German vinyl single
|Single by Derek and the Dominos|
|from the album Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs|
|Recorded||9 September 1970, Criteria Studios, Miami|
|Genre||Blues rock, hard rock|
|Length||7:02 to 7:11 (with piano coda; depending on version)
2:43 (1971 single edit; without piano coda)
|Label||Atco (US), RSO, Polydor|
|Writer(s)||Eric Clapton/Jim Gordon|
|Producer(s)||Tom Dowd, Derek and the Dominos|
"Layla" is a song written by Eric Clapton and Jim Gordon, originally released by their blues rock band Derek and the Dominos, as the thirteenth track from their album Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs (November 1970). Its famously contrasting movements were composed separately by Clapton and Gordon.
The song was inspired by a love story that originated in 7th-century Arabia and a later formed the basis of The Story of Layla and Majnun by the 12th-century Persian poet Nizami Ganjavi, a copy of which Ian Dallas had given to Clapton. The book moved Clapton profoundly, because it was the tale of a young man who fell hopelessly in love with a beautiful, unavailable woman and went crazy because he could not marry her. In his autobiography, Clapton states, "Ian Dallas told me the tale of Layla and Majnun [sic], a romantic love story in which a young man, Qays [sic], falls passionately in love with the beautiful Layla, but is forbidden by her father to marry her and goes crazy with desire giving him the title Majnun (English: The mad one)." The song was further inspired by Clapton's then unrequited love for Pattie Boyd, the wife of his friend and fellow musician George Harrison of The Beatles.
"Layla" was unsuccessful on its initial release. The song has since experienced great critical and popular acclaim, and is often hailed as being among the greatest rock songs of all time. Two versions have achieved chart success, the first in 1972 and the second (without the piano coda) 20 years later as an acoustic Unplugged performance by Clapton. In 2004, "Layla" was ranked number 27 on Rolling Stone's list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time", and the acoustic version won the 1993 Grammy Award for Best Rock Song.
- 1 Background
- 2 Writing and recording
- 3 Beyond the original album
- 4 Charts and certifications
- 5 Unplugged version
- 6 Legacy
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
In 1966 George Harrison married Pattie Boyd, a model he met during the filming of A Hard Day's Night. During the late 1960s, Clapton and Harrison became close friends. Clapton contributed uncredited guitar work on Harrison's song "While My Guitar Gently Weeps" on The Beatles' White Album, and Harrison co-wrote and played guitar pseudonymously (as L'Angelo Misterioso) on Cream's "Badge" from Goodbye. However, between his tenures in Cream and Blind Faith, Clapton fell in love with Boyd.[page needed]
The title, "Layla", was inspired by the story of Layla and Majnun, Clapton had been told the story by his friend Ian Dallas, who was in the process of converting to Islam. Nizami's tale, about a moon princess who was married off by her father to a man she didn't love, resulting in Majnun's madness, struck a deep chord with Clapton.
Boyd divorced Harrison in 1977 and married Clapton in 1979 during a concert stop in Tucson, Arizona. Harrison was not bitter about the divorce and attended Clapton's wedding party with Ringo Starr and Paul McCartney. During their relationship, Clapton wrote another love ballad for Pattie called "Wonderful Tonight" (1977). Clapton and Boyd divorced in 1988 after several years of separation.
Writing and recording
After the breakup of Cream, Clapton tried his hand with several groups, including Blind Faith and the husband-and-wife duo Delaney and Bonnie. In the spring of 1970, he was told that some members of Delaney and Bonnie's backup band, notably bassist Carl Radle, drummer Jim Gordon, and keyboardist Bobby Whitlock, were leaving the group. Seizing the opportunity, Clapton formed a new group, which became Derek and the Dominos.
During the recording of the album, Duane Allman joined Clapton's fledgling band as a guest. Clapton and Allman, already mutual fans, were introduced at an Allman Brothers concert by Tom Dowd.[time needed] The two hit it off well and soon became good friends. Dowd said of their guitar-playing chemistry: "There had to be some sort of telepathy going on because I've never seen spontaneous inspiration happen at that rate and level. One of them would play something, and the other reacted instantaneously. Never once did either of them have to say, 'Could you play that again, please?' It was like two hands in a glove. And they got tremendously off on playing with each other." Dowd was already famous for a variety of work and had worked with Clapton in his Cream days (Clapton once called him "the ideal recording man"); his work on the album would be another achievement. For the making of his biographical film Tom Dowd and the Language of Music, he remixed the original master tapes of "Layla," saying, "There are my principles, in one form or another."[time needed]
Clapton originally wrote "Layla" as a ballad, with lyrics describing his unrequited love for Boyd, but the song became a "rocker" when, according to Clapton, Allman composed the song's signature riff. With the band assembled and Dowd producing, "Layla" was recorded in its now-familiar rock form. The recording of the first section consisted of sixteen tracks of which six were guitar tracks: a rhythm track by Clapton, three tracks of harmonies played by Clapton (the main power chord riff on both channels and two harmonies against that main riff, one on the left channel and one on the right channel), a track of solos by Allman (fretted solos with bent notes during the verses and a slide solo during the outro), and one track with both Allman and Clapton playing duplicate solos (the 7-note "signature" riff doubled in two octaves and the 12-note "signature" riff doubled in unison). According to Clapton, Allman played the first seven notes of the 12-note "signature" riff fretted and the last five notes on slide in standard tuning. Each player used one input of the same two-input Fender Champ amplifier.
Shortly afterward, Clapton returned to the studio, where he heard Jim Gordon playing a piano piece he had composed separately. Clapton, impressed by the piece, convinced Gordon to allow it to be used as part of the song. Though only Gordon has been officially credited with this part, Whitlock claimed, "Jim took that piano melody from his ex-girlfriend Rita Coolidge. I know because in the D&B days I lived in John Garfield's old house in the Hollywood Hills and there was a guest house with an upright piano in it. Rita and Jim were up there in the guest house and invited me to join in on writing this song with them called 'Time.' ... Her sister Priscilla wound up recording it with Booker T. Jones. ... Jim took the melody from Rita's song and didn't give her credit for writing it. Her boyfriend ripped her off." "Time" ended up on the album Chronicles by Booker T. and Priscilla Jones which was released in 1973. Whitlock's story was echoed by Coolidge herself in her 2016 autobiography. The claim is also substantiated in Graham Nash's 2014 autobiography 'Wild Tales'.
"Layla's" second movement was recorded roughly a week after the first, with Gordon playing his piano part, Clapton playing acoustic guitar and slide guitar, and Allman playing electric and bottleneck slide guitar. After Dowd spliced the two movements together, "Layla" was complete.
Due to the circumstances of its composition, "Layla" is defined by two movements, each marked by a riff. The first movement, which was recorded in the key of D minor for choruses and C-sharp minor for verses, is centred around the "signature riff", a guitar piece utilising hammer-ons, pull-offs, and power chords. The first section contains the overdub-heavy slide guitar solo, played by Allman. By placing his slide at points beyond the end of the fretboard, Allman was able to play notes at a higher pitch than could be played with standard technique. Dowd referred to this as "notes that aren't on the instrument!"[time needed]
The second movement, Jim Gordon's contribution, is commonly referred to as the "piano coda." Originally played in C major, the tape speed of the coda was increased slightly during mixing. The resulting pitch is somewhere between C and C sharp. The piano interlude at the end of the song is augmented by an acoustic guitar, and is also the accompaniment to the outro-solo. The same melody is played on Allman's slide guitar, albeit one octave higher. Gordon does not improvise or deviate from the piano part; Clapton and Allman are the ones who improvise the melody. The song ends with Allman playing his signature high-pitched "bird call" on his slide guitar.
As Clapton commented on his signature song:
'Layla' is a difficult one, because it's a difficult song to perform live. You have to have a good complement of musicians to get all of the ingredients going, but when you've got that. ... It's difficult to do as a quartet, for instance, because there are some parts you have to play and sing completely opposing lines, which is almost impossible to do. If you've got a big band, which I will have on the tour, then it will be easy to do something like 'Layla'—and I'm very proud of it. I love to hear it. It's almost like it's not me. It's like I'm listening to someone that I really like. Derek and The Dominos was a band I really liked—and it's almost like I wasn't in that band. It's just a band that I'm a fan of. Sometimes, my own music can be like that. When it's served its purpose to being good music, I don't associate myself with it any more. It's like someone else. It's easy to do those songs then.
Or, as his inspiration, Pattie Boyd, once said, "I think that he was amazingly raw at the time... He's such an incredible musician that he's able to put his emotions into music in such a way that the audience can feel it instinctively. It goes right through you."
- Eric Clapton – lead vocals, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, acoustic guitar
- Duane Allman – lead guitar, slide guitar
- Bobby Whitlock – Hammond organ, piano, background vocals
- Carl Radle – bass
- Jim Gordon – drums, percussion, piano
- Tom Dowd – producer
- Howard Albert, Ron Albert, Mack Emerman, Chuck Kirkpatrick, Karl Richardson - recording engineers
Beyond the original album
The album Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs opened to lacklustre sales as the album never actually reached the music charts in the United Kingdom, possibly in part because Clapton's name was found only on the back cover. In addition, the song's length proved prohibitive for radio airplay. As a result an edited version of the song, trimmed to 2:43, was released as a single in March 1971 by Atco Records in the United States. The version peaked at #51 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart. When "Layla" was re-released on the 1972 compilations The History of Eric Clapton and Duane Allman's An Anthology and then released as a single, it charted at number seven in the United Kingdom and reached position ten in the United States. With good sales figures, the Billboard magazine was able to rank the Rock single as the 60th best-selling song in 1972.
In 1982 "Layla" was re-released as a single in the United Kingdom, and peaked at number four. This time the whole seven-minute single charted, containing the trailing two-thirds which is instrumental only. Critical opinion since has been overwhelmingly positive. Dave Marsh, in The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock and Roll, wrote that "there are few moments in the repertoire of recorded rock where a singer or writer has reached so deeply into himself that the effect of hearing them is akin to witnessing a murder or a suicide... to me 'Layla' is the greatest of them." Marsh listed "Layla" at number 156 in his The Heart of Rock & Soul: The 1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made.
In May 1980, "Layla" was covered by the London Symphony Orchestra, but without the lyrics, being recorded at EMI Studio One, Abbey Road, London. A similar version has been performed by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. On 20 September 1983 a benefit show called the ARMS Charity Concert for Multiple Sclerosis at the Royal Albert Hall in London featured a jam with Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page performing "Layla". Clapton, Beck, and Page were the Yardbirds' successive lead guitarists from 1963 to 1968.
In 2003 the Allman Brothers Band began playing the song in concert. Warren Haynes sang the vocal, Gregg Allman played the piano part, and Derek Trucks played Duane Allman's guitar parts during the coda. The performances were seen as a tribute not only to Allman, but also to producer Tom Dowd, who had died the previous year. Eric Clapton recorded yet a third version. "Layla" appears as track seven on Play the Blues: Live from Jazz at Lincoln Center. Personnel on this version include Wynton Marsalis (vocals, trumpet), Eric Clapton (vocals, guitar), Victor Goines (clarinet), Marcus Printup (trumpet), Chris Crenshaw (trombone, vocals), Don Vappie (banjo), Chris Stainton (keyboards), Dan Nimmer (piano), Carlos Henriquez (bass), and Ali Jackson (drums).
Charts and certifications
|Single by Eric Clapton|
|from the album Unplugged|
|B-side||"Tears in Heaven (Acoustic)"|
|Released||September 14, 1992|
|Format||7" vinyl · CD single · download|
|Recorded||January 16, 1992|
|Writer(s)||Eric Clapton · Jim Gordon|
|Eric Clapton chronology|
In 1992, Clapton was invited to play for the MTV Unplugged series. On 16 January 1992, he recorded an acoustic album, accompanied by a concert film, at the Bray Studios in Bray, Berkshire. Although the production team and Clapton's staff liked the recordings, Clapton did not want to release either the album or the concert film. Finally, Clapton agreed to release the album in a limited edition. When Unplugged sold out, Clapton gave Warner Bros. and Reprise Records the permission to delete the limited album production. For the album, Clapton decided to record both new material like "Tears in Heaven" and "Lonely Stranger" and old songs he grew up with such as "Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out" or enjoyed listening to or had written as a grown man like "San Francisco Bay Blues" and "Layla". Clapton, who plays acoustic guitar and sings on the live track, was backed by Andy Fairweather Low who played acoustic rhythm guitar, Nathan East on acoustic bass guitar and background vocals, Ray Cooper on percussion, Steve Ferrone on drums, Katie Kissoon and Tessa Niles on background vocals as well as Chuck Leavell on piano. Pianist Chuck Leavell recalled recording the acoustic version of "Layla" felt natural to him and liked that the band was given some space to play during the body of the song and not just during the reprise like it is on the original recording. "It gave us a chance to interpret the song in our way and it did work out well and it gave it a re-birth i think.", Leavell said. The acoustic version of "Layla" was produced by Russ Titelman.
Clapton recorded the acoustic version of "Layla" on a C.F. Martin & Co. steel-string acoustic guitar in OOO-42 style from 1939 which was hand built in Nazareth, Pennsylvania (No. OOO-42/73234). Clapton called this guitar one of the finest instruments he has ever used and called its sound "incredible". The auction house Christie's noted, "the guitar became one of the most enduring images of recent music history" being a part of the Unplugged album cover. Christie's expert for the musical department Kerry Keane called the instrument "in the hands of Eric Capton singly responsible for the repolarization of playing acoustic guitar today". When Keane played the guitar, he also remarked an "amazing" sound as the acoustic guitar seems to have a "wonderfully balanced tone [which is] loud and sweet at the same time with an incredible bass note." The vintage instrument was estimated to sell between $60,000 to $80,000 but was in the end sold for $791,500.
Rhythm acoustic guitar player Andy Fairweather Low was invited by Clapton to his flat in Chelsea, London to work out the songs to be recorded for the Unplugged album in January 1992. During the process, Clapton suggested that it would be a good idea to do another version of "Layla". Fairweather Low agreed because he had wanted to release one himself as a big Derek and the Dominos fan. Clapton thought that the perfect arrangement for the rock anthem would be a shuffle because he always liked changing the tempo of a song and looking at something from a different angle.
When Clapton was asked about the acoustic version of the song by the MTV Network, he replied: "'Layla' sort of mystified me. I have done it the same all these years and never ever considered trying to revamp it. And a lot of artists do that, you know? Bob Dylan for instance changes everything everytime he plays it and I thought this was another great opportunity to just take it off on a different path, to put it to a shuffle and for a start, making it acoustic denied all the riffs, really. They would have sounded a bit weak, I think, on the acoustic guitar, so it just seemed to become Jazzier somehow. And of course, I'm singing it a whole octave down. So it gives it a nice kind of atmosphere."
The song was written in the key of D minor which Clapton recalled pushed him to the top of his singing range. When Clapton slowed it down, Fairweather Low suggested Clapton should sing the track a whole octave down. The British Rock musician was pleased with the result as it sounded "nice" and "sort of Jazzy" to him. The new arrangement slowed down and re-worked the original riff and dispensed with the piano coda. Because Clapton changed the arrangement of his rock anthem so much, he decided to introduce this version to the unsuspecting live audience by stating: "See if you can spot this one."
AllMusic critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine reviewed "Layla" seemed to be the Unplugged album's hit which the critic describes as a "slow crawl through Derek & the Dominos' version, turning that anguished howl of pain into a cozy shuffle and the whole album proceeds at a similar amiable gait, taking its time and enjoying detours into old blues standards." Journalist Steve Hochman called the acoustic version a "low-key but seductive recasting". Music broadcaster VH1 thinks the Unplugged version revealed Clapton's guitar skills in the acoustic setting, which was particularly obvious on the re-working of "Layla" that "stressed Clapton's tender side without forfeitting intensity." Entertainment Weekly journalists picked the tune as the mega hit off the Unplugged album. The critics especially liked Leavell's piano work on the song, as it adds a smoky-jazz-joint torch-song ambience that's both expectation shattering and emotionally compelling to the tune.
In 1970, Jamrock Entertainment listed "Layla" as the best song of the year. Acclaimed Music rated the original version as the best song of 1970 and the 12th most popular song of the 1970s. In 1972, "Layla" was one of the most performed songs of the year, and was just a year after its original release considered a "Rock standard". With its re-release in 1982, the Rock song cemented its reputation as a global Rock hit track. The tune features also one of the most iconic Rock guitar riffs of all-time and is in addition to that one of the popular songs written about a woman. It is featured on a number of "greatest ever" lists. The song was chosen by the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as one of their "500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll", and Rolling Stone ranked the song at #27 on their list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". The Recording Industry Association of America ranked "Layla" at number 118 on their Songs of the Century on March 7, 2001. Music critic Dave Marsh placed the tune on number two for his "Best Singles of the Year 1972" compilation. With its makeover in 1992 for the Unplugged album, "Layla" became an all-time hit song, as it won the Grammy Award for Best Rock Song in 1993, and was broadcast nonstop in 1992 and 1993 on the radio, in stores, and on television around the globe. In 1992, "Layla" was the most performed song of the year, and won a BMI Broadcasting Award for radio and television appearances of the 1992 "Layla" for more than two million times in summer of 1994 – just one and a half years after "Layla" had been released as an acoustic version. As of 2011, "Layla" attained more than six million broadcasts on television and the radio or performances on other records and during live concerts.
- Seyed-Gohrab, A. A. (15 July 2009). "Leyli o Majnun". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- McKeen 2000, p. 127.
- Santoro 1995, p. 62.
- Clapton 2007, p. 107.
- Paul Gambaccini et al. Derek and the Dominoes (sic) – Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs. Retrieved 6 July 2005.
- Clapton, Eric (2007). Clapton: The Autobiography. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 978-0-385-51851-2.
- Patterson, Jean (Autumn 1998). "Crazy About "Layla": Eric Clapton Song Inspired by Nizami, 12th century Azerbaijani Poet". Azerbaijan International. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Boyd, Pattie. Wonderful Tonight. Google Books. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Pattie Boyd (11 August 2007). "'I'd pray Eric would pass out and not touch me': Part 2 of Pattie Boyd's sensational autobiography". Daily Mail. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Edna Gundersen (10 April 2007). "Clapton doesn't sing the blues in autobiography". USA Today. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Tony Grassi (31 July 2011). "Pattie Boyd: The Woman Behind Eric Clapton's "Wonderful Tonight"". Guitar World. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Claire Suddath (28 September 2010). "George Harrison, Eric Clapton and Pattie Boyd". Time. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Williamson, Nigel. "Derek and The Dominos – Layla & Other Assorted...". Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Moormann, Mark (2003). Tom Dowd and the Language of Music. New York: Force Entertainment. OCLC 225191912.
- "100 Greatest Guitar Solos: 14.) Layla (Eric Clapton, Duane Allman)". Guitar World. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
- Derek, Halsey. "Tom Dowd: The Legendary Producer Dies on 27 October 2002". Gritz. Archived from the original on 10 February 2005. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Schumacher, Michael (2003). Crossroads: The Life and Music of Eric Clapton. New York: Citadel Press - Kensington Publishing Corp. p. 151. ISBN 0-8065-2466-9.
- Guitar Player Magazine, July 1985, pp. 71–72
- Original Criteria studio Track Identification Chart
- Guitar Player Magazine, July 1985, pp. 71–72, ToneQuest Report, January–February 2010, Vol. 11, No. 3.
- "Layla's 40th: The Where's Eric! Interview With Bobby Whitlock".
- Perrin, Jeff; Clapton, Eric (1996). The Best of Eric Clapton: A Step-by-Step Breakdown of His Playing Technique. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-7935-5801-8.
- "Sold on Song Top 100: Layla". BBC Radio 2. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Hrano, Mike. "Eric Clapton – The Mike Hrano Interview". Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Leopold, Todd (3 February 2005). "Harrison, Clapton, and their muse". CNN. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Billboard Year-End Hot 100 singles of 1972
- Marsh, Dave (1999). The Heart of Rock & Soul: The 1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made. New York: DaCapo Press. pp. 109–10. ISBN 978-0-306-80901-9.
- "London symphony orchestra - Layla (1981)". YouTube. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- "The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra - Layla". YouTube. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
- "Free Music Videos, Video Interviews, Music Video News, Live Sessions and Clips - NME.COM - - NME.COM". NME.COM.
- "The Yardbirds: Happenings 35 Years Time Later". Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- Collette, Doug. "The Allman Brothers Band in Concert: Beacon Theatre 2003". All About Jazz. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- "Wynton Marsalis & Eric Clapton play the blues" [sic] (LIVE FROM JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER). (2011, Rhino Entertainment Company, a Warner Music Group Company).
- Tatsaku 2011, p. 285.
- "Derek and the Dominos – Layla". Dutch Top 40 (in Dutch). Netherlands: Top 40. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Hits of the World" (PDF). Billboard Magazine. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 83 (23): 52. June 5, 1971. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Billboard Hot 100 Chart History for Layla by Derek & The Dominos". Billboard Magazine. Song-database.com. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- Price, Randy (May 15, 1971). "Cash Box Top 100 Singles 1971". Cash Box Magazine. Cashboxmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "RPM 100 Singles". Retrieved March 21, 2016.
- Hawtin, Steve. "Songs from the Year 1972". Tsort Music. Tsort.info. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "The Irish Charts – All there is to know". Irish Recording Music Association. Fireball Media. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Kohler, Steve. "NZ Listener Chart Summary". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. New Zealand: Flavour of New Zealand. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Hits of the World". Billboard Magazine. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 83 (33): 56. August 12, 1972. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Official Singles Chart Top 50 | Official Charts Company". Official Charts Company. Official Charts. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Derek & the Dominos – Chart history | Billboard". Billboard Magazine. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- Price, Randy (August 5, 1972). "Cash Box Top 100 Singles 1972". Cash Box Magazine. Cashboxmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Record World Singles 1972". Record World Magazine. Geocities.com. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Layla – Derek and the Dominos". Lista Przebojów Programu Trzeciego (in Polish). Poland: Nowe Media, Polskie Radio S.A. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Official Singles Chart Top 75 | Official Charts Company". Official Charts Company. Official Charts. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "Derek and the Dominos Top Songs". Official Charts Company. Music VF. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- Fuld 1998, p. 54.
- "Hits 1972 UK – Single-Charts" (in German). Chartsurfer.de. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- "Hits 1972 USA – Single-Charts" (in German). Chartsurfer.de. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- "Hits 1982 UK – Single-Charts" (in German). Chartsurfer.de. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Solo Audio Recordings (Live) / Unplugged". Where's Eric! The Eric Clapton Fan Club Magazine. Whereseric.com. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- Clapton 2007, p. 266.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "MTV Unplugged – Eric Clapton | Credits | AllMusic". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- Gambaccini, Paul (January 22, 2013). "For One Night Only – Series 7, Episode 1". BBC Radio 4. British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic) (Vinyl) at Discogs". Discogs. Discogs.com. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- Keane 2004, p. 52.
- "Eric Clapton – Christie's Guitar Auction Part 2 of 3". Auction Adventures. YouTube.com. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- "Clapton's guitar smashes record". BBC News. United Kingdom: BBC MMIX. June 25, 2004. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton Unplugged EPK". Eric Clapton. YouTube.com. September 26, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Layla (Unplugged)". Warner Bros. Records. YouTube. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "MTV Unplugged – Eric Clapton | Songs, Reviews, Credits | AllMusic". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- Hochman, Steve (September 27, 1992). "In Brief". Los Angeles Times. David Laventhol. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- "The Eric Clapton Story Legend Part 4 The Best Documentary Interview". VH1 Legends. YouTube.com. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton: Unplugged | EW.com". Entertainment Weekly. Entertainment Weekly, Inc. August 28, 1992. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic)". ARIA Charts. Steffen Hung – Hung Medien. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Radio2 Top 30 Artiest: Eric Clapton". VRT Charts (in Dutch). Radio 2. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic)". Ultratop (in Dutch). Steffen Hung – Hung Medien. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "RPM Adult Contemporary Tracks". RPM Magazine. Library and Archives Canada. 56 (22). November 28, 1992. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "RPM 100 Hit Tracks & Where To Find Them". RPM Magazine. Library and Archives Canada. 56 (19). November 7, 1992. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic)". GfK Entertainment (in German). Offizielle Deutsche Charts. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Armani 2008, p. 132.
- Tatsaku 2011, p. 45.
- "Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic)". Dutch Charts (in Dutch). Steffen Hung – Hung Medien. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic) | Top 40". GfK Entertainment (in Dutch). Stichting Nederlandse Top 40. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic)". Official New Zealand Music Chart. Steffen Hung – Hung Medien. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Layla". Lista Przebojów Programu Trzeciego (in Polish). Nowe Media, Polskie Radio S.A. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic)". Swiss Hitparade (in German). Steffen Hung – Hung Medien. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Official Singles Chart Top 75". Official Charts Company. Official Charts. September 27, 1992. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Chart history [Billboard Hot 100]". Billboard Magazine. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Chart history [Mainstream Rock]". Billboard Magazine. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Eric Clapton – Chart history [Pop Songs]". Billboard Magazine. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Hawtin, Steve. "Eric Clapton Hit Songs > Layla (Unplugged)". MediaSentry, Billboard Magazine. United States: Tsort.info. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Price, Randy (December 5, 1992). "Cash Box Top 100 Pop Singles". Cash Box Magazine. Cashboxmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "The RPM Top 100 Adult Contemporary Tracks of 1992". RPM Magazine. Library and Archives Canada. 56 (25). December 19, 1992. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Hits 1992 Deutschland | Single-Charts | Top 100 Auswertung" [1992 Year-end Single Chart – Germany]. GfK Entertainment (in German). Chartsurfer.de. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Single Top 100 Over 1992" (PDF). Dutch Charts (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Top 40 Jaargang 28, 1992". GfK Entertainmet (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Fuld 1998, p. 178.
- "Hits 1992 Schweiz | Single-Charts | Top 100 Auswertung" [1992 Year-end Single Chart – Switzerland]. GfK Entertainment (in German). Chartsurfer.de. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Hits 1992 USA | Single-Charts | Top 100 Auswertung" [1992 Year-end Single Chart – United States]. Nielsen SoundScan (in German). Chartsurfer.de. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Australian single certifications – Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic)". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- NO certyear WAS PROVIDED for BELGIAN CERTIFICATION.
- "Canadian single certifications – Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic)". Canadian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Armani 2008, p. 232.
- Morris, Chris (August 2, 2003). "Online Music" (PDF). Billboard Magazine. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 115 (31): 36. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Venezuelan single certifications – Eric Clapton – Layla (Acoustic)" (in Spanish). Association of Venezuelan Phonograph Producers. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Top 100 Songs of 1970". Jamrock Magazine. Jamrock Entertainment, Inc. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "Derek and The Dominos". Acclaimed Music. Acclaimed Music. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "Applause to the Writers". Billboard Magazine. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 85 (24): 11. June 16, 1973. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "Rock Standards" (PDF). Billboard Magazine. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 84 (45): 44. November 4, 1972. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "Yesterhits" (PDF). Billboard Magazine. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 94 (30): 23. July 31, 1982. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "Yesterhits" (PDF). Billboard Magazine. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 94 (31): 29. August 7, 1982. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "Layla Videos". WatchMojo.com. Mojo Supreme. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- Parker, Steve (2004). "Rock and Roll Hall of Fame – 500 Songs That Shaped Rock". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Rocklistmusic.co.uk. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "The Rolling Stone 500 Greatest Songs of All Time: #27: Derek and the Dominos, "Layla"". Rolling Stone magazine. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
- "The RIAA/NEA's Top 365 Songs of the 20th Century". Recording Industry Association of America. Dave's Music Database. March 7, 2001. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- Marsh 1982, p. 173.
- "Grammy Awards: Best Rock Song". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Rock On The Net. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- Stein, Sadie (May 15, 2015). "Listening to Layla". The Paris Review. Theparisreview.org. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "BMI Salutes Lennon/McCartney's 'Yesterday'" (PDF). Billboard Magazine. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 105 (47): 50. November 20, 1993. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "Complete List Of BMI Song Winners" (PDF). Billboard Magazine. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 106 (23): 24. June 4, 1994. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- "Bonhams : A Special Citation of Achievement certificate presented by the BMI to Eric Clapton". Bonhams London. Bonhams.com. March 9, 2011. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
- Armani, Luciano (December 2008). Premi della FIMI italiana [FIMI certifications] (in Italian). Milan, Italy.
- Clapton, Eric (2007). The Autobiography. New York City: Broadway Books.
- Coleman, Ray (1985). Clapton!. Warner Books.
- Fuld, William J. (1998). The New Zealand Charts – A Red Chart? (2 ed.). Fuld Pressings.
- Keane, Kerry (June 24, 2004). Crossroads Guitar Auction – Eric Clapton and Friends for the Crossroads Centre. Christie's. Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, United States: Christie's New York.
- Marsh, Dave (November 1982). The Book of Rock Lists. Dell Books. ISBN 978-0440575801.
- McKeen, William (2000). Rock and roll is here to stay: an anthology. W. W. Norton & Company.
- Reid, Jan (2007). Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs by Derek and the Dominos. Rock of Ages.
- Santoro, Gene (1995). Dancing in Your Head: Jazz, Blues, Rock, and Beyond. Oxford University Press US.
- Tatsaku, Ren (December 2011). The Oricon Sales Report (in Japanese). Tokyo, Japan: Oricon Style – Recording Industry Association of Japan.