|The Most Reverend and Right Honourable
|Archbishop of York|
Archbishop Blackburne (attr. Joseph Highmore)
|Province||Province of York|
|Diocese||Diocese of York|
|In office||1724–1743 (death)|
|Other posts||Dean of Exeter (1705–1717)
Archdeacon of Cornwall (1715–1717)
Personal chaplain to George I (1716)
Bishop of Exeter (1717–1724)
Lord High Almoner (1723–1743)
10 December 1658|
London, [Great Britain
|Died||23 March 1743(aged 84)|
|Buried||St Margaret's, Westminster|
|Spouse||Catherine (m. 1684–1726)|
|Alma mater||Christ Church, Oxford|
Lancelot Blackburne PC (sometimes Blackburn, Blackborne or Blackbourn[e]; 10 December 1658 – 23 March 1743) was an English clergyman, who became Archbishop of York, and – in popular belief – a pirate.
He was described by Horace Walpole, in his Memories, as "…Blackbourn, the jolly old Archbishop of York, who had all the manners of a man of quality, though he had been a buccaneer, and was a clergyman; but he retained nothing of his first profession, except his seraglio."
Early life and career as a pirate
He was born in London, a younger brother of Richard Blackburne. He attended Westminster School, and in 1676 entered Christ Church, Oxford. He graduated in 1680, was ordained a deacon on 25 September 1681 at Christ Church by John Fell, Bishop of Oxford, and travelled to the West Indies. In January 1684 he was granted an MA by the university; at this time, he is known to have been in Nevis. A popular story recounts that he spent these years sailing with buccaneers, either as their chaplain or as a pirate himself; there is little evidence either way, although a record of 1681 notes that he was paid £20 (equivalent to £2,827 in 2015) by Charles II for "secret services".
Archbishop of York
He returned to England during 1684, marrying Catherine Talbot (the elder sister of William Talbot) on 2 September at the Savoy Chapel, and shortly thereafter took up the first of a set of church posts.
In 1691 he became a Canon of Exeter, and in 1705 Dean of Exeter, succeeding William Wake whose patronage would later stand him in good stead, and in 1715 Archdeacon of Cornwall. In 1716 he travelled to Hanover as the personal chaplain to George I and the next year became Bishop of Exeter. As Bishop, he was active in the House of Lords where he supported the repeal of the Occasional Conformity Act.
In 1724 he became Archbishop of York (and therefore a Privy Counsellor), a position he held until his death. While he continued to be politically active, he often neglected his spiritual duties; he appears to have carried out few confirmations, and stopped ordaining priests after 10 years. Instead, he kept apartments in Downing Street, London and spent much time at the royal court. Downing Street is listed as his abode on the 1739 royal charter of the Foundling Hospital, a charity for which he was a founding governor. Blackburne was Lord High Almoner from 1723 to 1743.
His career was controversial, with rumours that he had secretly married George I to his mistress. The Dictionary of National Biography mentions "his reputation for carnality" and "the laxity of his moral precepts", while Brewer's Rogues, Villains and Eccentrics comments that "[his] behaviour was seldom of a standard to be expected of an archbishop. In many respects his behaviour was seldom of a standard to be expected of a pirate." He was famously ejected by John Disney, the vicar of St. Mary's Church, Nottingham, after a confirmation service during which he asked for his pipe, tobacco and ale. One local legend in York even claimed that Dick Turpin was his butler.
Blackburne died at his home in Downing Street, Westminster on 23 March 1743 after a "lingering illness". His wife Catherine had died on 9 June 1726 at the age of 80 and they left no children. It has often been claimed that he fathered Thomas Hayter; there is no conclusive evidence either way: he did not himself identify Hayter as his son, but he did leave a sizeable portion of his estate to Hayter.
In a 1780 letter to David Dalrymple, Horace Walpole gave a lengthy description of Blackburne:
He was perfectly a fine gentleman to the last, to eighty-four; his favourite author was Waller, whom he frequently quoted… I often dined with him, his mistress, Mrs. Conwys, sat at the head of the table, and Hayter, his natural son by another woman, and very like him, at the bottom, as chaplain: he was afterwards Bishop of London. I have heard, but do not affirm it, that Mrs. Blackbourne, before she died, complained of Mrs. Conwys being brought under the same roof. To his clergy he was, I have heard, very imperious. One story I recollect, which showed how much he was a man of this world: and which the Queen herself repeated to my father. On the King's last journey to Hanover, before Lady Yarmouth came over, the Archbishop being With her Majesty, said to her, "Madam, I have been with your minister Walpole, and he tells me that you are a wise woman, and do not mind your husband's having a mistress.
See Edmund Waller
Styles and titles
- 1658–1681: Lancelot Blackburne Esq.
- 1681–1691: The Reverend Lancelot Blackburne
- 1691–1705: The Reverend Canon Lancelot Blackburne
- 1705–1717: The Very Reverend Lancelot Blackburne
- 1717–1724: The Right Reverend Lancelot Blackburne
- 1724–1743: The Most Reverend and Right Honourable Lancelot Blackburne
- Lancelot Blackburne was also likely the brother of Robert Blackborne, Secretary of the Admiralty and later of the British East India Company.
- Ordination Record: Blackburne, Lancelot in "CCEd, the Clergy of the Church of England database" (Accessed online, 4 September 2014)
- UK Consumer Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Gregory Clark (2016), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", MeasuringWorth.com.
- The London Gazette: . 8 December 1724.
- "London March 24". Derby Mercury. 31 March 1743. Retrieved 18 January 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (subscription required (. ))
- Green, C. H. (1726). Historical Register. p. 24.
- The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Horace Walpole, Letters, Volume 4 (at Project Gutenberg)
- "Blackburne, Lancelot". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
- Contemporary image of Lancelot Blackburne at the National Portrait Gallery.
|Church of England titles|
|Bishop of Exeter
|Archbishop of York