La Posta Band of Diegueno Mission Indians

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Mission Indian Landscape.jpg
La Posta Band
of Diegueño Mission Indians
La Posta Indian Seal
Total population
18 enrolled members[1]
Regions with significant populations
 United States ( California)
Languages
Kumeyaay,[2] Tipai[3] English
Religion
Traditional tribal religion,
Christianity (Roman Catholicism)[4]
Related ethnic groups
other Kumeyaay tribes, Cocopa,
Quechan, Paipai, and Kiliwa

The La Posta Band of Diegueño Mission Indians of the La Posta Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of the Kumeyaay Indians,[4] who are sometimes known as Mission Indians.

Reservation[edit]

The La Posta Reservation (32°44′04″N 116°23′28″W / 32.73444°N 116.39111°W / 32.73444; -116.39111) is a federal Indian reservation located within the southern Laguna Mountains west of Boulevard, in eastern San Diego County, California. It is less than 10 miles (16 km) north of the US-Mexico Border. The reservation is 3,556 acres (14.39 km2) large with a population of approximately 18.[5] The reservation borders the Cleveland National Forest and is accessed only by one unpaved road that is usually fenced off to prevent trespassers.[3]

It was established in 1893.[6] In 1973, none of the 4 enrolled members lived on the reservation.[2]

History[edit]

Native Americans building a Spanish Mission

Mission Indians are indigenous people of California who were forcibly removed from their lands and placed in Franciscan Missions during the mid-16th century because of Spanish settlers. There are approximately 21 Franciscan Mission within California starting from San Jose and ending in San Diego. Many of the Missions we see today were built by native tribes who forced to create these monuments by corporal punishment

Most of the Indians who lived within these Missions across California, were regional natives who had resided within these lands for centuries. The La Posta Band of Diegueño Mission Indians are a sub group of the Kumeyaay band of Indians. Evidence shows that these tribes have been present within California for more than 12,000 years. The La Posta Mission Indians share the same ancestral roots as the Kumeyaay people which began with the association the California Coast and Valley tradition and the Desert tradition.



Language[edit]

La Posta Band Mission Indians speak three languages English, Kumeyaay, and Tiipai The natives can speak three languages based on the geographical area in which they live. Tiipai is mainly seen in tribes of northern Baja California and Southern San Diego, which is known as Southern Diegueño. Since the reservation of this tribe expands 4,000 acres, some of its territory extends towards Yuma Arizona where their closest relatives reside. Tiipai belongs to the Yuman branch of the greater Hokan linguistic family.[7]This is one of the reasons why they have adopted the Southern Diegueño language. With regards to Kumeyaay, this tribe is able to speak this language based on its ancestral origins that derived from the Kumeyaay tribe, which they share similar languages, cultural and spiritual practices

Government[edit]

The La Posta Band is headquartered in Boulevard. They are governed by a democratically elected tribal council. Gwendolyn Parada is their current tribal chairperson.[8] The La Posta Reservation is governed by a general council. Elected council members include a chairperson, a vice-chairperson, and a business manager. Elected members serve two-year terms, and the general council meets twice a year. The band is organized under an IRA constitution that was approved on March 5, 1973.

Economic development[edit]

The tribe owned and operated the La Posta Casino and Marie's Restaurant in Boulevard which closed in 2012.[9]

Education[edit]

The tribes education comes from the Mountain Empire Unified School District that was founded in 1923. The economic development of the district has increased over that last few years allowing it to now consists of two (2) elementary schools, Pre-K through 8th grade; two (2) elementary schools, Pre-K through 5th grade; two (2) middle schools, 6th through 8th grade; one (1) high school; an Alternative Education Program and a Transition Program which serves Special Education students after high school, ages 18 to 22 [10]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "California Indians and Their Reservations: P." USD Library and Information Access. (retrieved 15 March 2017)
  2. ^ a b Shipek, 612
  3. ^ a b Eargle, 206
  4. ^ a b Pritzker, 147
  5. ^ "California Indians and Their Reservations: M." SDSU Library and Information Access. (retrieved 2 June 2010)
  6. ^ Pritzker, 146
  7. ^ "La Posta Band of Mission Indians". Southern California Tribal Chairmen's Association. Retrieved 16 March 2017. 
  8. ^ "Tribal Governments by Area." Archived 2010-05-05 at the Wayback Machine. National Congress of American Indians. (retrieved 2 June 2010)
  9. ^ "La Posta Casino." 500 Nations.(retrieved 2 June 2010)
  10. ^ "About MEUSD". Mountain Empire USD. Retrieved 16 March 2017. 

Sources[edit]

  • Eargle, Jr., Dolan H. Northern California Guide: Weaving the Past and Present. San Francisco: Tree Company Press, 2000. ISBN 0-937401-10-2.
  • Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.
  • Shipek, Florence C. "History of Southern California Mission Indians." Handbook of North American Indians. Volume ed. Heizer, Robert F. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. 610-618. ISBN 0-87474-187-4.

External links[edit]