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Industria de Diseño Textil, S.A.
TypeSociedad Anónima
  • Confecciones GOA, S.A.
  • GOASAM, S.A.
FoundedA Coruña, Spain
(12 June 1985; 36 years ago (1985-06-12))
FounderAmancio Ortega
Rosalía Mera
Number of locations
7,292 stores[1]
Area served
Key people
Pablo Isla (Chairman and CEO)
ProductsClothing & Fashion retailer
RevenueDecrease €20.4 billion (2020)[2]
Increase €4.8 billion (2019)[2]
Decrease €1.1 billion (2020)[2]
Total assetsIncrease €19.621 billion (2016)[1]
Total equityIncrease €12.752 billion (2016)[1]
OwnerAmancio Ortega (59%)
Number of employees
Increase 162,450 (2016) [1]
SubsidiariesZara, Pull&Bear, Bershka, Massimo Dutti, Stradivarius, Oysho, Zara Home, Uterqüe, Lefties

Industria de Diseño Textil, S.A. (Inditex; /ˌɪndɪˈtɛks/, Spanish: [indiˈteks]; lit.'Textile Design Industry') is a Spanish multinational clothing company headquartered in Arteixo, Galicia, in Spain.[3] Inditex, the biggest fast fashion group in the world,[4] operates over 7,200 stores in 93 markets worldwide.[5][6][7] The company's flagship store is Zara, but it also owns a number of other brands such as Zara Home, Massimo Dutti, Bershka, Oysho, Pull&Bear, Stradivarius, Uterqüe and Lefties. The majority of its stores are corporate-owned, while franchises are mainly conceded in countries where corporate properties cannot be foreign-owned.[8]

Inditex business is centered around one simple premise: to be quick at responding to the market. Whereas it would take almost a year for a traditional fashion company to get its products out, from conception to runway to stores, for Inditex this process takes less than two months, in order to replenish stores with new and different products weekly and respond quickly. This is not without consequences on the earth and people, as it is the biggest fast fashion brand in the world.[7] New styles are prototyped in just 5 days, and 60% of the manufacturing happens locally to shorten lead-times.[9] In Zara stores, it can take a new garment as little as 15 days to go from design and production to store shelves.[10]


Early history[edit]

Amancio Ortega started in the clothing industry in the early 1960s while working for a local shirt maker in A Coruña, Spain.[11] Ortega began developing his own designs and he and his wife, Rosalia Mera, started making clothes from their home.[8][12] Amancio had saved up enough money to open a small factory and sold garments to his former employer amongst others.[8]

In 1975, the couple opened their first store, Zara, which produced popular fashion at low prices.[8][10] The following year, Zara was incorporated and began opening more stores and factories in Spain.[8] Later that year, after Ortega noticed the growing importance of computers, a local professor, José María Castellano, was hired to grow the company's computing power.[8][13]


In the 1980s the company implemented a new design and distribution method that drastically reduced the time between design, production, and arrival at retail sites.[14] The system was designed by Castellano who became the CEO of the company in 1984. In 1985, Industria de Diseno Textil S.A. or Inditex was created as a holding company for Zara and its manufacturing plants.[15] In 1988, the company began expanding internationally with the opening of a Zara store in Porto, Portugal.[16] In 1990, the company owned footwear collection, Tempe, populated in the children's section of Zara stores.[17] In 1991, Inditex created the company Pull and Bear, a casual menswear company.[18][19] Later that year, the company also acquired a 65 per cent share in the upscale Massimo Dutti brand. Inditex created Lefties in 1993; the name is taken from the term leftovers and it was created to sell old Zara clothing.[20] In 1995, Inditex purchased the remaining Massimo Dutti shares and began expanding the brand to include a women's line.[21] In 1998, Inditex launched the Bershka brand that was aimed at urban hip fashion.[22] The company bought Stradivarius in 1999, a youthful female fashion brand.[8]


Inditex had its initial public offering (IPO) in 2001, on the Bolsa de Madrid.[23] The IPO sold 26 per cent of the company to public investors, the company was valued at €9 billion.[24] The same year, the company launched the lingerie and women's clothing store Oysho.[25][26]

In 2003, Inditex launched the Zara Home brand, which offers bedding, cutlery, glassware and other home decoration accessories.[27] In 2004, with the opening of store number 2,000 in Hong Kong, Inditex had established its presence in 56 countries.[28]

In 2005, CEO Jose Maria Castellano stepped down from the position to oversee expansion plans, he was replaced by current CEO Pablo Isla.[29] Inditex launched Uterque in the summer of 2008, the brand specializes in women's accessories.[30] During the same year, the company opened its 4,000th store in Tokyo after doubling in size within four years.[28] In 2011, Ortega, the founder of the business and majority shareholder, stepped down as deputy chairman and CEO Isla handles day-to-day operations.[28] Later that year, the company opened a store in Australia, a move that would put the company on five continents and in 77 countries.[31] After the 2013 Savar building collapse, Inditex was one of the thirty-eight companies who signed the Accord on Factory and Building Safety in Bangladesh.[32]

As of 2019, Inditex is the biggest fashion retailer in the world by revenue.[33]

The company's revenue fell by 18% to $1.85 billion in the final quarter of 2020, primarily due to the fall in retail sales as a result of the coronavirus pandemic. Inditex's stocks fell by 12% over the course of the year.[34]

In May 2021, Inditex said that all its stores in Venezuela would close as it will review its agreement with its local partner Phoenix World Trade.[35]

International presence[edit]

In 1989, a year after entering Portugal, the company entered the U.S. market[36] and expanded into France in 1990.[8] Expansion continued to Mexico in 1992 and Greece in 1993. In 1994, Inditex opened stores in Belgium and Sweden.[37] By 1997, the company had expanded to Malta, Cyprus, Norway and Israel.[14] In 1998, expansion continued to the UK, Turkey, Argentina, Venezuela, the Middle East and Japan.[14] Canada, Germany, Poland, Saudi Arabia and several South American countries received stores in 1999.[37][38] In 2016, Inditex announced that they planned to open stores in Vietnam, New Zealand, Paraguay, Aruba and Nicaragua.[6]

The company opened stores in Italy, Luxembourg and Jordan in 2001. In 2003, Inditex opened stores in Russia, Slovakia and Malaysia.[38] The following year Latvia, Hungary, and Panama amongst other countries where stores opened, including the 2,000th store in Hong Kong.[38] By 2006, the company had expanded into mainland China.[39] In 2010, the company opened their 5,000th location in Rome[28] and its first in India.[39] The first stores in Australia and South Africa opened in 2011.[31] The company's expansion continued to the Serbia, North Macedonia, Armenia, Ecuador, Georgia and Bosnia-Herzegovina in 2012.[38][40] In 2014, Inditex opened stores in Albania.[41]

Online sales[edit]

In 2007, Inditex launched the Zara Home online retail store.[42] Zara joined the e-commerce marketplace in September 2010, launching websites in Spain, the UK, Portugal, Italy, Germany and France.[43][44] In November 2010, Zara's online presence grew to include Austria, Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.[45] In September 2011, Inditex brought Zara's e-commerce platform to the U.S.,[46] as well as adding the brands Pull and Bear, Massimo Dutti, Bershka, Stadivarius, Oysho and Uterqüe to the e-commerce space.[47] As of February 2016, Inditex operates e-commerce sites in 28 markets and plans to add 12 more by April.[48][49][50] In September 2018, Inditex announced to sell all its brands online by 2020, even in places where it does not own any stores.[51][52]

Marketing strategy[edit]

Inditex avoids magazine advertising, with print campaigns only occurring on billboards in certain regions like U.S. and in-store. Endorsements for celebrities to wear its labels are budgeted instead. The company also invests heavily in prime commercial location with fashion forward window displays for optimum high street visibility and product turnaround.

Inditex and plagiarism[edit]

Until 2017 it was only expressions of disappointment and anger in the media by those involved,[53] but in 2017 Zara Home Belgium was indeed convicted of plagiarism by a Brussels Court. Quote from a Belgian newspaper, De Tijd : “It is a unique precedent in the sense that, perhaps far beyond Belgium, it is the first time that a fast retailer has been convicted of something like this by a court of law.”[54][55][56][57][58]


Under the Inditex umbrella are several brands that offer a variety of products aimed at different markets.[59]

Company No. of shops[60] Year of creation[61] Market
Zara 2,232 1975 Fashion for men, women and children
Pull and Bear 982 1991 Casual laid-back clothing and accessories for the young
Massimo Dutti 769 1991 (acquired) Clothing and accessories for cosmopolitan men and women
Bershka 1,096 1998 Blends urban styles and modern fashion for young women and men
Stradivarius 1,015 1999 (acquired) Casual and feminine clothes for young women
Oysho 646 2001 Lingerie, casual outerwear, loungewear, gymwear & swimwear and original accessories
Zara Home 563 2003 Home goods and decoration objects
Uterqüe 82 2008 High-quality fashion accessories at attractive prices

| file:lefties again a young brand

Corporate affairs[edit]

Board of Directors[edit]

Bold indicates a company shareholder and the representative will be listed below.

Member Title(s) Member Since Shares Held Notes
Pablo Isla Chairman & CEO of Inditex
Board Member of Telefónica, S.A.
June 2005 1,805,302 [62]
Jose Arnau Sierra Deputy Chairman of Inditex
First Executive of Grupo Pontegadea
Director of GARTLER, S.L.
Member of the Board of Trustees of Fundacion Amancio Ortega Gaona
June 2012 30,000
Amancio Ortega Founder & Board Member of Inditex June 1985 1,848,000,315
Pontegadea Inversiones, S.L.
Ms. Flora Perez Marcote
Board Member of Inditex December 2015 1,558,637,990
Baroness Kingsmill CBE Board Member of Inditex
Member of the supervisory board of EON
Non-executive director of International Airlines Group SA
Chairman of Mondo
Member of the International Advisory Board of the Spanish Business School (lESE)
July 2016
Mr. Jose Luis Duran Schulz Board Member of Inditex
Independent Director & Member of the Audit Committee of Orange
July 2015 1,700
Mr. Rodrigo Echenique Gordillo Board Member of Inditex
Chairman of NH Hoteles
July 2014
Carlos Espinosa de los Monteros Bernaldo de Quiros Board Member of Inditex
Chairman of Fraternidad-Muprespa
Board Member of Acciona, S.A.
Board Member of Schindler Espana
Board Member of Yell Group
May 1997 150,000
Emilio Saracho Rodriguez de Torres Board Member of Inditex
Head of Investment Banking of JPMorgan Europe, Middle East, & Africa, Ltd.
Executive Committee Member of Investment Bank
Executive Committee Member of JPMorgan Chase
Deputy-CEO of EMEA
June 2010

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ a b c . Inditex Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ Butler, Sarah (14 December 2013). "Inditex: Spain's Fashion Powerhouse You've Probably Never Heard Of". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  4. ^
  5. ^ "International presence -". Archived from the original on 10 September 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
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  10. ^ a b Frayer, Lauren (12 March 2013). "The Reclusive Spanish Billionaire Behind Zara's Fast Fashion Empire". NPR. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
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  40. ^ "Inditex to Open Stores in Bosnia and Herzegovina". RetailWeek. 23 February 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  41. ^ Lukasz Izakowski (3 April 2014). "Inditex Enters the Albanian Market". Retail Net. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  42. ^ "Zara Home to Launch its Online Platform in Australia". Retail News Asia. 12 July 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
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  45. ^ Christopher Bjork (22 September 2010). "Zara Tries a Fast One on the Net". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
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  49. ^ Alonso, Triana (14 December 2015). "Inditex to Consolidate Its E-commerce Business in 2016". Fashion Mag. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  50. ^ "Inditex Launches New Online Stores in Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Romania and Sweden Today". Inditex. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  51. ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Zara owner Inditex to sell all its brands online by 2020". U.S. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
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  53. ^ "zara stealing designs copying independent artists | boredpanda". Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  54. ^ "Zara Home co-opts design by Flemish artisan | Flanders Today". Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  55. ^ Bradshaw, Lisa (2017). "Belgian artisan wins Zara plagiarism court case". The Bulletin.
  56. ^ "Limburgse houtsnijder dwingt Zara op de knieën". Het Laatste Nieuws. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
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  58. ^ Nederlandstalige Rechtbank van Koophandel Brussel Read online
  59. ^ "International presence -". Archived from the original on 10 September 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  60. ^ "Presencia internacional". 2016. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  61. ^ "Our History -". Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  62. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]