Iskander Ali Mirza
|1st President of Pakistan|
23 March 1956 – 27 October 1958
|Prime Minister||Chaudhry Muhammad Ali
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar
Feroz Khan Noon
|Preceded by||Elizabeth II
as Queen of Pakistan
|Succeeded by||Ayub Khan|
|4th Governor General of Pakistan|
7 August 1955 – 23 March 1956
Acting: 7 August 1955 – 6 October 1955
|Prime Minister||Chaudhry Muhammad Ali|
|Preceded by||Malik Ghulam Muhammad|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Minister of the Interior|
24 October 1954 – 7 August 1955
|Prime Minister||Muhammad Ali Bogra|
|Preceded by||Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani|
|Succeeded by||Fazlul Huq|
|Governor of East Bengal|
31 March 1950 – 31 March 1953
|Chief Minister||Nurul Amin|
|Preceded by||Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman|
|Succeeded by||Muhammad Shahabuddin (Acting)|
|Secretary of Defence|
23 October 1947 – 6 May 1954
|Prime Minister||Liaquat Ali Khan
Muhammad Ali Bogra
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Akhter Husain|
13 November 1899|
Murshidabad, Bengal Presidency, British India
(now in West Bengal, India)
|Died||13 November 1969
London, England, United Kingdom
|Spouse(s)||Rifaat Begum (1922-1967) (her death)
|Alma mater||Elphinstone College
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
|Years of service||1920–1946|
|Commands||Army Corps of Military Police|
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
Iskander Ali Mirza, CIE, OBE (13 November 1899 – 13 November 1969), was the first President of Pakistan, serving from 1956 to 1958. Prior to that, Mirza was the last Governor-General of Pakistan from 1955 to 1956. A great grandson of Mir Jafar, Mirza was a British Indian army officer, having reached the higher rank of major-general in Pakistani Military.
After a brief stint in the British Indian Army, Mirza joined the Indian Political Service. He became the Joint Defence Secretary of India in 1946. After the establishment of Pakistan in 1947, Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan appointed Mirza as the first Defence Secretary, one of the most important government positions. He oversaw the Indo-Pakistan war of 1947, and the Balochistan conflict in 1948. Serious disorder and civil unrest sparked in East Pakistan as a result of the Bengali Language Movement in 1952, prompting Prime minister Khawaja Nazimuddin to appoint him as the Governor of the province. He oversaw the success of the One Unit programme in East Pakistan in 1954, and succeeded Malik Ghulam Muhammad as the governor general in 1955. After successfully promulgating the 1956 constitution, he became the first president. His presidency saw great political instability, challenges in foreign policy, and the ousting of four prime ministers in two years. He finally imposed martial law in 1958 after suspending the constitution and dissolving democratic institutions, including the Pakistan Parliament. Mirza has the distinction of being the first to bring in military influence in national politics after he appointed his army chief (Ayub) as chief martial law administrator of the country.
Problems with the Pakistan Armed Forces and the establishment[further explanation needed] escalated after relations with the United States deteriorated. After only 20 days of martial law, Chief Martial Law Administrator General Ayub Khan forced him out of the presidency. He was exiled to London.
Iskander Ali Mirza (Urdu/Persian for "Master Alexander Ali") was the eldest child of Sahibzada Sayyid Muhammad Fateh Ali Mirza (b. 1864–d. 1949) and his first wife, Dilshad Begum née Tyabji (b. 1869–d. 1924). (Mirza is a title meaning "master" and "educated", not a last name. It is given to all highly educated individuals in administrative position. It is equal to "Mandarin" in China. The proper way refer to him is "Iskander Mirza" (master Iskander) or Iskander Ali, but not Mirza alone.) He was born on 13 November 1899, in Murshidabad, Bengal Presidency of British Indian Empire. The Mirza family was an extremely influential and wealthy feudal family in Bengal, with close ties with British monarchy. His father, Fateh Ali Mirza belonged to the ruling house of Murshidabad, grandson of the first Nawab Mansur Ali Khan.
His paternal ancestor was Mir Jafar, generally known to Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis as a quisling. Mir Jafar had played an integral role bringing down Siraj ud-Daulah of Bengal, with the British East India company serving as the informant and leading provider of intelligence to company official Robert Clive.
Education and military service
Mirza grew up in Bombay, receiving his early education at Elphinstone College, part of the then University of Bombay. He then joined the British Army and was educated at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, becoming the first Indian graduate of the college, and was commissioned as a second lieutenant on the unattached list of the British Indian Army on 16 July 1920. He was promoted to lieutenant on 16 July 1921 and admitted to the Indian Army from 30 December 1921.
His military career was spent in the military police and he was attached to the second battalion, Cameronians starting 16 July 1920. His service saw extensive operations in North West Frontier Province. He went on to serve in the "Operation Khodad Khel" in 1921, and in the Waziristan war in 1920. He was transferred to the 17th Poona Horse (Queen Victoria's Own), as an army inspector. However, his career was short-lived and Mirza left active service to join the Indian Political Service in August 1926. He was first posted to Aligarh as an assistant magistrate and collector before being posted to Hazara in the North West Frontier Province as an assistant commissioner. However, he kept his army commission, receiving a promotion to captain on 17 October 1927. His career was spent in the troubled Tribal belt. From 1928 to 1933, he served as an assistant commissioner in the districts of Dera Ismail Khan (April 1928), Tonk (May 1928), Bannu (April 1930) and Nowshera (April 1931). In 1931, Captain Mirza was appointed a district officer. He was promoted to deputy commissioner at Hazara in May 1933, where he served for three years until a posting to Mardan as assistant commissioner from October 1936 (deputy commissioner from January 1937). Promoted to major on 16 July 1938, he became the Political Agent of the Tribal Belt in April 1938, stationed at Khyber. He remained there until 1945.
Mirza was appointed and served as the political agent of Odisha and North West Frontier Province from 1945 until 1946. He was promoted to lieutenant-colonel on 16 July 1946. His ability to run the colonial administrative units had brought him to a prominence that prompted the British Indian Government to appointed him as the Joint Defence Secretary of India in 1946. In this position, he was responsible for dividing the British Indian Army into the future armies of Pakistan and India. In 1947, Mirza became Pakistan's first defense secretary in the government of Liaquat Ali Khan.
Upon the establishment of Pakistan, Mirza was one of the highest ranking government officers in the nation. As the defense secretary, Mirza oversaw the 1947 war with India, as well as the Balochistan conflict. In 1950, Prime minister Liaquat Ali Khan approved the recommendation of his appointment as honorary active duty major general in Pakistan Army, commanding the Military Police as its second General Officer Commanding. In 1951, Prime minister Ali Khan appointed him as the director of the Department of Kashmir and Afghanistan Affairs (DKA). His stint also saw the redeployment of Military Police in East-Pakistan as a result of the Bengali Language Movement, during which the East Pakistan Army fatally shot four student activists. Within a short span of time, the Military Police had the control of the state and its officer commanding submitted the report of their course of action to Major General Iskander Mirza in 1954.
Governor of East Pakistan
Mirza's rapid control of the province brought him to national prominence, leading to national recognition. Upon the dismissal of United Front, Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad decided to declare governor's rule in the state, with the incoming prime minister asked to appoint a governor. Appointing a new cabinet, Prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra named him the governor of East Pakistan. Taking the oath from the Chief Justice Muhammad Munir, Mirza arrived to East Pakistan in May 1954. After landing at the Dhaka Airport, Mirza sharply announced in Bengali language to the Pakistan media representatives, that he would not hesitate to use force in order to establish peace in the province. On the first day of his charge, he ordered the arrest of 319 persons, including Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Yusuf Ali Chowdhury.
By mid-June 1954, the number of arrests reached 1,051, including 33 assembly members and two Dhaka University professors. Although the peace was restored and law and order situation improved, such actions had sown a permanent seed of hatred for the federal government in the hearts of the people of East Pakistan. From 21 September 1954 to 22 December 1954 Sir Thomas Hobart Ellis was the temporary Governor of East Pakistan when Mirza was recalled to the central government.
The same year, he was called to continue his service in federal government being appointed the minister of the interior and minister of commonwealth and Kashmir affairs in Prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra's cabinet. He was one of the most senior bureaucratic ministers in the Bogra government, and was extremely influential at that time. Due to a long illness, Governor General Ghulam Muhammad went on a two-month leave to the United Kingdom, leaving the office of governor general to Iskander Mirza. On 7 August 1955, Mirza assumed the office of governor general. Immediately after being administered oath by chief justice of Pakistan, he spoke to the nation on radio. Owing to the continuing political instability, he forced Prime minister Bogra to resign from his office, despatching him as Pakistan Ambassador to the United States in 1955.
Mirza was a big supporter of the "One Unit Programme"— a programme of integrating the provinces of West Pakistan and East Pakistan into one single entity. This programme met with harsh criticism led by the nationalists, particularly in Sindh and the N.W.F.P.
On 12 August, Mirza appointed Chaudhry Muhammad Ali as the interim prime minister. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, the leader of the Awami League took over as the fifth prime minister of Pakistan on 12 September 1956, after his party formed an alliance with the Republican Party.
The 1956 Constitution of Pakistan replaced the position of governor general of Pakistan with the President of Pakistan. For almost nine years after the nation's independence, the country's political system was driven by Parliamentary democracy. The Pakistan Parliament unanimously elected Iskander Mirza as the first President of Pakistan.
President Mirza, an Establishment-backed president, widely lacked the parliamentary spirit, distrusting the civilians to ensure the integrity and sovereignty of country. His presidency was marked by great political instability, civil unrest, and immigration problems. The electricity problems in West Pakistan brought his government nearly to an end, prompting Prime Minister Suhrawardy to establish the plan for nuclear power in the country. Relations with the United States and Soviet Union deteriorated quickly, and problems with India also mounted.
Under his presidency, Mirza dismissed his elected prime ministers, including Suhrawardy, also a Bengali from East Pakistan.
The Awami League began negotiating a power sharing programme with the Muslim League, reorganizing after the 1954 elections. This attempt of the Awami League threatened Mirza and his political influence nearly bringing the Muslim League to come to its end. Therefore, on 7 October 1958, Mirza issued an executive decree and a state presidential proclamation abrogating the 1956 Constitution. The Pakistan Parliament, provisional assemblies were dissolved, and the government of Prime Minister Sir Feroz Khan Noon came to an end.
On 7 October 1958, Iskander Mizra announced via national radio that he was introducing a new constitution "more suited to the genius of the Pakistan nation", as he believed democracy was unsuited to Pakistan "with its 15% literacy rate". Upon abdicating, Mirza took the nation into confidence, saying that:
Three weeks ago, I (Iskander Mirza) imposed martial law in Pakistan and appointed General Ayub Khan as Supreme Commander of the [Armed Forces] and also as Chief Martial Law Administrator.... By the grace of God... This measure which I had adopted in the interest of our beloved country has been extremely well received by our people and by our friends and well wishers abroad... I have done best to administer in the difficult task of arresting further deterioration and bringing order out of chaos... In our efforts to evolve an effective structure for future administration of this country... Pakistan Zindabad, Pakistan Zindabad!— President Iskander Mirza, abdicating on 1958.10.27, 
(However, Bhutto in 1967 countered Iskander Mirza's views after pointing out that "the same problem of low literacy also existed in India which had opted for democracy".)
This martial law imposed by country's first Bengali president was the first example of martial law in Pakistan, which would continue until the dissolution of East Pakistan in 1971. Iskander Mirza appointed then-Army Commander of the Pakistan Army, General Ayub Khan, as the chief martial law administrator (CMLA), which proved his undoing within three weeks.
President Iskander Mirza and his Army Commander General Ayub Khan had begun the new era with apparent unanimity, which was described as a two-man dictatorial regime that evolved under the "Establishment", and the Pakistan Armed Forces. However, the two had very different views on dealing with the new situation, even though they were responsible for bringing about the change.
|“||I did not mean to do it.... The martial law would be for the shortest possible duration until the new elections....||”|
|— President Mirza, 1958, |
President Iskander Mirza had not envisaged any change in his previous powers; he wanted to retain the ability to maneuver things in keeping with his own whims. Judging from the situation, the things however had changed as the time and situation both were demanding the complete solution. General Ayub Khan came to an understanding that the real political power and might rested with the Armed Forces, and the CMLA General Ayub Khan was determined to assert himself. Within a week of the proclamation of martial law, President Mirza realized the delicate position he had got himself into. In an interview with Dawn, President Mirza regretted his decision saying: "I did not mean to do it" while offering assurances that the martial law would be for the shortest possible duration.
The sharing of power soon led to the intensification of the tug-of-war between the two men. This deadly game produced negative results for President Mirza after he tried to balance the power structure by illegally appointing General Ayub Khan as Prime Minister on 24 October 1958. The new cabinet that President Mirza had formed consisted entirely of non-political members, mostly technocrats, one of them being Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The new cabinet did not satisfy General Ayub Khan who had more powers as the chief martial law administrator.
In order to secure himself, President Iskander Mirza made a last-ditch effort by trying to get the support of Ayub Khan's rivals within the Army, Navy, and the PAF. This move backfired on President Mirza when senior military officers informed General Ayub Khan of his schemes. With the consensus of senior military officers, Ayub Khan forced President Mirza to resign on 27 October 1958. Within days, he was exiled to London, making Ayub Khan the sole power in Pakistan.
Post-presidency and death
Iskander Mirza lived in exile in London, England, until his death. It is reported that Mirza struggled financially while living in London trying to run a small Pakistan cuisine hotel. Here he lived in poverty until his death. His only regular income was an annual pension of £3,000 as a former military officer and president. People like the Ispahanis, Ardeshir Zahedi, the ambassador and later Foreign Minister of Iran, the Shah of Iran, Lord Inchcape, Lord Hume and other heads of European governments made his life in exile tolerable. At the London hospital where he died, he once said to his wife, Nahid: "We cannot afford medical treatment, so just let me die." 
He died of a heart attack on 13 November 1969. President Yahya Khan denied him a burial in Pakistan. The Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi sent his personal plane to London to bring President Mirza's body to Tehran, where he was given a state funeral. Hundreds of Iranians, including Prime Minister Abbas Hoveyda, and Pakistani expatriates in Iran bade farewell and offered their prayers.
The funeral ceremony was marred by the absence of Iskander Mirza's relations living in Pakistan. The military government barred them from leaving Pakistan in time despite the best efforts by Ardeshir Zahedi, Iran's foreign minister, and President Iskander Mirza's friends in Pakistan and Iran. There are unfounded rumors that after the Islamic Revolution in Iran (1979), his grave was desecrated.
Mirza was married twice: his first marriage took place on 24 November 1922, when he married a Bengali woman, Rifaat Begum (1907-23 March 1967). The couple had two sons and four daughters.
Humayun Mirza is the only surviving son of Iskander Mirza. He was born in Poona, India, and was educated at Doon School.He also studied in the U.K., before moving to the U.S., where he earned his MBA from Harvard. He married the daughter of Horace Hildreth, the U.S. ambassador to Pakistan. He retired from the World Bank in 1988. He lives in Bethesda, Maryland. He is the author of a book "From Plassey to Pakistan: The Family History of Iskander Mirza." Humayun's younger brother, Enver Mirza, had died in a plane crash in 1953.
In October 1954, while in West Pakistan, Mirza's second marriage took place in Karachi after he fell in love with an Iranian aristocrat, Naheed Amirteymour, daughter of Amirteymour Kalali. She was a close friend of Begum Nusrat Bhutto. It was this friendship that brought Zulfikar Ali Bhutto into the political arena of Pakistan.
Iskander Ali Mirza is often criticized for imposing martial law. Historians have noted that Mirza held that Pakistanis "lacked the parliamentary spirit and because of the lack of training in the field of democracy and the low literacy rate among the masses, democratic institutions cannot flourish in Pakistan". He believed that the judicial authorities should be given the same powers which they used to enjoy during the British Indian Empire.
Mirza's political ideology reflected secularism, and an image of internationalism, strongly advocating the religious separation in state matters. Mirza had never had a high opinion of politicians. He was well known for his conviction that the politicians were destroying the country. He felt that in order to work towards real and responsible democracy, the country must have what he called "controlled democracy".
Historians also asserted that Mirza's role as the head of state led him to play an active part in power politics, building an image of being a kingmaker in the country's politics. Mirza took full advantage of the weaknesses of politicians and played them against each other, first offsetting the influence of the Muslim League by creating the Republican Party.
|“||Your services are indispensable for Pakistan. When the history of our country is written by objective historians, your name will be placed even before that of Mr. Jinnah....||”|
|— Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, 1958, |
During his short span of four years as the head of state, four prime ministers were changed, three of them were his appointees, while the only popularly elected Bengali prime minister was dismissed. Iskander Mirza is thus widely held responsible for the instability that brought the active role of Pakistan armed forces in politics.
(ribbon bar, as it would look today)
- India General Service Medal (1909)
- King George V Silver Jubilee Medal-1935
- King George VI Coronation Medal-1937
- Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)-1939
- Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE)-1945
- Pakistan Independence Medal-1948
- Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal-1953
- Grand Collar of the Order of Pahlavi of the Empire of Iran-1956
- Order of the Supreme Sun, 1st Class of the Kingdom of Afghanistan-1958
- Story of Pakistan Press. "Teething Years: Iskander Mirza". Story of Pakistan (Part-I). Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- Baxter, Craig (1997). Bangladesh: from a nation to a state. United States: Westview Press, 1997. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-8133-2854-6.
- Government of Pakistan. "President Iskandar Mirza". Ministry of Information and Public Broadcasting. Electronic Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- Iskandar Mirza, Ayub Khan, and October 1958, by Syed Badrul Ahsan, The New Age, Bangladesh, 30 October 2005.
- The London Gazette: . 3 August 1920. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 7 April 1922. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- The India Office and Burma Office List: 1945. Harrison & Sons, Ltd. 1945. p. 353.
- The London Gazette: . 16 March 1928. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 5 August 1938. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 4 October 1946. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- Story of Pakistan. "Iskander Mirza". Story of Pakistan Press Directorate. The Story of Pakistan (Iskandar's life). Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- "BANGABHABAN - The President House of Bangladesh". bangabhaban.gov.bd. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- "Ellis, Sir Thomas Hobart - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Story of Pakistan. "Iskander Mirza Becomes Governor General ". Story of Pakistan (Mirza became Governor-General). Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Story of Pakistan. "Iskander Mirza Becomes President ". Story of Pakistan. Story of Pakistan (Mirza Becomes President). Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Story of Pakistan. "Martial Law". Story of Pakistan (Martial Law). Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Hassan PhD (Civil Engineering), Dr. Professor Mubashir (2000). The Mirage of Power. ford University, United Kingdom: Dr. Professor Mubashir Hassan, professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Engineering and Technology and the Oxford University Press. p. 394. ISBN 0-19-579300-5.
- Iqbal Academy Pakistan. "Lengthy Text of President Iskander Ali Mirza's speech". Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- "Ouster of President Iskander Mirza". Story of Pakistan. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- "Ouster of President Iskander Mirza". Story of Pakistan. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- Qudratullah Shahab (1998). Shahab-nama. Karachi, Pakistan: Jang Publications. p. 360. ISBN 969-35-0025-3.
- Humayun Mirza, From Plassey to Pakistan: The Family History of Iskander Mirza, 1999, Ferozsons, Lahore
- Kabita Chowdhury (29 Dec 2011). "First Pakistan president's Bengal home in a shambles". Times of India. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- Administration Post. "ZAB calls Iskander Mirza 'Greater Than Jinnah'". Indian Press News. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- List of Pakistani heads of state or government
- Shahab, Qudrat-Ullah (2005). Shahabnama (21st ed.). Karachi: Sang-e-Meel. ISBN 969-35-0025-3.
- Mirza, Humayun (2002). From Plassey to Pakistan. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-7618-1509-9.
|New office||Defence Secretary of Pakistan
|Governor of East Bengal
Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani
|Minister of the Interior
Malik Ghulam Muhammad
|Governor-General of Pakistan
|New office||President of Pakistan
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Iskander Mirza.|