Armenia and has remained de facto independent since. Debate on Artsakh's status has alternated between being an independent state or joining Armenia, with integration to Russia remaining a fringe concept.

However, after a second war in 2020 in which Azerbaijan reclaimed significant territory from Artsakh, Russia brokered a ceasefire which expelled Armenian forces from the region and sent its own military to act as peacekeepers.[114] Since then the debate on Artsakh's security evolved. The introduction of Russian forces in effect made Russia Artsakh's primary security guarantor, replacing Armenia. Talk of joining Russia increased in the region as Armenian influence dwindles and Azerbaijan makes regular incursions on Artsakh.[115] On 25 March 2021 Artsakh made Russian an official language of the region.[116] In April 2022 Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan signaled his willingness to give significant concessions, including up to ceding Artsakh back to Azerbaijan.[117] This led to outrage from Artsakh residents and politicians alike, some of whom raised the possibility of joining Russia.[118] Sasun Barseghyan, former governor of Askeran Province, proposed holding a referendum on joining Russia[119] while President Arayik Harutyunyan supported the idea of some "relations with Russia in a direct vertical framework".[118] However, the population is divided on the issue.[120] According to the Armenian newspaper Hraparak, should Armenia cede Artsakh to Azerbaijan, then a political process on joining Russia would be initiated, claiming Artsakh authorities had already received backing from Russia on the process.[121]

South and East Ukraine[edit]

On 27 March 2022, in the midst of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Leonid Pasechnik, the leader of the self-proclaimed Luhansk People's Republic, said he may hold a referendum on joining Russia in the "near future".[122] It is unlikely that it would be recognized by the majority of the international community. Later, on 29 March 2022, Denis Pushilin, the leader of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic, said that Donetsk could join Russia once its "constitutional borders", that is, the entirety of the Donetsk Oblast, are captured from Ukraine.[123]

United States intelligence have warned that Russia intends to annex Ukraine's Kherson Oblast by organizing a referendum on the creation of a "people's republic".[124] However, authorities in occupied Kherson are reportedly setting conditions for the integration of the region directly with Russia, forgoing a referendum or creating a "people's republic" altogether.[125]

South Ossetia[edit]

After the Soviet Union's collapse South Ossetia sought to break away from Georgia and become independent. On 19 January 1992 a referendum was held in which an overwhelming majority of voters approved independence. A second question asking for unification with Russia also passed overwhelmingly.[126] Similar to Abkhazia, South Ossetia had its independence secured by Russia from Georgia in 2008 and recognized it. However, unlike Abkhazia, officials in both Russia and South Ossetia have repeatedly expressed their wish to see South Ossetia join Russia.[127] A opinion poll conducted in 2010 showed that over 80% of people supported integration with Russia.[128] On 18 March 2015 South Ossetia signed a treaty integrating the region's economy and military with Russia, identical to the one signed by Abkhazia.[129] The treaty was condemned by Georgia as an "actual annexation" of the region.[130] Later that year South Ossetian president Leonid Tibilov said he was preparing a referendum to join Russia.[131] However, such a referendum never took place due to Russia's refusal to endorse the proposal.[132] Instead a referendum was held on 9 April 2017 to change South Ossetia's official name to "Republic of South Ossetia–The State of Alania" to mirror its northern counterpart North Ossetia, officially the "Republic of North Ossetia–Alania", implying future unification.[133]

On 30 March 2022 the government of South Ossetia announced it would revive attempts to hold a referendum on joining Russia.[134] Officials expressed hope of finishing the legal process to hold the referendum by April 10, however, it is unknown whether Russia will again reject the proposal or not.[109] On 13 May 2022 outgoing president Anatoly Bibilov signed a decree authorizing a referendum on annexation by July 17.[135] However, Alan Gagloyev, who defeated Bibilov in an election, expressed skepticism, saying that while he doesn't oppose the referendum, he believes there should first be a "signal" from Russia.[136] Gagloyev promptly scrapped the referendum pending talks with Russia on integration.[137]

Transnistria[edit]

Transnistria, a breakaway region of Moldova, had long sought to rejoin Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. After proclaiming independence and fighting a war against Moldova with the help of Russia in 1992, the region has remained under Russian occupation ever since. Transnistria made multiple appeals to integrate with Russia, which the latter has consistently ignored. In a 2006 referendum an overwhelming majority of people voted in favor of its accession to Russia, though these results could not be independently confirmed.[138] After Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014, Transnistria appealed to Russia to join it.[139] There is still some hope inside Transnistria for Russia to annex the region.[140] Despite ignoring Transnistria's appeals for accession, the region enjoys Russian support and is highly dependent on it. Over 200,000 Transnistrian citizens own a Russian passport[141] and many prefer to leave the region and work in Russia.[142] Russia provides gas at bargain prices, pays the pensions of its residents, and allocates funds to build infrastructure.[143] A Russian military garrison operates in Transnistria ostensibly as a peacekeeping force.[144] Moldova for its part rejects any attempt by Transnistria to secede and join Russia and insists on the withdrawal of all Russian troops from the region.[145] With Russia's invasion of Ukraine in 2022 a Russian general said they planned to create a land bridge connecting to Transnistria.[146] The region has also suffered significant trade losses due to the invasion of Ukraine and has become more reliant on trade with the European Union.[145]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Crimea was annexed by Russia in 2014; most of the international community recognizes it as a part of Ukraine.[1]
  2. ^ The republic was not formed with a titular nationality in mind.[97]
  3. ^ The Karelian language has no official status in the republic but is nevertheless recognized as a "regional language" alongside Finnish and Veps.[98]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Heaney 2018, p. 180.
  2. ^ John Raymond 1992, p. 120.
  3. ^ Mälksoo, Lauri (April 2017). "Soviet Approach to Right of Peoples to Self-Determination". History of International Law 2017: 7–8 – via ResearchGate.
  4. ^ Cope & Ness 2016, p. 237.
  5. ^ Feldbrugge, Simons & Van den Berg 1985, p. 467.
  6. ^ a b Greenacre, Liam (23 August 2016). "Korenizatsiya: The Soviet Nationalities Policy for Recognised Minorities". Liam's Look at History. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  7. ^ Bazarova, Vladimirovna (2013). "On the problems of indigenization in the national autonomies of Eastern Siberia in the 1920s – 1930s". Power (in Russian). 21: 176 – via CyberLeninka.
  8. ^ Kemp 1999, p. 79.
  9. ^ Podobed, Pavlo (28 March 2019). "Idel-Ural: Polyethnic Volcano of the Russian Federation". Prometheus Security Environment Research Center (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  10. ^ "Komi and imperial policy in the Arctic". Free Idel-Ural. 1 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  11. ^ a b Chulos & Piirainen 2000, p. 85.
  12. ^ Rett 1996, p. 618.
  13. ^ Kotljarchuk & Sundström 2017, p. 15-16.
  14. ^ a b "Punished Peoples" of the Soviet Union: The Continuing Legacy of Stalin's Deportations" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. September 1991. pp. 11–74. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  15. ^ Statiev, Alexander (2005). "The Nature of Anti-Soviet Armed Resistance, 1942-44: The North Caucasus, the Kalmyk Autonomous Republic, and Crimea". Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. 6 (2): 285–318. doi:10.1353/kri.2005.0029. S2CID 161159084 – via ResearchGate.
  16. ^ Bugay 1996, p. 156.
  17. ^ a b c Askerov 2015, p. 12.
  18. ^ Pohl, Otto (2000). "The Deportation and Fate of the Crimean Tatars" (PDF). Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  19. ^ a b Guchinova 2007, p. 187–188.
  20. ^ a b "Transfer of the Crimea to the Ukraine". International Committee for Crimea. July 2005. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  21. ^ "Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of April 8, 1944 "On the resettlement of Balkars living in the Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, and on the renaming of the Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Kabardian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic"". Library USSR (in Russian). Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  22. ^ Tanner 2004, p. 31.
  23. ^ a b Polian 2004, p. 199.
  24. ^ Minority Rights: Problems, Parameters, and Patterns in the CSCE Context (PDF), Washington, DC: Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1991, p. 59
  25. ^ Gladman 2004, p. 102.
  26. ^ Toomas, Alatalu (1992). "Tuva: A State Reawakens". Soviet Studies. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 44 (5): 881–895. doi:10.1080/09668139208412051. ISSN 0038-5859. JSTOR 152275.
  27. ^ Simons & Westerlund 2015, p. 81.
  28. ^ Ross 2002, p. 207.
  29. ^ Woodruff, David (12 June 1990). "Russian republic declares sovereignty". UPI. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  30. ^ Newton & Tompson 2010, p. 119.
  31. ^ Kahn 2002, p. 106.
  32. ^ Zamyatin, Konstantin (2013). "Sovereignisation and State Languages: Early Formation of Language Policy of Russia's Finno-Ugric Republics in the Conditions of the USSR Disintegration" (PDF). Finnish-Ugric Communications. 36: 132 – via University of Helsinki.
  33. ^ a b Starovoitova, Galina (1997). "Sovereignty After Empire: Self-Determination Movements in the Former Soviet Union" (PDF). Peaceworks. 19: 5–11 – via United States Institute of Peace.
  34. ^ a b Berman & Yakovlev 1996, p. 104–105.
  35. ^ Saunders & Strukov 2010, p. 59.
  36. ^ Nikodimovna, Evdokia (2008), Continuing the Chronicle of Ancestors ... (Notes of a Komi human rights activist) (in Russian), Syktyvkar: Polygraph-Service Printing House LLC, pp. 48–49, The Supreme Soviet of the Komi SSR reserves the right to terminate agreements and contracts with the RSFSR and the USSR. The decision to secede from the RSFSR and the USSR is taken by way of a referendum.
  37. ^ "Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Mari SSR". Pashkov Library (in Russian). 6 January 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2020. The Mari SSR reserves the right to self-determination and change its state and legal status.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  38. ^ Bairovich, Chimit-Dorzhu (31 May 2012). "Adoption of the Declaration on State Sovereignty of the Soviet Republic of Tuva". Tuva Asia (in Russian). Retrieved 5 June 2020. The Soviet Republic of Tuva confirms its right to self-determination, exercised on the basis of a popular referendum of the republic's population.
  39. ^ Higgins, Andrew (22 January 1995). "Dzhokhar Dudayev: Lone wolf of Grozny". The Independent. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  40. ^ Muratov, Dmitry (12 December 2014). "The Chechen wars murdered Russian democracy in its cradle". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  41. ^ Shapiro, Margaret (23 March 1992). "Tatarstan Votes for Self-Rule Repudiating Russia and Yeltsin". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  42. ^ Smirnova, Lena (24 July 2017). "Tatarstan, the Last Region to Lose Its Special Status Under Putin". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  43. ^ "On the Procedures of the Transformation of Adyghe, Gorno-Altai, Karachay-Cherkess, and Khakas Autonomous Oblasts into the Soviet Socialist Republics of the RSFSR". Law No. 1535-1 of 3 July 1991 (in Russian).
  44. ^ Pakhomenko, Varvara (16 August 2009). "Ingushetia Abandoned". Open Democracy. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  45. ^ a b "Russia revoking Tatarstan's autonomy". European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity. 9 August 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  46. ^ a b c Chuman, Mizuki. "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya: 135–146.
  47. ^ "Nations in Transit: Russia". Freedom House. 2005. Retrieved 6 March 2019. The vast majority of governors were corrupt, ruling their regions as tyrants for their personal benefit and that of their closest allies.
  48. ^ Arslanbenzer, Hakan (14 November 2019). "Dzhokhar Dudayev: Fighting for a free Chechnya". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  49. ^ Fuller, Liz (30 August 2006). "Khasavyurt Accords Failed To Preclude A Second War". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  50. ^ Stanley, Alessandra (13 May 1997). "Yeltsin Signs Peace Treaty With Chechnya". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  51. ^ Sinelschikova, Yekaterina (31 December 2019). "How Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first president, resigned". Russia Beyond. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  52. ^ "Aslan Maskhadov". The Telegraph. 9 March 2005. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  53. ^ René 2018, p. 147–148.
  54. ^ Williams, Daniel (7 February 2000). "Russians Capture Grozny". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  55. ^ Hoffman, David (9 June 2000). "Putin Lays Direct Rule on Chechnya". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  56. ^ Aris, Ben (24 March 2003). "Boycott call in Chechen poll ignored". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  57. ^ Bohlen, Celestine (9 March 2000). "Russian Regions Wary as Putin Tightens Control". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  58. ^ Turner, Cassandra (2018). "We Never Said We're Independent: Natural Resources, Nationalism, and the Fight for Political Autonomy in Russia's Regions". Honors Thesis: 49 – via University of Mississippi.
  59. ^ "Federation Council Backs Power-Sharing Bill". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  60. ^ Shtepa, Vadim (4 April 2017). "The Devolution of Russian Federalism". Jamestown. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  61. ^ Malashenko, Alexey (25 January 2010). "Mintimer Shaimiev Steps Down as President of Tatarstan". Carnegie Moscow Center. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  62. ^ Barry, Ellen (13 July 2010). "Russian Regional Strongman to Retire". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  63. ^ Avdaliani, Emil (14 August 2017). "No Longer the Russian Federation: A Look at Tartarstan". Georgia Today. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  64. ^ Article 68 of the Constitution of Russia
  65. ^ Solnick, Steven (29 May 1996). "Asymmetries in Russian Federation Bargaining" (PDF). The National Council for Soviet and East European Research.
  66. ^ Boex & Martinez-Vazquez 2001, p. 4.
  67. ^ Solnick, Steven (30 May 1996). "Center-Periphery Bargaining in Russia: Assessing Prospects of Federal Stability" (PDF). The National Council for Soviet and East European Research: 4.
  68. ^ Alexander, James (2004). "Federal Reforms in Russia: Putin's Challenge to the Republics" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya. 12 (2): 237. doi:10.3200/DEMO.12.2.233-263. S2CID 32677267. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2019 – via Semantic Scholar.
  69. ^ a b Clark & Kempton 2002, p. 39–77.
  70. ^ Drobizheva, Leokadia (April 1998). "Power Sharing in the Russian Federation: the View from the Center and from the Republics" (PDF). Preventing of Deadly Conflicts: 12.
  71. ^ a b c Sergunin 2016, p. 185.
  72. ^ Wegren 2015, p. 68.
  73. ^ Sharafutdinova, Gulnaz (2013). "Gestalt Switch in Russian Federalism: The Decline in Regional Power under Putin". Comparative Politics. 45 (3): 357–376. doi:10.5129/001041512X13815255435013. JSTOR 43664325.
  74. ^ Shtepa, Vadim (16 July 2018). "Russian Federal Districts as Instrument of Moscow's Internal Colonization". Jamestown. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  75. ^ Goode 2011, p. 95.
  76. ^ Heaney 2009, p. 12.
  77. ^ Russel, Martin (20 October 2015). "Russia's constitutional structure: Federal in form, unitary in function" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service.
  78. ^ "Medvedev forbade the heads of subjects to be called presidents". NewsRU (in Russian). 29 December 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  79. ^ "Tatarstan Vote Seen As Test For Russian Regional 'President'". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  80. ^ Voroshilov, Denis (21 December 2021). "Putin signed a law banning the heads of regions from being called presidents". RBC (in Russian). Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  81. ^ Hauer, Neil (1 August 2018). "Putin's Plan to Russify the Caucasus". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  82. ^ Coalson, Robert; Lyubimov, Dmitry; Alpaut, Ramazan (20 June 2018). "A Common Language: Russia's 'Ethnic' Republics See Language Bill As Existential Threat". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  83. ^ Matejova, Miriam (2013). "Russian "Chechenization" and the Prospects for a Lasting Peace in Chechnya". International Journal on World Peace. 30: 11–12 – via ResearchGate.
  84. ^ Schwirtz, Michael (8 October 2011). "Russian Anger Grows Over Chechnya Subsidies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  85. ^ Bullough, Oliver (23 September 2015). "Putin's closest ally – and his biggest liability". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  86. ^ Arutunyan, Anna (25 April 2017). "Why Putin won't get tough on Kadyrov". European Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  87. ^ Bowen, Andrew (15 June 2015). "Kadyrovtsy: "Vladimir Putin's Combat Infantry" and Ramzan Kadyrov's Henchmen". The Interpreter. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  88. ^ Halbach, Uwe (2018). "Chechnya's Status within the Russian Federation: Ramzan Kadyrov's Private State and Vladimir Putin's Federal "Power Vertical"" (PDF). Foundation Science and Politics: 5 – via German Institute for International and Security Affairs.
  89. ^ Zimnitskaya, Hanna (2012). "A State within a State: the Case of Chechnya". International Studies Honors Projects – via Macalester College.
  90. ^ Guillory, Sean (21 September 2016). "How 'separatists' are prosecuted in Russia: Independent lawyers on one of Russia's most controversial statutes". Meduza. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  91. ^ Bell 2003, p. 78.
  92. ^ "Russia broadens anti-incitement law to include separatism". The Times of Israel. 5 July 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  93. ^ Gutterman, Steve; Polityuk, Pavel (18 March 2014). "Putin signs Crimea treaty as Ukraine serviceman dies in attack". Reuters. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  94. ^ Luhn, Alec (18 March 2014). "Red Square rally hails Vladimir Putin after Crimea accession". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  95. ^ Charbonneau, Louis; Donath, Mirjam (27 March 2014). "U.N. General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid". Reuters. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  96. ^ "2010 All-Russian Population Census" (PDF). All-Russian Population Census (in Russian). 22 December 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  97. ^ Goble, Paul (3 November 2015). "Why are Only Some Non-Russian Republics Led by Members of Their Titular Nationalities?". The Interpreter. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  98. ^ Jung, Hakyung (2012). "Language in a Borderland: On the Official Status of Karelian Language". Slavic Studies: 1 and 13 – via Academia.
  99. ^ Lussier, Orttung & Paretskaya 2000, p. 523–524.
  100. ^ Rubin & Snyder 2002, p. 69.
  101. ^ a b c d e Joshau & Shlapentokh 2007, p. 105–106.
  102. ^ a b c d Ross 2003, p. 24–25.
  103. ^ "25 years ago Chukotka withdrew from the Magadan Region". Vesma Today. 29 September 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  104. ^ Kolguyev, Georgy (17 November 2005). "Nenets Republic - It Sounds Weird". Nyaryana Vynder (in Russian). Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  105. ^ Roeder 2007, p. 134.
  106. ^ Taagepera, Rein (2013). The Finno-Ugric Republics and the Russian State. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-91977-7. A proposal to divide Mordovia into Erzyan and Mokshan parts was rejected, 628-34 (Mokshin 1995).
  107. ^ Herszenhorn, David (25 November 2014). "Pact Tightens Russian Ties With Abkhazia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  108. ^ Harding, Luke (25 November 2014). "Georgia angered by Russia-Abkhazia military agreement". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  109. ^ a b "South Ossetia to hold referendum to join Russia in future - report". The Jerusalem Post. 30 March 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  110. ^ Waal, Thomas de (16 July 2019). "Abkhazia and the Danger of 'Ossetianization'". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  111. ^ Tkemaladze, Tamar (14 February 2021). "Abkhazia Is Not Crimea but Everything Is Set to Become It". Modern Diplomacy. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  112. ^ "Georgia condemns adoption of program on creation of common socio-economic space between Russia, occupied Abkhazia". Agenda. 25 November 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  113. ^ Avdaliani, Emil (18 February 2021). "A Fateful Step Towards Annexation". Center for European Policy Analysis. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  114. ^ Bar, Hervé (10 November 2020). "Russian Peacekeepers Head to Nagorno-Karabakh After Peace Deal". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  115. ^ Khulian, Artak (5 April 2022). "Karabakh Official Laments 'Lack of Support' by Armenia". The Armenian Mirror-Spectator. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  116. ^ "Artsakh Parliament approves bill on granting official status to Russian language". ArmenPress. 25 March 2021. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  117. ^ Kucera, Joshua (1 April 2022). "Armenia signals willingness to cede control over Karabakh". Eurasianet. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  118. ^ a b Mejlumyan, Ani (15 April 2022). "Officials in Karabakh break with Armenia over negotiations". Eurasianet. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  119. ^ "Artsakh announced the need to hold a referendum on joining Russia". Verelq News (in Russian). 31 March 2022. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  120. ^ Vanyan, Marut (15 April 2022). "The people of Nagorno-Karabakh discuss their 'new reality'". Open Democracy. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  121. ^ "Newspaper: Artsakh to launch signature campaign to join Russia?". News. 6 April 2022. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  122. ^ "Ukrainian rebel region Luhansk may vote to join Russia". Reuters. 27 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  123. ^ Humphries, Conor (29 March 2022). Trevelyan, Mark (ed.). "Russia-backed Donetsk Republic may consider joining Russia - leader". Reuters.
  124. ^ Mcilkenny, Stephen (3 May 2022). "Kherson Ukraine: Russia planning to annex new areas of Ukraine including Donetsk and Luhansk regions". The Scotsman. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  125. ^ Clark, Mason; Hird, Karolina; Stepanenko, Kateryna (9 May 2022), "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, May 9" (PDF), Institute for the Study of War., p. 1
  126. ^ Sotiriou 2019, p. 100.
  127. ^ Halpin, Tony (30 August 2008). "Kremlin announces that South Ossetia will join 'one united Russian state'". The Times. Archived from the original on 3 September 2008. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  128. ^ Toal, Gerard; O'Loughlin, John (20 March 2014). "How people in South Ossetia, Abkhazia and Transnistria feel about annexation by Russia". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  129. ^ "Putin signs treaty integrating South Ossetia into Russia". Al Jazeera America. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  130. ^ "Moscow, Tskhinvali Sign 'Integration Treaty'". Civil Georgia. 18 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  131. ^ "Breakaway Tskhinvali proposes name change New name emphasizes South Ossetia as part of Russia". Agenda. 29 December 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  132. ^ Fuller, Liz (8 February 2017). "South Ossetia Referendum On Name Change Steers Clear Of Thornier Unification Issue". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  133. ^ Tamkin, Emily (10 April 2017). "An Occupied Region's Referendum Brings Georgia New Iteration of Old Challenges". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  134. ^ "Breakaway Georgian territory of South Ossetia plans to join Russia". The Globe and Mail. 30 March 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  135. ^ "Breakaway region of Georgia to hold referendum on joining Russia". The Guardian. 13 May 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  136. ^ Fabbro, Robin; Shoshiashvili, Tata (13 May 2022). "South Ossetia to hold Russian annexation referendum on 17 July". OC Media. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  137. ^ "South Ossetia shelves plan for referendum to join Russia". DW. 31 May 2022. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  138. ^ "Trans-Dniester Votes for Independence and Russian Accession". DW. 18 September 2006. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  139. ^ "Moldova's Trans-Dniester region pleads to join Russia". BBC News. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  140. ^ Porzucki, Nina (24 March 2014). "Where's Transnistria? And why do people there hope Russia will annex them next?". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  141. ^ Kolstø, Pål (11 June 2014). "Transnistria is a bridge too far for Russia". Open Democracy. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  142. ^ Lungu, Karina (1 September 2016). "Transnistria: From entropy to exodus". European Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  143. ^ Mondello, Mauro (18 April 2022). "Near Ukraine, a Breakaway Russian Republic Plows On". New Lines Magazine. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  144. ^ Coakley, Amanda (11 February 2022). "Ukraine crisis 'very sensitive' for Russia-backed breakaway state". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  145. ^ a b "Transnistria: The breakaway region torn between Moldova, Russia and the EU". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  146. ^ Cole, Brendan (22 April 2022). "Russia targets Moldova invasion next as they seek land corridor via Ukraine". Newsweek. Retrieved 22 April 2022.

Sources[edit]

  • Heaney, Dominic (2018). The Territories of the Russian Federation 2018. Europa Territories of the World series. Routledge. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-35110-391-6. OCLC 1027753558.
  • John Raymond, Walter (1992). Dictionary of Politics: Selected American and Foreign Political and Legal Terms. Brunswick Publishing Corp. p. 120. ISBN 9781556180088.
  • Cope, Zak; Ness, Immanuel (2016). The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism. Palgrave Macmillian. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-230-39278-6.
  • Feldbrugge, Ferdinand; Simons, William; Van den Berg, Gerard (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 467. ISBN 90-247-3075-9.
  • Kemp, Walter (1999). Nationalism and Communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union: A Basic Contradiction?. Macmillian Press LTD. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-230-37525-3.
  • Chulos, Chris; Piirainen, Timo (2000). The Fall of an Empire, the Birth of a Nation: National Identities in Russia. Ashgate Publishing. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-315-20039-2.
  • Rett, Ludwikowski (1996). Constitution-making in the Region of Former Soviet Dominance. Duke University Press. p. 618. ISBN 978-0-8223-1802-6.
  • Kotljarchuk, Andrej; Sundström, Olle (2017). Ethnic and Religious Minorities in Stalin's Soviet Union: New Dimensions of Research (PDF). Södertörn University. p. 15-16. ISBN 978-91-7601-777-7.
  • Bugay, Nikolay (1996). The Deportation of Peoples in the Soviet Union. Nova Science Publishers. p. 156. ISBN 1-56072-371-8.
  • Askerov, Ali (2015). Historical Dictionary of the Chechen Conflict. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4422-4925-7.
  • Guchinova, Elza-Bair (2007). Deportation of the Kalmyks (1943–1956): Stigmatized Ethnicity. Hokkaido University Press. pp. 187–188.
  • Tanner, Arno (2004). The Forgotten Minorities of Eastern Europe: The History and Today of Selected Ethnic Groups in Five Countries. East-West Books. p. 31. ISBN 9789529168088.
  • Polian, Pavel (2004). Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR. Central European University Press. p. 199. ISBN 963-9241-68-7.
  • Gladman, Imogen (2004). The Territories of the Russian Federation 2004. Europa Publications. p. 102. ISBN 1-85743-248-7.
  • Simons, Greg; Westerlund, David (2015). Religion, Politics and Nation-Building in Post-Communist Countries. Ashgate Publishing. p. 81. ISBN 9781472449696.
  • Ross, Cameron (2002). Regional Politics in Russia. Manchester University Press. p. 207. ISBN 0-7190-5890-2.
  • Newton, Julie; Tompson, William (2010). Institutions, Ideas and Leadership in Russian Politics. Palgrave Macmillian. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-349-36232-5.
  • Kahn, Jeffery (2002). Federalism, Democratization, and the Rule of Law in Russia. Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-19-924699-8.
  • Berman, Margo; Yakovlev, Alexander (1996). Striving for Law in a Lawless Land: Memoirs of a Russian Reformer. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 104–105. ISBN 1-56324-639-2.
  • Saunders, Robert; Strukov, Vlad (2010). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Scarecrow Press. pp. 59. ISBN 978-0-8108-7460-2.
  • René, De La Pedraja (2018). The Russian Military Resurgence: Post-Soviet Decline and Rebuilding, 1992-2018. McFarland & Company. pp. 147–148. ISBN 978-1-47666-991-5.
  • Boex, Jameson; Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge (2001). Russia's Transition to a New Federalism. International Bank for Reconstruction. p. 4. ISBN 0-8213-4840-X.
  • Clark, Terry; Kempton, Daniel (2002). Unity or Separation: Center-Periphery Relations in the Former Soviet Union. Praeger. p. 77. ISBN 0-275-97306-9.
  • Sergunin, Alexander (2016). Explaining Russian Foreign Policy Behavior: Theory and Practice. Ibidem. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-8382-6782-1.
  • Kempton, Daniel; Clark, Terry (2002). Unity or Separation: Center-Periphery Relations in the Former Soviet Union. Praeger. pp. 39–40. ISBN 0-275-97306-9.
  • Wegren, Stephen (2015). Putin's Russia: Past Imperfect, Future Uncertain. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-4422-3919-7.
  • Goode, J. Paul (2011). The Decline of Regionalism in Putin's Russia: Boundary Issues. Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-203-81623-3.
  • Heaney, Dominic (2009). The Territories of the Russian Federation 2009. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-857-43517-7.
  • Bell, Imogen (2003). The Territories of the Russian Federation 2003. Europa Publications. p. 78. ISBN 1-85743-191-X.
  • Lussier, Danielle; Orttung, Robert; Paretskaya, Anna (2000). The Republics and Regions of the Russian Federation: A Guide to Politics, Policies, and Leaders. EastWest Institute. pp. 523–524. ISBN 0-7656-0559-7.
  • Rubin, Barnett; Snyder, Jack (2002). Post-Soviet Political Order. Routledge. pp. 69. ISBN 0-415-17069-9.
  • Joshau, Woods; Shlapentokh, Vladimir (2007). Contemporary Russia as a Feudal Society: A New Perspective on the Post-Soviet Era. Springer. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-0-230-60969-3.
  • Ross, Cameron (2003). Federalism and Democratisation in Russia. Manchester University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-7190-5869-1.
  • Roeder, Philip (2007). Where Nation-States Come From: Institutional Change in the Age of Nationalism. Princeton University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-691-12728-6.
  • Sotiriou, Stylianos (2019). Politics and International Relations in Eurasia. Lexington Books. p. 100. ISBN 9781498565394.

External links[edit]

Media related to Republics of Russia at Wikimedia Commons