Kings of Israel and Judah

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Coronation of David, as depicted in the Paris Psalter

This article is an overview of the kings of the United Kingdom of Israel as well as those of its successor states.

In contemporary scholarship the united monarchy is generally held to be a literary construction and not a historical reality, due to the lack of archeological evidence for it. It is generally accepted that a "House of David" existed, but many believe that David could have only been the monarch or chieftain of Judah, which was likely small, and that the northern kingdom was a separate development. There are some dissenters to this view.[1][2][3][4]

Family tree[edit]

Genealogy of the kings of Israel and Judah.svg
Family tree
Jesse
David
King of the United Monarchy: r. 1010-970 BC
Bathsheba Maacah
NaamahSolomon
King of the United Monarchy: r. 970-931 BC
AbsalomJeroboam
King of Israel: r. 931-910 BC
Rehoboam
King of Judah: r. 931-913 BC
UrielShilhiNadav
King of Israel: r. 910-909 BC
MacaahAzubah
?Abijam
King of Judah: r. 913-910 BC
Asa
King of Judah: r. 913-870 BC
Omri
King of Israel: 884-874 BC
Jehoshaphat
King of Judah: r. 870-849 BC
JezebelAhab
King of Israel: r. 871-852 BC
Jehoram
King of Judah: r. 849-842 BC
Athaliah
Queen of Judah: r. 842-835 BC
Joram
King of Israel: r. 849-837
Ahaziah
King of Israel: r. 850-849 BC
Ahaziah
King of Judah: r. 842-841 BC
ZibiahJehoshebaJehoiada
Jehoash
King of Judah: r. 836-796 BC
Jehoaddan
Amaziah
King of Judah: r. 796-767 BC
JecoliahSaul
King of the United Monarchy: r. 1050-1012 BC
Amoz
Uzziah
King of Judah: r. 783-742 BC
Jerusha(13 generations)Eshbaal (Ishbosheth)
King of the United Monarchy: r. 1012-1010 BC
Isaiah
Jotham
King of Judah: r. 742-735 BC
AzioHephzibah
Ahaz
King of Judah: r. 732-716 BC
Abijah
Hezekiah
King of Judah: r. 716-687 BC
Manasseh
King of Judah: r. 697-643 BC
Meshullemeth
Amon
King of Judah: r. 643-610 BC
Jedidah
Josiah
King of Judah: r. 640-609 BC
Jehoiakim
King of Judah: r. 609-598 BC
NehushtaJehoahaz
King of Judah: r. 609 BC
Zedekiah
King of Judah: r. 596-586 BC
Jeconiah
King of Judah: r. 598-597 BC
Family tree (Hasmonean-Herodian)
Phinehas
(H)asmon/Hasmonaeus
Shimon ben Asmon
Yochanan ben Shimon
Mattathias ben YochananSimona bat Onias III
John GaddiSimon Thassi
Prince of Judaea r. 141 - 135 BCE
Judas MaccabeusEleazar AvaranJonathan Apphus
John Hyrcanus I
Prince of Judaea r. 134 - 104 BCE
Aristobulus I
King of Judaea r. 104 - 103 BCE
Alexander Jannaeus
King of Judaea r. 103 - 76 BCE
Salome Alexandra
Queen of Judaea r. 76 - 67 BCE
Absalom ben Yochanan
John Hyrcanus II
King of Judaea r. 67 - 66 BCE
Aristobulus II
King of Judaea r. 66 - 63 BCE
Salome bat Absalom
Alexandra II bat Hyrcanus IIAlexander IIAntigonus II Mattathias
King of Judaea r. 40 - 37 BCE
MalthaceCleopatra of JerusalemHerod the Great
King of Judea r. 37 - 4 BCE
Mariamne I
Herod Antipas
Tetrarch of Galilee r. 4 BCE - 39 CE
Herod Archelaus
Tetrarch of Judaea r. 4 BCE - 6 CE
Philip the Tetrarch
Tetrarch of Batanea r. 4 BCE - 34 CE
Aristobulus IV
Herod V
King of Chalcis r. 41 - 48 CE
Herod Agrippa
King of Batanaea r. 37 - 41 CE
Herod Agrippa II
King of Batanaea r. 53 - 100 CE

List of kings[edit]

The Bible describes a succession of kings of a united kingdom, and then of divided kingdoms.[1]

House of Gideon[edit]

House of Saul[edit]

Saul and David by Rembrandt

According to the Bible, the Tribes of Israel lived as a confederation under ad hoc charismatic leaders called judges. In around 1020 BCE, under extreme threat from foreign peoples, the tribes united to form the first United Kingdom of Israel. Samuel anointed Saul from the Tribe of Benjamin as the first king.

House of David[edit]

The Tel Dan Stele with reference to the "House of David"

After Rehoboam reigned three years,[6] the United Kingdom of Israel was divided in two – the northern Kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam, with its capital, first in Shechem, then Penuel, Tirzah, and finally Samaria, and ruled by a series of dynasties beginning with Jeroboam; and the southern Kingdom of Judah with its capital still in Jerusalem and ruled by the House of David. Under Hezekiah rule in the Kingdom of Judah, the Neo-Assyrian Empire conquered and destroyed the northern kingdom 722 BCE leaving only the southern kingdom of Judah.

Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)[edit]

Kingdom of Judah[edit]

Hasmonean dynasty[edit]

The descendants of Mattathias

Herodian dynasty[edit]

Table on the Kings

This table describes the Kings, their parents, age they lived, the prophets who influenced them, and the emperors they encountered in battle.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lipschits, Oded (2014). "The history of Israel in the biblical period". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi. The Jewish Study Bible (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-997846-5. The promonarchic period long ago became a literary description of the mythological roots, the early beginnings of the nation, and the way to describe the right of Isreal on its land. The archeological evidence also does not support the existence of a united monarchy under David and Solomon as described in the Bible, so the rubric of "united monarchy" is best abandoned, although it remains useful for discussing how the Bible views the Israelite past. 
  2. ^ Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of its Stories. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-86912-8. 
  3. ^ Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The Ancient Near East, c. 3000-330 BC, Band 1. New York: Routledge. p. 438. ISBN 978-0-41516-762-8. 
  4. ^ Wright, Jacob L. (July 2014). "David, King of Judah (not Israel)". The Bible and Interpretation. 
  5. ^ Judges 9:6
  6. ^ 2 Chronicles 11:17

External links[edit]