List of creole languages
A creole language is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages. Unlike a pidgin, a simplified form that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups, a creole language is a complete language, used in a community and acquired by children as their native language.
This list of creole languages links to Wikipedia articles about languages that linguistic sources identify as creoles. The "subgroups" list links to Wikipedia articles about language groups defined by the languages from which their vocabulary is drawn.
English-based creole languages
- Australian Kriol, English-based, spoken in parts of Western Australia, Northern Territory, and Northern Queensland
- Bahamian Creole, English Creole spoken in The Bahamas
- Bajan Creole or Barbadian Creole, English-based, spoken in Barbados
- Belizean Creole, English-based creole spoken in Belize
- Bislama, an English-based creole, spoken in Vanuatu
- Cameroonian Creole, English, French and Native Cameroonian language based.
- Gullah language, spoken in the coastal region of the US states of North and South Carolina, Georgia and northeast Florida
- Guyanese Creole, English-based, spoken in Guyana
- Hawaiian Creole or Pidgin, a mixture of Native Hawaiian and American English similar to Tok Pisin
- Krio language, English-based creole spoken throughout the West African nation of Sierra Leone
- Jamaican Patois, English-based creole, spoken in Jamaica.
- Liberian Kreyol language, spoken in Liberia
- Nigerian Creole English based creole or pidgin spoken in Nigeria
- Pitkern, English spoken on the Pitcairn Islands and Norfolk Islands
- Manglish English-based, spoken in Malaysia
- San Andrés–Providencia Creole, English-based creole spoken in (San Andrés and Providencia islands), Colombia.
- Singlish, English-based, spoken in Singapore
- Tok Pisin, an official language of Papua New Guinea
- Torres Strait Creole or Brokan, spoken in far north-east Australia, Torres Strait, and south-west Papua
- Trinidadian Creole, English-based, spoken in Trinidad
- Sranan Tongo, a bridge language (lingua franca) spoken in Suriname
- The Middle English creole hypothesis argues that English itself is a creole.
- Saint Kitts Creole, English Creole or dialect spoken on the island of St.Kitts
French-based creole languages
- Antillean Creole French, French-based creole spoken in the French West Indies
- Guianan Creole, French-based creole spoken in French Guiana
- Haitian Creole, French-based, an official language of Haiti
- Louisiana Creole French, spoken in Louisiana
- Mauritian Creole, French-based, spoken in Mauritius
- Seychellois Creole, French-based, official in the Seychelles
- Reunionese French, Hindi, Malagasy based, in Reunion Island
Portuguese-based creole languages
- Annobonese Creole, Portuguese-based creole spoken in Annobón, Equatorial Guinea
- Cape Verdean Creole, spoken on the islands of Cape Verde
- Forro Creole, spoken in São Tomé and Príncipe
- Guinea-Bissau Creole, spoken in Guinea-Bissau
- Kristang language, spoken in Malaysia and Singapore
- Macanese Patois, or Macau creole, Pátua, once spoken in Macau in China
- Papiamento, spoken in the ABC islands in the southern Caribbean
- Sri Lankan Portuguese Creole, spoken in Sri Lanka
- São Vicente Creole, spoken in São Vicente on the islands of Cape Verde
Creole languages based on other languages
- Andaman Creole Hindi - is a Hindustani-based creole language spoken in the Andaman islands.
- Chavacano - is a Spanish-based creole language spoken in the Philippines.
- Hokaglish - is predominantly Chinese-based creole (?) spoken by Filipino-Chinese across the Philippines, although English and Tagalog may also be the base.
- Hezhou, based on Uyghur and relexified by Mandarin
- Juba Arabic, based on Arabic spoken in and around Juba, South Sudan.
- Kanbun Kundoku, a method of annotating literary Chinese so that it can be read as Japanese.
- Nagamese Creole, based on Assamese, used in Nagaland, India
- Negerhollands, a Dutch-based creole, once spoken in the U.S. Virgin Islands
- Sango language, Ngbandi-based creole language spoken in the Central African Republic
- Unserdeutsch language, a German-based creole language spoken primarily in Papua New Guinea
- Yilan Creole Japanese, spoken by Atayal indigenous people in Hanhsi village, Yilan County, Taiwan
- Arabic-based creole languages, a creole language which was significantly influenced by the Arabic language
- Dutch-based creole languages, a creole language that has been substantially influenced by the Dutch language
- English-based creole languages, a creole language derived from the English language
- French-based creole languages, a creole language based on the French language
- Malay-based creole languages, regional varieties derived from a lingua franca called Bazaar Malay
- Portuguese-based creole languages, creole languages which have Portuguese as superstrate language
- Spanish-based creole languages, a number of creole languages are based on the Spanish language