Time in Russia
- 1 List of zones
- 2 Daylight saving time
- 3 History of zone boundaries
- 3.1 Introduction of a time zone in 1880
- 3.2 1919 time change
- 3.3 1930 time change
- 3.4 Introduction of a daylight saving time in 1981
- 3.5 1981 zone boundary changes
- 3.6 1982 zone boundary changes
- 3.7 1988 zone boundary changes
- 3.8 1989 zone boundary changes
- 3.9 1991 and 1992 time change
- 3.10 1993 zone boundary changes
- 3.11 1995 zone boundary changes
- 3.12 1997 zone boundary changes
- 3.13 2002 zone boundary changes
- 3.14 2004 zone boundary changes
- 3.15 2010 zone boundary changes
- 3.16 2011 time and zone boundary changes
- 3.17 2014 time and zone boundary changes
- 3.18 2016 zone boundary changes
- 4 Railway time
- 5 tz database
- 6 Federal subjects with multiple offsets at the same time
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
List of zones
Daylight saving time
Prior to 2011, Russia moved its clocks backward and forward on the same annual cycle as Europe. On 27 March 2011, clocks were advanced as usual, but they did not go back on 30 October 2011, effectively making Moscow Time UTC+4 permanently. On 26 October 2014, following another change in the law, the clocks in most of the country were moved back one hour, but summer Daylight Time was not reintroduced; Moscow Time returned to UTC+3 permanently.
History of zone boundaries
Introduction of a time zone in 1880
In the Russian Empire, most of the nation observed solar time. During the late 19th century, Moscow Mean Time was introduced on 1 January 1880, originally at GMT+02:30:17. 2:30:17 corresponds to 37.6166667°, the longitude of Moscow. Other parts of Russia kept solar time for several years. At this time, Russia had the Julian Calendar with 12 days less date compared to Western Europe, so it is possible to say the Moscow actually had GMT-285:29:43 (GMT-11d 21h 29m 43s). Russia adopted the Gregorian calendar on 14 February 1918, which most of Europe already used.
1919 time change
After the Soviet Union was created, Moscow Time became UTC+02 and the various other time zones (up to UTC+12) were introduced throughout Russia and the rest of the Soviet Union, for example Irkutsk Time GMT+7 (Irkutsk has since this always been MSK+5). Between 1917-1922 the time was less ordered, with daylight savings time some of those years, some with two hours addition, and some of those years with one or two hours extra winter time.
1930 time change
On 21 June 1930, the Soviet Union advanced all clocks by one hour, effectively making the nation run on daylight saving time all year (the so-called decree time). Moscow Time was now GMT+3 and Irkutsk Time GMT+8 (MSK+5).
Introduction of a daylight saving time in 1981
On 1 April 1981, daylight saving time (two hours ahead of standard time) was introduced; clocks were moved one hour forward on the last Sunday of April (March 1985–2010) and one hour back on the last Sunday of September (October 1996–2010).
1981 zone boundary changes
The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+9 to UTC+12, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+9 to UTC+11.
1982 zone boundary changes
The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+14 to UTC+13, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+13 to UTC+12.
1988 zone boundary changes
The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+5 to UTC+4, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+4 to UTC+3.
1989 zone boundary changes
On 26 March 1989, the following changes were introduced, which, in particular, some oblasts switched from Samara Time to Moscow Time:
The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+5 to UTC+4, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+4 to UTC+3.
Some oblasts switched from Moscow Time to Eastern European Time:
The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+4 to UTC+3, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+3 to UTC+2.
1991 and 1992 time change
Russia and most republics in the Soviet Union abolished the decree time (not moving the clocks) on 31 March 1991, but Russia reversed this the following year.
1993 zone boundary changes
The change occurred during DST effectively changing the offset from UTC+8 to UTC+7, the offset without DST was therefore changed from UTC+7 to UTC+6.
1995 zone boundary changes
1997 zone boundary changes
2002 zone boundary changes
2004 zone boundary changes
2010 zone boundary changes
The following time zone changes occured on 28 March 2010, which, in particular, led to abolition of two of the eleven time zones.
- The Udmurt Republic and Samara Oblast started using Moscow Time, thus eliminating Samara Time (MSK+1 or UTC+4 without DST).
- Kemerovo Oblast started using Omsk Time.
- Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Kamchatka Krai started using Magadan Time, thus eliminating Kamchatka Time (MSK+9 or UTC+12 without DST).
Although the Russian government wants to reduce the number of time zones even further, there have been protests in far-eastern Russia on the recent changes, including protests and a 20,000-strong petition in support of Kamchatka returning to UTC+12.
2011 time and zone boundary changes
The decree No. 725  (31 August 2011) changed UTC offset for Moscow Time and the other time zones. Moscow Time Zone now used UTC+04:00 all year around. The notions of decree time and daylight saving time were abolished in the law, but in fact, this law mandated permanent daylight saving time (or even double daylight saving time in regions that had not abolished the decree time).
Some areas changed offset from Moscow. Some districts of the Sakha Republic switched from Vladivostok Time (Zone 7) to Yakutsk Time (Zone 6):
Some districts of the Sakha Republic switched from Magadan Time (Zone 8) to Vladivostok Time (from Zone 7):
2014 time and zone boundary changes
As a result of the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, local authorities in the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol decreed that clocks in the newly proclaimed Russian federal subjects should jump ahead two hours at 22:00 on 29 March 2014 to switch from Eastern European Time (UTC+2) to Moscow Time (UTC+4).
- Udmurtia and Samara Oblast remained on UTC+04:00, (thus reinstating Samara Time, MSK+1)
- Kemerovo Oblast remained on UTC+07:00 (went from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk Time)
- Zabaykalsky Krai moved back two hours to UTC+08:00 (went from Yakutsk to Irkutsk Time)
- Magadan Oblast moved back two hours to UTC+10:00 (went from Magadan Time, MSK+8 to Vladivostok Time, MSK+7)
- Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Kamchatka Krai remained on UTC+12:00 (thus reinstating Kamchatka Time, MSK+9)
- The parts of the Magadan Time zone that remained on MSK+8, were given a new time zone name, Srednekolymsk Time, UTC+11.
Annual DST changes is not observed.
2016 zone boundary changes
The following time zone changes occurred on 27 March 2016:
- Astrakhan and Ulyanovsk oblasts moved forward one hour from UTC+03:00 to UTC+04:00 (from Moscow to Samara time)
- Altai Krai and Altai Republic moved forward one hour from UTC+06:00 to UTC+07:00 (from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk time)
- Zabaykalsky Krai moved forward one hour from UTC+08:00 to UTC+09:00 (from Irkutsk to Yakutsk time)
- Sakhalin Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+10:00 to UTC+11:00 (from Vladivostok to Srednekolymsk time), except Severo-Kurilsky District, which was already in UTC+11:00 (Srednekolymsk Time)
The following time zone change occurred on 24 April 2016:
- Magadan Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+10:00 to UTC+11:00 (from Vladivostok to Srednekolymsk time)
After these changes, the UTC+11:00 time zone is also named Magadan Time or Sakhalin Time.
The following time zone change occurred on 29 May 2016:
- Tomsk Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+06:00 to UTC+07:00 (from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk time)
The following time zone change occurred on 24 July 2016:
- Novosibirsk Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+06:00 to UTC+07:00 (from Omsk to Krasnoyarsk time)
- Saratov Oblast moved forward one hour from UTC+03:00 to UTC+04:00 (from Moscow to Samara time)
List of zones
The list below shows the 16 zones for Russia as defined in the file zone.tab of the database. The database aims to identify regions that had the same time offset rules since 1970.
On the last Sunday in October 2011, daylight-saving time ended in tzdata, but all zones moved forward one hour. In other words, the clocks did not change, but the names of the time zones reverted permanently to their standard time variants and there will be no more daylight-saving time.
If available, the change column lists the offset changes that caused a creation of a new zone in the tz database.
"Initial zone" means that in 1970 there was already a difference in time offset from the offsets in any other zone.
|C.c.||Coordinates||tzid||Comments||UTC offset (without DST, permanent since 2011)||Covered area||Split from||Changes|
|RU||+5443+02030||Europe/Kaliningrad||Moscow-01 - Kaliningrad||+02:00||Kaliningrad Oblast||Initial zone||1989-03-26 Change from UTC+03 to UTC+02|
|RU||+5545+03735||Europe/Moscow||Moscow+00 - west Russia||+03:00||Most of European Russia. Complete list given here.||Initial zone|
|RU||+4844+04425||Europe/Volgograd||Moscow+00 - Caspian Sea||+03:00||Kirov Oblast, Saratov Oblast, Volgograd Oblast, and Astrakhan Oblast||Europe/Samara||1992-03-29 Zone creation, causing change from UTC+04 to UTC+03|
|RU||+5312+05009||Europe/Samara||Moscow+00 (Moscow+01 after 2014-10-26) - Samara, Udmurtia||+04:00||Samara Oblast and Udmurtia||Initial zone||2010-03-28 Change from UTC+04 to UTC+03|
|RU||+5419+04822||Europe/Ulyanovsk||+04:00||Ulyanovsk Oblast||Europe/Moscow||2016-03-27 Zone creation, causing change from UTC+03 to UTC+04|
|RU||+5651+06036||Asia/Yekaterinburg||Moscow+02 - Urals||+05:00||Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Kurgan Oblast, Orenburg Oblast, Perm Krai, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Tyumen Oblast, and Yamalia||Initial zone|
|RU||+5500+07324||Asia/Omsk||Moscow+03 - west Siberia||+06:00||Altai Krai, Altai Republic, and Omsk Oblast|
|RU||+5502+08255||Asia/Novosibirsk||Moscow+03 - Novosibirsk||+06:00||Novosibirsk Oblast and Tomsk Oblast.|
|RU||+5345+08707||Asia/Novokuznetsk||Moscow+03 (Moscow+04 after 2014-10-26) - Kemerovo||+07:00||Kemerovo Oblast||Asia/Novosibirsk||2010-03-28 Zone creation, causing change from Krasnoyarsk Time to Novosibirsk Time|
|RU||+5601+09250||Asia/Krasnoyarsk||Moscow+04 - Yenisei River||+07:00||Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, and Tuva Republic|
|RU||+5216+10420||Asia/Irkutsk||Moscow+05 - Lake Baikal||+08:00||Irkutsk Oblast and Buryatia|
|RU||+6200+12940||Asia/Yakutsk||Moscow+06 - Lena River||+09:00||Amur Oblast, Zabaykalsky Krai, and western Sakha Republic|
|RU||+4310+13156||Asia/Vladivostok||Moscow+07 - Amur River||+10:00||Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai, and central Sakha Republic||Initial zone|
|RU||+4658+14242||Asia/Sakhalin||Moscow+07 - Sakhalin Island||+10:00||Sakhalin Island, and western Kuril Islands||Asia/Magadan||1997-03-30 Zone creation, causing change from UTC+11 to UTC+10|
|RU||+643337+1431336||Asia/Ust-Nera||Moscow+07 - Oymyakonsky||+10:00||Oymyakonsky District||Asia/Yakutsk||1981-04-01 Changed to Magadan time|
|RU||+5934+15048||Asia/Magadan||Moscow+08 (Moscow+07 after 2014-10-26) - Magadan||+10:00||Magadan Oblast||Initial zone||2014-10-26 Split: Magadan Oblast changed to Vladivostok time, other areas using new Srednekolymsk time|
|RU||+6728+15343||Asia/Srednekolymsk||Moscow+08 - E Sakha, N Kuril Is||+11:00||eastern Kuril Islands, and eastern Sakha Republic||Asia/Magadan||2014-10-26|
|RU||+5301+15839||Asia/Kamchatka||Moscow+08 (Moscow+09 after 2014-10-26) - Kamchatka||+12:00||Kamchatka Krai||Initial zone||2010-03-28 Change from UTC+12 to UTC+11|
|RU||+6445+17729||Asia/Anadyr||Moscow+08 (Moscow+09 after 2014-10-26) - Bering Sea||+12:00||Chukotka Autonomous Okrug||Initial zone|
Federal subjects with multiple offsets at the same time
- Sakha Republic
- UTC+9 MSK+6 Asia/Yakutsk: all except districts in other time zones
- UTC+10 MSK+7 Asia/Vladivostok: Oymyakonsky, Ust-Yansky, and Verkhoyansky Districts
- UTC+11 MSK+8 Asia/Magadan: Abyysky, Allaikhovsky, Momsky, Nizhnekolymsky, Sredrekolymsky, and Verkhnekolymsky Districts
- New time zones map of Russia from March 27, 2016, World Time Zone, 27 March 2016.
- Time Zones Currently Being Used in Russia, Timeanddate.com.
- Population of the Subjects of the Russian Federation, Russian Federal State Statistics Service, 2015.
- "Медведев отменил зимнее время". Lenta.ru. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- Russian clocks go back for last time, BBC News, 25 October 2014
- Time Zone in Moscow, Russia
- Clock Changes in Ust-Nera, Russia in 1981. Timeanddate.com.
- Clock Changes in Anadyr, Russia in 1982. Timeanddate.com.
- Clock Changes in Saratov, Russia in 1988. Timeanddate.com.
- Clock Changes in Volgograd, Russia in 1988. Timeanddate.com.
- Time changes in year 1993 for Russia – Novosibirsk. Timeanddate.com. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
- Clock Changes in Barnaul, Russia in 1995. Timeanddate.com.
- Clock Changes in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia in 1997. Timeanddate.com.
- Новости NEWSru.com :: С 1 мая Томская область перешла в новый часовой пояс. Newsru.com. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
- Clock Changes in Khandyga, Russia in 2004. Timeanddate.com.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №166 от 17 марта 2010 г. «О применении на территории Удмуртской Республики времени второго часового пояса». Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №58, 22 марта 2010 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #166 of 17 March 2010 On Using the Time of the Second Time Zone on the Territory of the Udmurt Republic. ).
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №170 от 19 марта 2010 г. «О применении на территории Самарской области времени второго часового пояса». Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №58, 22 марта 2010 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #170 of 19 March 2010 On Using the Time of the Second Time Zone on the Territory of Samara Oblast. ).
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №740 от 14 сентября 2009 г. «О применении на территории Кемеровской области времени пятого часового пояса». (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #740 of 14 September 2009 On Using the Time of the Fifth Time Zone on the Territory of Kemerovo Oblast. ).
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №171 от 19 марта 2010 г. «О применении на территории Камчатского края и Чукотского автономного округа времени десятого часового пояса». Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №58, 22 марта 2010 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #171 of 19 March 2010 On Using the Time of the Tenth Time Zone on the Territory of Kamchatka Krai and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. ).
- "Thousands Protest Time Zone Changes in Russia". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации № 725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации».
- "Crimea switches to Moscow time". Voice of Russia. 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
- "New Russian time zones and the corresponding areas from October 26, 2014", World Time Zone, 22 July 2014.
- "Russia Moving to Permanent Winter Time From October 26", RIA Novosti 22 July 2014, retrieved 26 July 2014
- Russia Changes Several Time Zones, Timeanddate.com, 17 March 2016.
- Russia Changes Time Zone in Magadan, Timeanddate.com, 7 April 2016.
- Proposed Time Change in Tomsk, Russia, Timeanddate.com, 27 April 2016.
- Proposed Time Change in Novosibirsk, Russia, Timeanddate.com, 5 July 2016.
- Proposed Time Change in Saratov, Russia, Timeanddate.com, 14 November 2016.
- Vladimir Putin signed law on time change in Saratov Oblast, Vzglyad-info, 22 November 2016. (Russian)
- Russian Railways – Time tables
- for example http://www.iktport.ru/
- proposed time zone package changes. Gmane. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
- proposeed time zone package changes Chile Russia Irkutsk Buryatia Morocco. Gmane. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
- Federal law of 03.06.2011 N 107-FZ (edition of 09.03.2016) "On the calculation of time", Consultant Plus. (Russian)
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