Kuurn Kopan Noot language

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Kuurn Kopan Noot
Dhauwurd Wurrung
EthnicityGurnditjmara people
Extinct(date missing)
  • Kuurn-Kopan-Noot
  • Peek-Whurrung (Bi:gwurrung)
  • Koort-Kirrup
  • Dhautgart/Keerray (wurru)
  • Tjarcote (Djargurd Wurrung, Warrnambool)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3gjm
AIATSIS[3]S20 Dhauwurd Wurrung, S25 Keerray-Woorroong

Kuurn Kopan Noot, or Gurnditjmara (Kirurndit, Gu:nditj-mara), is an extinct language of Victoria (Australia). It had a number of dialects (see box at right), including Kuurn Kopan Noot proper.


A likely phonemic inventory for the Warrnambool language is shown below.

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Stop p t ʈ c k
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Lateral l ɭ ʎ
Rhotic ɾ~r ɽ
Approximant j w

Rhotic consonants were not distinguished in older sources. It is unclear to determine whether the retroflex consonant was a glide or a flap. Both were written as r.

Although most Australian indigenous languages use three vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/, the amount of vowels are not clearly distinguished within the other sources for the Warrnambool language. There is some fluctuation between /i/ and /e/, and /u/ and /o/. Where there was a back vowel occurring before a syllable-final palatal, /o/ was used instead of /u/, to give a better idea of the more likely pronunciation (i.e. puroyn "night").[4]


  1. ^ Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge University Press. p. xxxv.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Warrnambool (Kuurn Kopan Noot)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Dhauwurd Wurrung at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies  (see the info box for additional links)
  4. ^ Blake, Barry J. (2003). The Warrnambool Language: A Consolidated Account of the Aboriginal Language of the Warrnambool Area of the Western District of Victoria based on Nineteenth-Century Sources. Canberra: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

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