International tourism advertising
International tourism advertising is tourism-related marketing on the part of a private or public entity directed towards audiences abroad, and might target potential travelers and non-travelers alike. Wholly private firms such as travel agencies, hotel chains, cruise agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) often run their own advertising campaigns to market their existence, mission, or services and/or goods offered to the consumer, and these advertisements seldom carry intentional political messages.
On the other hand, advertising distributed by governments themselves, such as through tourism ministries or government-owned private sector enterprises, is sometimes intended to convey more than simply the value of the product, service, or experience; governments can use tourism ads as a channel for communicating directly to the public of other countries because tourism is a common and internationally encouraged industry and the advertising of it is subject to minimal content regulation.
As the global travel market continues to expand with yearly increasing flights among international destinations, advertising efforts on the part of the major actors in this market are also increasing. Advertising campaigns to promote travel to destinations abroad are particularly prevalent in western countries where the general public's expenditures on tourism tend to be consistently high, even in light of the economic recession.
Many advertisers, which include both private entities and foreign governments themselves, share the intended goal of increasing their own revenue by popularizing their service (e.g., airline or hotel chain) or destination to boost receipts from travelers; however, some travel campaigns have additional or alternative purposes, such as promoting good public sentiments or improving existing ones towards them among the target audience. Sometimes, states may use the branding of a product or service, itself, as a means of conveying a specific message without explicitly stating the message; this tactic is often used to soften the implied message itself, thus allowing the brander to sidestep or minimize controversy and/or opposition.
Tourism advertising can take many forms, utilize a wide array of advertising tactics, and be driven by a scope of private or public intents. Destination advertising is designed to make a location itself seem more appealing, while travel services advertising seeks to gain an audience's buy-in for the tourism-related service or product. Below are some instances of international tourism advertising overlapping with states' political, economic, and/or social interests.
A great degree of ads promoting foreign countries are produced and distributed by the tourism ministries of those countries, so these ads often serve as vehicles for political statements and/or depictions of the destination country's desired foreign public perception(s). Following are only a few of the many examples of government-produced tourism destination advertising that also serve political or social functions.
The Bahamas are commonly considered to be a focal point of leisure and recreational travel in the Caribbean and the island nation advertises itself as such. Television ads and website produced by the government of the Bahamas specifically foster the image of the islands providing a care-free, exciting, culturally rich, and even romantic experience for travelers; a recent slogan for the marketing campaign was "It's better in the Bahamas" to reinforce the contrast between the desired perception as a low-stress getaway and the hectic nature of whatever living environment tourists would be leaving behind. The Bahamas have, however, actually traditionally seen high violent crime rates, so the tourism marketing attempts to focus the audience's attention on the azure water and beaches and draw it away from any negative elements of life there. Managing perceptions is a common part of advertising of many consumer products and services, focusing the audience's mind solely on the desirable aspects of whatever is being sold and away from any possible drawbacks or consequences.
The common impression of India in the West has long been either negative—including perceptions of widespread poverty, lack of sophisticated hygiene, and violent ethnic and religious clashes—or ambivalent, so the Indian government's Ministry of Tourism began a marketing campaign, "Incredible !ndia," to emphasize the country's rich culture, historic sites, tourist attractions, and general sense of excitement and dynamism to western audiences. Tourism is an extremely lucrative and growing global industry so it is no surprise that India, a developing nation, is striving to capitalize on that market to boost its economy. In addition, India is also looking to strengthen its international security and diplomatic ties while broadening and deepening its trade relationships, especially with the U.S., so it is in India's interest to promote a positive light for itself among the American and western voting populations in order to garner future international support and aid.
After the 2006 release of the Sacha Baron Cohen comedy Borat, which depicts a politically incorrect and socially oblivious fictional Kazakhi reporter who travels throughout the United States interviewing and meeting Americans from various walks of life, the government of Kazakhstan was highly offended by the depiction of its less than two-decade-old country and criticized the film and its creator as being defamatory and slanderous. The issue of preserving Kazakhstan's public image in light of the movie was of such high importance that Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev had it listed as a main issue when he traveled to the U.S. in September 2006 to meet with then-President George W. Bush. Coupled with Nazarbeyev's visit, according to Kazakhstan embassy spokesman Roman Vassilenko, the Kazakh government staged a large-scale public relations "blitz," including "running four-page ads in The New York Times and U.S. News and World Report and commercials on CNN and the local ABC affiliate in Washington, D.C.", as well as launching TV ads to promote tourism to Kazakhstan. These travel ads specifically featured cultural and historical features of the country as well as views of its developed infrastructure, specifically to counter the type of impression given by the Borat character to the West that Kazakhstan is socially and physically underdeveloped.
Recently in 2010 the Tourism Board of Mexico, a public office that aggregates the resources and interests of the federal, state, and municipal governments, launched a tourism advertising campaign in the United States and Canada—Mexico's two North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners—geared towards renovating common public political and social perceptions of Mexico, including impressions of poverty, government and law enforcement corruption, petty and organized crime and drug trading, and illegal immigration into the U.S.; the new campaign's purpose is expressly demonstrated by its marketing slogan, "Mexico, the place you thought you knew." The print and television ads feature views of Mexico's beaches, natural wonders, cultural festivities, and historical artifacts like Mayan pyramids and Spanish churches in order to provide a counterbalance to the less preferable popular preconceptions. The Tourism Board's stated goal of the advertising surge is to "generat[e] more than three [positive] impressions per person" among the North American audience. The eventual goal is likely to increase tourism revenue for the country, but, for now, the Tourism Board is focusing on managing perceptions among the general populations of Mexico's two major neighboring trade partners.
Many countries use slogans in their international tourism advertising. Destination slogans aim to promote a positive identity for the country. Academic studies of these slogans have identified several common themes such as the physical beauty of the location or the positive experiences travellers can expect to have there.
|Albania||Go your own way!|
|Algeria||Tourism for everybody|
|Andorra||The Pyrenean Country|
|Antigua and Barbuda||The beach is just the beginning|
|Argentina||Beats to your rhythm|
|Armenia||Visit Armenia, It is Beautiful|
|Australia||There's NOTHING like Australia|
|Austria||Arrive and revive|
|Bahamas||Life Is Grand|
|Bahrain||Ours. Yours. Bahrain|
|Belarus||Hospitality Beyond Borders|
|Belgium||The place to be|
|Belize||Mother Nature's Best-Kept Secret|
|Bhutan||Happiness is a place|
|Bolivia||Bolivia awaits you|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||The heart shaped land|
|Botswana||Our pride, your destination|
|Brazil||Brasil – sensational!|
|Brunei Darussalam||A kingdom of unexpected treasures|
|Bulgaria||A discovery to share|
|Cabo Verde||No stress|
|Cambodia||Kingdom of wonder|
|Cameroon||All of Africa in one country|
|Chad||Oasis of the Sahel|
|Chile||All are welcome|
|China||China Like Never Before|
|Colombia||The Only Risk Is Wanting To Stay (2008)
Colombia is magical realism (2016)
|Costa Rica||Essential Costa Rica|
|Croatia||Full of life|
|Cuba||Autentica Cuba (2010)|
|Cyprus||Cyprus in your heart|
|Czech Republic||Land of stories|
|Denmark||Happiest place on Earth!|
|Dominica||The nature island|
|Dominican Republic||Dominican Republic has it all|
|Ecuador||All you need is Equador|
|Egypt||Where it all begins|
|El Salvador||The 45 Minute Country|
|Ethiopia||Land of origins|
|Fiji||Where Happiness Finds You|
|Finland||I wish I was in Finland|
|France||Rendez vous en France|
|Gambia||The smiling coast of Africa|
|Georgia||For the best moments of your life|
|Greece||All Time Classic|
|Guatemala||Heart of the Mayan World (2011)|
|Guyana||South America Undiscovered|
|Honduras||Everything is here (2008)|
|Hungary||Think Hungary more than expected|
|Iceland||Inspired by Iceland |
|India||Incredible !ndia (2002)|
|Iran||You Are Invited |
|Iraq||The Other Iraq (Kurdistan)|
|Ireland||Jump into Ireland (2012)|
|Israel||Land of Creation|
|Italy||Made in Italy|
|Jamaica||Get All Right|
|Jordan||Yes, it's Jordan|
|Kazakhstan||The land of wonders|
|Kyrgyzstan||Oasis on the Great Silk Road|
|Latvia||Best enjoyed slowly|
|Lebanon||Lebanon Passion for Living |
|Lesotho||The Kingdom In The Sky|
|Liechtenstein||Experience princely moments|
|Lithuania||See it! Feel it! Love it!
Real is Beautiful (2017)
|Luxembourg||Live your unexpected Luxembourg|
|Madagascar||A genuine island, a world apart|
|Malawi||The warm heart of Africa|
|Maldives||The sunny side of life|
|Mauritius||It's a pleasure|
|Mexico||Live It to Believe It|
|Micronesia (Federated States of)||Experience the warmth|
|Monaco||Easy going Monaco|
|Moldova||Discover the routes of life|
|Mongolia||“Go Nomadic, Experience Mongolia (2013) Mongolia - Nomadic by Nature (2014)|
|Mozambique||Come to where it all started|
|Myanmar||Let the journey begin|
|Nepal||Once is not enough|
|Netherlands||The original cool (2013)|
|New Zealand||100% Pure|
|Nigeria||Good people, great nation|
|North Macedonia||North Macedonia Timeless|
|Norway||Powered by nature|
|Oman||Beauty has an address (2010)|
|Palau||Pristime Paradise Palau|
|Papua New Guinea||A million different journeys|
|Paraguay||You have to feel it!|
|Peru||Land of the Incas|
|Philippines||It's more fun in the Philippines|
|Poland||Move your imagination|
|Portugal||Europe's West Coast|
|Qatar||Where dreams come to life|
|Romania||Explore the Carpathian garden|
|Russian Federation||Reveal your own Russia|
|Rwanda||Remarkable Rwanda (2014)|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Follow your heart|
|Saint Lucia||Simply beautiful|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Discover SVG|
|San Marino||San Marino For All|
|Saudi Arabia||Experience to discover|
|Sierra Leone||The freedom to explore|
|Slovakia||Travel in Slovakia - Good idea|
|Slovenia||I feel SLOVEnia|
|Solomon Islands||Seek the unexplored|
|South Africa||Inspiring new ways|
|South Korea||Imagine your Korea|
|Sri Lanka||Sri Lanka Small Miracle (2009)
Refreshingly Sri Lanka... the Wonder of Asia (2011)
Wonder of Asia (2014)
|Suriname||A Colorful Experience... Exotic beyond words|
|Swaziland||A royal experience|
|Syrian Arab Republic||Always Beautiful|
|Taiwan||Taiwan The Heart of Asia |
|Tajikistan||Feel the friendship|
|Tanzania||The land of Kilimanjaro, Zanzibar and the Serengeti|
|Thailand||Amazing Thailand. It begins with the people|
|Timor-Leste||Being first has its rewards|
|Tonga||The true South Pacific|
|Trinidad and Tobago||The true Caribbean|
|Tunisia||I feel like Tunisia|
|Turkey||Be our guest|
|Ukraine||It's all about U|
|United Arab Emirates||Discover all that's possible|
|United Kingdom||UKOK (2002)
GREAT Britain - Home of amazing moments (2016-)
|United States of America||All within your reach|
|Vanuatu||Discover what matters|
|Venezuela||Venezuela is your destination!|
|Zimbabwe||A world of wonders|
Travel services advertising
Additionally, a wide range of foreign airlines and travel-related services which also advertise separately from the destinations, themselves, are owned by their respective governments, such as the Emirates airline (Dubai), Qatar Airways (Qatar), China Airlines (Taiwan/Republic of China), and Air China (People's Republic of China).
China Airlines and Air China
China Airlines is the official flag carrier airline of Taiwan. The Taiwanese government refers to its state as the Republic of China and considers itself to be the legitimate, non-Communist leadership-in-exile of all of China since the Communist overthrow in the mid-1950s. The name of the airline carries the message of the long-lasting and ongoing cultural and political conflict between Communist "mainland" China (PRC) and Taiwan, that the Republic of China is the "true" China and that the state commonly referred to as "China" is illegitimate and usurped control of the country from the rightful leadership. Similarly, the PRC counters this message by having named one of its largest international carriers "Air China" to reinforce the PRC's claim to be the legitimate of the "two Chinas." The implicit conflict between the two states is likely lost on the majority of the general public outside the immediate region, such as the United States and Europe, but the strategic use of using advertising and targeting the international community through tourism is apparent on both sides.
Through advertising for the Emirates airline, one of the major themes that Dubai promotes is its evolving status as a geographic and economic player in the Middle East. Emirates advertising describes Dubai as "the perfect hub for an expanding global network" and illustrates this claim in the airline's "Centre of the World" television ad. On the other hand, Dubai subtly promotes an official stance of multinationalism and a stated intent to cater to the comfort of travelers from abroad in the Emirates' "Multinational Cabin Crew" television ad. These positions, among others, are portrayed via visually and audibly appealing commercials which are designed to relate to the target audience(s) and make the ads' messages maximally amenable to global viewers. Emirates additionally adds to its effort to appeal to the West through its sponsorship of the Arsenal Football Club, including constructing the team's new venue, Emirates Stadium, which opened in July 2006 and prominently displays the Emirates branding on the exterior; in this way, any depictions of the stadium will result in de facto advertising and reinforce the public recognition of the Emirates company as one that is associated with western sports and culture. In May 2013 three Arsenal players, Kieran Gibbs, Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain and Carl Jenkinson took an A380 flight simulator challenge. Swapping their usual airline passenger seats and stepping into the cockpit, the players attempted to land an A380 in Dubai.
Emirates, along with the aviation services company Dnata, is owned by the parent company The Emirates Group which, in turn, is wholly owned by the Government of Dubai. The chairman and CEO of The Emirates Group, HH Sheikh Ahmed Bin Saeed Al Maktoum, is the younger brother of the former ruler of Dubai, HH Sheikh Rashid Bin Saeed Al Maktoum, and uncle of the current ruler, HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum. In 1985, Sheikh Ahmed was appointed President of the Dubai Department of Civil Aviation (DCA), the governing body for airline regulation and airport control and operation. The DCA was restructured and expanded in 2007, thus creating the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority (DCAA) which has since been the airline regulatory authority in the Emirate and the Dubai Airports company which owns and operates Dubai's airports, Dubai International and the currently under-construction Dubai World Central – Al Maktoum International. Dubai International (IATA: DXB) is a primary international hub in the Middle East, offering flights to every continent except Antarctica. As of November 2010, DXB is the 6th busiest airport in the world for cargo traffic, and the 14th highest passenger throughput of all international airports.
Sheikh Ahmed currently simultaneously holds the positions of Chairman and CEO of Emirates Airline & Group, which includes the Emirates airline and Dnata air services company, Chairman of the Dubai Airports company, and President of the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority. Because Dubai's government leadership is directly involved and intertwined with private-sector enterprises, including the Emirates airline and many other facets of the tourism industry, the government there necessarily has a vested interest in the public perception of Dubai.[failed verification]
- "PM Addresses Issue Of Rising Violent Crime".
- "Official tourism website of the Bahamas". Bahamas.com. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "U.S.-India Trade Relations, U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service, 4 August 2010". Fas.usda.gov. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "Indian Ministry of Tourism's official advertising website". Incredibleindia.org. Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "Kazakhstan Embassy Responds to Borat, 16 October 2006". Npr.org. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "Kazakh Embassy's official travel & tourism website". Kazakhembus.com. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- Otilia Otlacan (2010-08-18). "Mexico Tourism Board Launches Advertising Campaign in North America, 18 August 2010". Adoperationsonline.com. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "::- VISIT MEXICO -:: Home". 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011.
- "Map Shows Every Country's Tourism Slogan". www.familybreakfinder.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- Häkkinen, Minttu-Maari (October 2016). ""Be Our Guest" – A Linguistic Study of Destination Slogans" (PDF).
- ""Albania, Go your own way!", the new slogan of Albania". 17 May 2014.
- "Algeria: Over 90 Exhibitors At Travel, Tourism, Craft Industry Show in Constantine". Algerie Presse Service (Algiers). 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- "Database of slogans. Tourist board advertising slogans. Slogan, tourism".
- Auman, David Bear, Benjamin. "Antigua, Barbuda brim with enchantment: The Traveler's Journal Articles".
- Turismo, Argentina. "Argentina World Friendly". Instituto Nacional de Promoción Turística.
- "Visit Armenia, It is Beautiful..."
- Australia, Tourism (2 February 2017). "Visit Australia - Travel & Tour Information - Tourism Australia".
- "Travel to Austria & Holidays in Austria: The Official Travel Guide".
- "The Bahamas Ministry of Tourism Launches New "Life is Grand" Advertising Campaign".
- "Bahrain tourism gets a new brand identity".
- "Bangladesh Tourism Board -".
- "Visit Barbados - The Official Barbados Tourism Guide".
- "Belarus: Tourist information portal".
- "The place to be". The Belgian Tourist Office. Archived from the original on 2006-07-19.
- "Careful with those tourism slogans!". 24 September 2009.
- "Tourism Council of Bhutan (Official Website) - Tourism Council of Bhutan (Official Website)".
- "BH Tourism - The Heart-shaped Land". www.bhtourism.ba. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- "Botswana Tourism Organisation". Archived from the original on 2009-05-03. Retrieved 2017-03-05.
- "Brazil rolls out global tourism campaign". Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- Services, Publicity and Media. "Brunei Tourism Department - Ministry of Primary Resources and Tourism".
- "Bulgarian tourism unveils new logo, slogan". www.eturbonews.com. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- "Burundi Tourism".
- "Cape Verde: Cape Verde Islands".
- tourismcambodia.com. "The Official Site for Tourism of Cambodia".
- "Tourism". Embassy of the Republic of Cameroon.
- "Canada.travel - Destination Canada".
- Kazeem, Yomi. "Struggling Chad Republic wants to fix its "negative image" by sponsoring a soccer club".
- "Chile travel".
- "CNTO China Like Never Before".
- "Colombia eyes big reward in 'only risk' ad campaign: Travel Weekly". www.travelweekly.com. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- "COLOMBIA: FROM RISK TO MAGICAL REALISM. THE NEW INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGN OF COLOMBIA". Colombia Travel Blog by See Colombia Travel. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- "Costa Rica. Hotels, travel agencies and tours". visitcostarica.com.
- "This is the Croatia Tourism website!".
- "AUTENTICA CUBA: Puttting yourself in the picture". travelindustrytoday.com. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- "VisitCyprus - Cyprus Tourism Organisation".
- CzechTourism. "Czech Republic - the official travel site". czechtourism.com.
- "Welcome to Denmark - happiest place on Earth!".
- "Djibouti's enormous tourism potential attracting more attention". Oxford Business Group. 16 March 2016.
- "Discover Dominica, the Nature Island". Archived from the original on 2018-09-14. Retrieved 2017-03-05.
- "Dominican Republic Has it all".
- "Ecuador Travel: Ecuador's Official Travel Site".
- "Egyptian Tourism Authority".
- "El Salvador -- the 45 Minute Country".
- Grupp, Tallink. "AS Tallink Grupp Audited Annual Report of the 2015 Financial Year". GlobeNewswire News Room. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
- "New tourism slogan for Ethiopia - Atta News - Atta".
- "Fiji…Where Happiness Finds You! And happily, you can now find Fiji – on the new state-of-the-art Tourism Fiji website! - FIJI Shores and Marinas". fijimarinas.com.
- "The Official Travel Guide of Finland — VisitFinland.com".
- "France.fr – the official website of tourism in France".
- "Gambia Tourism Board - Embassy of the Republic of The Gambia".
- e.V., Deutsche Zentrale für Tourismus. "Tourism in Germany – travel, breaks, holidays".
- "Visit Greece - The Official website of the Greek Tourism Organisation". Archived from the original on 2010-03-21.
- "Grenada Board of Tourism".
- "AREA203 Boosts Guatemala Tourism Through Successful Digital Awareness Campaign". PRWeb. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
- "Guyana Tourism Authority".
- "Haiti Tourism Ministry launches first US television advertising campaign". 11 February 2015.
- HondurasWeekly. "New tourism campaign launched: "Honduras, Everything is Here"". Honduras Weekly. Retrieved 2017-03-06.
- "About Hungary".
- "'You Are Invited': Isolated Iran Seeks Foreign Tourists".
- "Incredible !ndia Campaign". incredibleindiacampaign.com. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Wonderful Indonesia".
- "Tourism Ireland kicks off 2012 with a brand new global advertising campaign". Tourism Ireland. 2012.
- "Welcome to Israel - Official site for Tourism Israel".
- "Italian Tourism Official Website".
- Hellocomputer. "Visit Jamaica - Voted a Trip Advisor Top 10 Island".
- "Welcome to the Japan National Tourism Organization website".
- "The Official Website of The Jordan Tourism Board".
- "Travel to Kazakhstan - Tours, accommodation and attractions in Kazakhstan".
- "MagicalKenya The Official Kenya Destination Website".
- "Mauri...welcome to Kiribati". www.kiribatitourism.gov.ki. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Welcome to Kyrgyzstan Tourism Information Website - Discover Kyrgyzstan the blend of modern and traditional styles of living".
- "Laos' official tourism website".
- "Latvia Travel - Official Latvian Tourism Portal".
- "Lebanon Passion for Living".
- "VisitLesotho.Travel - Travel in Lesotho".
- "Liechtenstein Tourism: Holidays, vacation, travel".
- Hằng, Thu. "Word Play in Destination Marketing: An Analysis of Country Tourism Slogans Word Play in Destination Marketing: An Analysis of Country Tourism Slogans". Cite journal requires
- "UNWTO welcomes the creation of Lithuania's new tourism brand | World Tourism Organization UNWTO". media.unwto.org. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
- "Visit Luxembourg".
- "Office National du Tourisme de Madagascar".
- "Malawi - The Warm Heart of Africa".
- "Tourism Malaysia".
- "Visit Maldives".
- "Visit Malta - The Official Tourism Site for Malta, Gozo and Comino".
- "Mexico Tourism Board Launches 'Live It to Believe It' Ad Campaign".
- "Micronesia's Official Travel Website - Experience the Warmth".
- "Official site of Monaco".
- "Moldova Holiday - welcome. taste. love".
- "Official Tourism slogan".
- "Mongolian Tourism Ministry replaces slogan with new one in February 2014".
- "Montenegro Travel - The official website for Montenegro tourism".
- "Visit Morocco".
- "Visit Mozambique - Explore The Unexplored!". www.visitmozambique.net.
- "Myanmar Travel - Let the journey begin".
- Media, Intouch. "Travel Namibia - Namibia Tourism Board".
- Nepal, Naturally. "Naturally Nepal - Once is not enough".
- "Holland The Original Cool - The Inspiration Room". The Inspiration Room. 2013-05-26. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- "Home - Nicaragua Tourism".
- "Good people, impossible mission". The Economist. 2009-04-30. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "North Macedonia Timeless".
- "Visit Norway - Official travel guide to Norway - visitnorway.com".
- Staff, Hotelier Middle East. "Oman launches 'Beauty has an address' campaign | HotelierMiddleEast.com". HotelierMiddleEast.com. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- "Welcome - Visit Panama".
- "Papua New Guinea / PNG Official Tourism Website". www.tpa.papuanewguinea.travel.
- "SENATUR - Secretaría Nacional de Turismo :: Portada".
- "Visit Perú".
- "Philippine Department of Tourism - Home".
- "Homepage - www.visitportugal.com".
- "Qatar Tourism Authority - Discover a Unique Destination".
- "Romania Travel - explore the Carpathian garden".
- "Russian National Tourist Office, Tours to Russia, Russian Visa".
- Kamili. "Increasing Tourism To Rwanda". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
- "The Official St. Kitts Tourism Authority Website - stkittstourism.kn".
- "The Official Site for Saint Lucia Tourist Board UK – Saint Lucia UK".
- "Explore St. Vincent & The Grenadines : Discover St Vincent And The Grenadines".
- "Samoa Tourism Authority - Corporate Website".
- "Home - Ufficio di Stato per il Turismo".
- "Saudi Tourism". Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "#MySerbia - National Tourism Organisation of Serbia".
- "Welcome to the Official Destination Website for the Seychelles Islands - Home".
- "Sierra Leone Travel and Tourism - Visit Sierra Leone (VSL TRAVEL)".
- STO. "Turistične strani".
- Tomahawk. "Welcome to Solomon Islands Visitors Bureau - Official Tourism Site".
- "South African Tourism". southafrica.net.
- "Imagine your Korea".
- "Tourism in Spain -Tourist information about Spain - spain.info USA".
- "Sri Lanka Tourism launches 'Sri Lanka Small Miracle'". Sri Lanka Travel Blog. 2009-07-07. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "Strong message from Sri Lanka Tourism at WTM". Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "Wisdom of 'Wonder of Asia' tourism slogan questioned by renowned Lankan economist | The Sundaytimes Sri Lanka". www.sundaytimes.lk. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "Suriname Tourism Foundation".
- "Swaziland Tourism - Swaziland Safari - Swaziland Attractions".
- "Syria launches campaign to lure tourists to 'always beautiful' Tartus".
- "Tourism Bureau, Republic of China (Taiwan)".
- "Tajik Tourism".
- Board, Tanzania Tourist. "Tanzania Tourism". Archived from the original on 2010-01-13. Retrieved 2017-03-05.
- "The official website of Tourism Authority of Thailand".
- "East Timor".
- "Tourism Tonga - The Best Year-round South Pacific Holiday Destination". tongaholiday.com. Archived from the original on 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2017-03-05.
- "Trinidad & Tobago - The true caribbean - Home".
- "Ministry of Tourism - Tunisia : Home".
- "Turkish Culture and Tourism Office Website - USA - Anasayfa".
- "Travel to Timeless Tuvalu". www.timelesstuvalu.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2017-03-05.
- Board, Uganda Tourism. "Welcome To The Pearl Of Africa: Official Tourism Guide From The Uganda Tourism Board". Archived from the original on 2009-12-23. Retrieved 2017-03-05.
- "Government portal :: Ministry of Culture of Ukraine".
- "Visit Dubai - Discover all that's possible in Dubai".
- Cozens, Claire (2002-01-23). "Britain rules, UKOK?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- "GREAT Britain – Home of Amazing Moments campaign". VisitBritain. 2016-11-23. Retrieved 2017-03-04.
- "BRAND USA -".
- "Uruguay Natural - Ministerio de Turismo".
- "Welcome to Uzbekistan - ParadiseLand; Travel to Uzbekistan".
- Tourism, vietnamtourism.com - Vietnam National Administration of. "Tong cuc Du lich Viet Nam - Vietnam National Administration of Tourism".
- "Visit Zambia". visitzambia.co.zm.
- "Zimbabwe, A World of Wonders – Zimbabwe A World Of Wonders". www.zimbabwetourism.net. Retrieved 2017-03-15.
- "Official global website of China Airlines" (in Chinese). China-airlines.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-07. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "Official global website of Air China". Airchina.com. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- Editor. "Arsenal's trio attempts to land an A380 in Dubai".CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "HH Sheikh Ahmed Bin Saeed Al Maktoum, The Emirates Group (Leadership profiles), 2010". Theemiratesgroup.com. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "Year to date Cargo Traffic, Airports Council International, 11 November 2010". Airports.org. 2012-04-20. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "Year to date passenger traffic, Airports Council International, 11 November 2010". Airports.org. 2012-04-20. Archived from the original on 11 January 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- "Official global website of Emirates". Emirates.com. Retrieved 2012-05-09.