Marduk-apla-iddina II

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Marduk-apla-iddina II
Merodach-Baladan
King of Babylon
Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin 027.jpg
Merodach-Baladan, King of Babylon, enfeoffs (makes a legal agreement with) a vassal. From the original in the Altes Museum, Berlin
Reign722–710, 703–2 BC
PredecessorShalmaneser V (722), Marduk-zakir-shumi II, (703)
SuccessorSargon II (710), Bel-ibni (702)
Diedcirca 694BC

Marduk-apla-iddina II (Akkadian: DMES.A.SUM-na[citation needed]; in the Bible Merodach-Baladan, also called Marduk-Baladan, Baladan and Berodach-Baladan, lit. Marduk has given me an heir) was a Chaldean leader from the Bit-Yakin tribe, originally established in the territory that once made the Sealand in southern Babylonia. He seized the Babylonian throne in 722 BC from Assyrian control and reigned from 722 BC to 710 BC, and from 703 BC to 702 BC.[1] His reign is defined by some historians as an illegitimate Third Dynasty of the Sealand, inside of the IXth Dynasty of Babylon, or Assyrian Dynasty.[2]

He was known as one of the kings who maintained Babylonian independence in the face of Assyrian military supremacy for more than a decade.

Sargon of Assyria repressed the allies of Marduk-apla-iddina II in Elam, Aram and Israel and eventually drove (ca. 710 BC) him from Babylon. After the death of Sargon, Marduk-apla-iddina II briefly recaptured the throne from a native Babylonian nobleman. He reigned nine months (703 BC – 702 BC). He returned from Elam and ignited rebellion in Babylonia. He was able to enter Babylon and be declared king again. Nine months later he was defeated near Kish by the Assyrians, but managed to flee to Elam.[3] He died in exile a couple of years later.

A cylinder of Marduk-apla-iddina II from Uruk describes his rebuilding of the temple of Ningishzida built by the Ur III ruler Shulgi alongside the ziggurat of E-Anna. The cylinder also claims his victory at the Battle of Der in 720 BC, as did Assyrian king Sargon II and also Elamite king Humban-nikash I.[4][5]

In the Bible[edit]

He is mentioned as king of Babylon in the days of King Hezekiah, both in 2 Kings 20:12 (here called Berodach-baladan) and in Isaiah 39:1. In both passages he sends Hezekiah a letter, having heard of his illness and recovery. His messengers who have delivered the letter are lavishly entertained by Hezekiah, leading the prophet Isaiah to criticise Hezekiah for his excessive openness about the wealth he had amassed.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, Merodach-Baladan, Jewish Virtual Library, acceded 12 May 2018
  2. ^ "2. The Sealand I in Babylonian historiography", The First Dynasty of the Sealand in Mesopotamia, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, pp. 20–59, 2018-03-19, ISBN 978-1-5015-0782-3, retrieved 2020-10-12
  3. ^ Jean-Jacques Glassner, Mesopotamiam Chronicles, Atlanta, 2004, p. 197.
  4. ^ Gadd, C. J. “Inscribed Barrel Cylinder of Marduk-Apla-Iddina II.” Iraq, vol. 15, no. 2, 1953, pp. 123–34
  5. ^ Lenzen, H. “The Ningišzida Temple Built by Marduk-Apla-Iddina II at Uruk (Warka).” Iraq, vol. 19, no. 2, 1957, pp. 146–50
  6. ^ 2 Kings 20:12-19; Isaiah 39:1-8
Preceded by King of Babylon
722–710 BC
Succeeded by
Preceded by King of Babylon
703–702 BC
Succeeded by

Bibliography[edit]

  • Erich Ebeling (ed.), Bruno Meissner (ed.), Ernst Weidner (ed.), Dietz Otto Edzard (ed.): Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archäologie – Band 7 . Walter de Gruyter 1990, ISBN 3110104377, p. 375 (online copy, p. 375, at Google Books)