List of heads of state of Pakistan

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State emblem of Pakistan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Pakistan
Constitution

This is a list of the heads of state of Pakistan, from the foundation of Pakistan in 1947 to the present day.

From 1947 to 1956 the head of state under the Indian Independence Act 1947 was the Monarch, who was the same person as the Monarch of the United Kingdom and of the other Dominions/Commonwealth realms. The Monarch was represented in Pakistan by the Governor-General. Pakistan became a republic under the Constitution of 1956 and the Monarch and Governor-General were replaced by a ceremonial President.

Monarch (1947–1956)[edit]

The succession to the throne of Pakistan was the same as the succession to the British throne.

Monarch
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Reign Royal House Prime Minister
Reign start Reign end
1 King George VI
(1895–1952)
King George VI.jpg 14 August 1947 6 February 1952 Windsor Khan
Nazimuddin
2 Queen Elizabeth II
(1926–)
Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Portrait Herbert James Gunn.jpg 6 February 1952 23 March 1956 Windsor Nazimuddin
Bogra
Ali

Governors-General[edit]

The Governor-General was the representative of the monarch in Pakistan and exercised most of the powers of the monarch. The Governor-General was appointed for an indefinite term, serving at the pleasure of the monarch. After the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Governor-General was appointed solely on the advice of the Cabinet of Pakistan without the involvement of the British government. In the event of a vacancy the Chief Justice served as Officer Administering the Government.

Status
  Denotes Chief Justice acting as Officer Administering the Government
Governor-General
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Tenure Monarch Prime Minister
Took office Left office
1 Muhammad Ali Jinnah
(1876–1948)
Quaidportrait.jpg 14 August 1947 11 September 1948
(died in office.)
George VI Khan
2 Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin
(1894–1964)
Khawaja Nazimuddin of Pakistan.JPG 11 September 1948 17 October 1951 George VI Khan
3 Sir Malik Ghulam Muhammad
(1894–1964)
Malik Muhammad.jpg 17 October 1951 7 August 1955 George VI
Elizabeth II
Nazimuddin
Bogra
4 Major-General Iskander Mirza
(1899–1969)
Iskander Mirza.jpg 7 August 1955 23 March 1956 Elizabeth II Ali

First Republic (1956–1958)[edit]

Under the 1956 Constitution, the first constitution of the Republic of Pakistan, the President replaced the monarch as ceremonial head of state. The President was elected by Electoral College for a five-year term. In the event of a vacancy the Speaker of the National Assembly served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Speaker of the National Assembly acting as President
President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Tenure Elected Political affiliation
(at time of appointment)
Prime Minister
Took office Left office
1 Major-General Iskander Mirza
(1899–1969)
Iskander Mirza.jpg 23 March 1956 27 October 1958
(Deposed)
Republican Party Ali
Suhrawardy
Chundrigar
Noon

Military rule (1958–1971)[edit]

General Ayub Khan led a coup d'état which overthrown the President Mirza and his government. In 1962 there was a new Constitution which the President was given executive powers. The President was elected by the public for a five-year term. In the event of a vacancy the Speaker of the National Assembly served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Speaker of the National Assembly acting as President
President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Tenure Elected Political affiliation
(at time of appointment)
Prime Minister
Took office Left office
2 Field Marshal Ayub Khan
(1907–1974)
Muhammad Ayub Khan.JPG 27 October 1958 8 June 1962 Military position abolished
8 June 1962 2 February 1965 Convention Muslim League
2 February 1965 25 March 1969
(resigned.)
1965
3 General Yahya Khan
(1917–1980)
Yahya Khan (cropped version).jpg 23 March 1969 20 December 1971
(resigned.)
Military Amin

Second Republic (1971–1977)[edit]

Military rule ended in Pakistan in 1971 after the 1971 War and the rules of the President was the same as the 1962 Constitution. Under the 1973 Constitution, the third and current constitution of the Republic of Pakistan, the President is the ceremonial head of state. The President was elected by Electoral College for a five-year term. In the event of a vacancy the Chairman of the Senate served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Chairman of the Senate acting as President
President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Tenure Elected Political affiliation
(at time of appointment)
Prime Minister
Took office Left office
4 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
(1928–1979)
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.jpg 20 December 1971 13 August 1973 1971 Pakistan Peoples Party
5 Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry
(1904–1982)
No image.png 14 August 1973 16 September 1978
(resigned.)
1973 Pakistan Peoples Party Bhutto

Military rule (1978–1988)[edit]

General Zia led a coup d'état which overthrown the Prime Minister Bhutto and his government. In 1978 Haq was given the presidency. In the event of a vacancy the Chairman of the Senate served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Chairman of the Senate acting as President
Head of State
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Tenure Military Prime Minister
Took office Left office
6 General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
(1924–1988)
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq 1982 (cropped).jpg 16 September 1978 17 August 1988
(died in office).
Military Junejo

Third Republic (1988–2001)[edit]

Military rule ended in Pakistan in 1988 after the Death of Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq and the civilian government was restored. There was two periods of Semi-presidential rule, 1988–1993 and 1999–2007 and Parliamentary republic rule 1993–1997. In 1999 a coup d'état deposed Nawaz Sharif and his government, but the President was still in power until 2001. The President was elected by Electoral College for a five-year term. In the event of a vacancy the Chairman of the Senate served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Chairman of the Senate acting as President
President Term of office Political party Prime Minister(s)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
7 Ghulam Ishaq Khan
(1915–2006)
17 August 1988 13 December 1988 4 years, 335 days Independent No Prime Minister
(May 30, 1988 - Dec 1, 1988)
Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto
(Dec. 2, 1988 - Aug. 6, 1990)
Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (Caretaker)
(Aug. 6, 1990 - Nov. 6, 1990)

Muhammad Nawaz Sharif
(Nov. 6, 1990 - April 18, 1993)
Balkh Sher Mazari (Caretaker)
(April 18, 1993 - Oct 19, 1993)
13 December 1988 18 July 1993
(Resigned)
No image.png Wasim Sajjad
(1941–)
18 July 1993 14 November 1993 119 days Pakistan Muslim League (N) Moeen Qureshi (Caretaker)
(July 18, 1993 - Oct. 19, 1993)
8 Farooq Leghari
(1940–2010)
14 November 1993 2 December 1997
(Resigned)
4 years, 18 days Pakistan Muslim League (N) Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto
(Oct. 19, 1993 - Nov. 5, 1996)
Malik Meraj Khalid (Caretaker)
(Nov. 5, 1996 - Feb. 17, 1997)
No image.png Wasim Sajjad
(1941–)
2 December 1997 1 January 1998 30 days Pakistan Muslim League (N) Muhammad Nawaz Sharif
(Feb. 17, 1997 - Oct. 12, 1999)
9 Pride of Performance Award by President of Pakistan (cropped head).jpg Muhammad Rafiq Tarar
(1929–)
1 January 1998 20 June 2001
(Resigned)
3 years, 170 days Pakistan Muslim League (N) No Prime Minister
(Oct 12, 1999 - Nov. 22, 2002)
Mir Zafar Ullah Khan Jamali
(Nov. 23, 2002 - *)

Military rule (2001–2008)[edit]

General Pervez Musharraf led a coup d'état which overthrew Prime Minister Sharif and his government. In 2001 Haq was given the presidency. In the event of a vacancy the Chairman of the Senate served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Chairman of the Senate acting as President
Head of State Term of Office Military
# Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Duration
Pervez Musharraf 2004.jpg General Pervez Musharraf
(1943–)
20 June 2001 6 October 2007 6 years, 296 days Military
10
6 October 2007 8 August 2008
(Resigned)
Pakistan Muslim League (Q)

Fourth Republic (2008–present)[edit]

Military rule ended in Pakistan in 2008 after the resignation Pervez Musharraf and the civilian government was restored. The President was elected by Electoral College for a five-year term. In the event of a vacancy the Chairman of the Senate served as Acting President.

Status
  Denotes Chairman of the Senate acting as President
President Term of office Political party Prime Minister(s)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
Us amb chairman.jpg Muhammad Mian Soomro
(1950–)
18 August 2008 9 September 2008 22 days Pakistan Muslim League (Q)
11 Asif Ali Zardari - 2009.jpg Asif Ali Zardari
(1955–)
9 September 2008 8 September 2013 4 years, 364 days Pakistan Peoples Party
12 Mamnoon Hussain 2014.jpg Mamnoon Hussain
(1940–)
9 September 2013 Incumbent 4 years, 166 days
(as of 22 February 2018)
Pakistan Muslim League (N) Muhammad Nawaz Sharif

Living former heads of state[edit]

Name Term/Reign Office Date of birth
Elizabeth II 1952–1956 Queen of Pakistan 21 April 1926
Muhammad Rafiq Tarar 1998–2001 President of Pakistan 2 November 1929
Pervez Musharraf 2001–2008 President of Pakistan 11 August 1943
Asif Ali Zardari 2008–2013 President of Pakistan 26 July 1955
Wasim Sajjad 1993
1997–1998
Acting President 30 March 1941
Muhammad Mian Soomro 2008 Acting President 19 August 1950

External links[edit]