List of milestones in Kannada literature

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This is a list important milestones in Kannada literature starting with Kavirajamarga (850 C.E.). These writings are the earliest available works in each listed genre. Though many notable works have been accomplished in each genre during later years, these writings are the forerunners for later developments.

The list[edit]

Milestones in Kannada literature
Genre Writing Author Year Patron
Poetics, Rhetoric Kavirajamarga[1][2] Amoghavarsha I 850 Rashtrakuta Empire
Basic Grammar Kavirajamarga[3][4] Amoghavarsha I 850 Rashtrakuta Empire
Narrative Prose (Parables) Vaddaradhane[5][6] Shivakotiacharya 900 Rashtrakuta Empire
Epic (Jain) Adipurana, Vikramarjuna Vijaya[5][7][8] Adikavi Pampa 941 Rashtrakuta Empire
Elegy Sahasa Bhima Vijaya[5][9] Ranna 982 Western Chalukya Empire
Prosody Chandombudhi[7][10] Nagavarma I 990 Western Ganga Dynasty
Fiction (Romance) Karnataka Kadambari[7][10] Nagavarma I 990 Western Ganga
Lexicon Rannakanda[5][11] Ranna 990 Western Chalukya
Erotics Madanatilaka[10][12] Chandraraja 1025 Western Chalukya
Encyclopaedia Lokopakara[10][13] Chavundaraya II 1025 Western Chalukya
Cookery Lokopakara (Supasastra)[14] Chavundaraya II 1025 Western Chalukya
Agriculture Lokopakara (Vrksayurveda)[15] Chavundaraya II 1025 Western Chalukya
Fable Panchatantra[10][12] Durgasimha 1025 Western Chalukya
Free Verse (Vers Libre) Vachana poems[16][17][18] Chennaiah, Kakkaiah and others 11th century None
Bhakti poems (early native) Vachana[19][20][21] Chennaiah, Kakkaiah and others 1025 None
Belles-lettres Chandraprabha Charite[10][22] Shridaracharya 1049 Western Chalukya
Astrology Jatakatilaka[10][12] Shridaracharya 1049 Western Chalukya
Mathematics Vyavaharaganita, Kshetraganita, Lilavati[23][24] Rajaditya 1105 Hoysala Empire
Veterinary Science Govaidya[23][24] Prince Kirtivarma 1120 Western Chalukya
Medicine (health) Karnataka Kalyanakaraka[24][25] Jagadalla Somanatha 1150 Western Chalukya
Bhakti poems (mature native) Vachana Sahitya[21][25][26][27] Basavanna and others 1160 Kalachuri (Southern branch)
Epic (Shaivism) Girijakalyana[25][26][28] Harihara 1160 Hoysala Empire
Epic (Vaishnavism) Jagannatha Vijaya[25][28][29] Rudrabhatta 1180 Hoysala Empire
Anthology Suktisudharnava[25][30] Mallikarjuna 1245 Hoysala Empire
Mature Grammar Shabdamanidarpana[25][30] Kesiraja 1260 Hoysala Empire
Bhakti poems (mystic, Vaishnavism) Haridasa Sahitya[31][32][33] Naraharitirtha 1281 Hoysala Empire
Meteorology Rattasutra[30][34] Rattakavi 1300 Hoysala Empire
Toxicology Khagendramanidarpana[30][34] Mangaraja I 1360 Vijayanagara Empire
Epic (Mahabharata) Gadugina Bharata[32][35] Naranappa (Kumara Vyasa) 1425 Vijayanagara Empire
Epic (Ramayana) Torave Ramayana[35][36] Narahari (Kumara Valmiki) 1500 Vijayanagara Empire
Epic (native folk) Ramanatha Charite (Kumararama Charite)[35][37] Nanjunda Kavi 1525 Vijayanagara Empire
Classical devotional Carnatic music[38][39] Purandara Dasa 16th century Vijayanagara Empire
Theatre (folk, Yakshagana) Virata Parva[40][41] Vishnu Varamballi 1564 None
Drama (social) Mitravinda Govinda[42][43] Singaraya 1680 Mysore Kingdom
Biography Kanthirava Narasaraja Vijaya[44][45] Govinda Vaidya 1648 Mysore Kingdom
History Chikkadevaraja Vamshavali[45][46] Tirumalarya II 1698 Mysore Kingdom
Grammar (modern) Kannada grammar[47] Rev. William Carrey 1817 Princely Mysore
Novel (Historical prose) Mudramanjusha[48][49] Kempu Narayana 1823 Princely Mysore
Dictionary (modern) Kannada-English Dictionary[47] Rev. W. Reeve 1832 Princely Mysore
Journalism (news) Mangalura Samachara[47][50] Hermann Mögling 1843 Madras Presidency
Novel (modern Romance) Saugandhika Parinaya[51][52] Krishnaraja Wodeyar III 1850 Princely Mysore
Drama (early modern) Shakuntala[53][54] C. Sehagiri Rao 1869 Princely Mysore
Ballad (native folk) Sangoli Rayana Dange[55][56] John Faithfull Fleet 1874 Bombay Presidency
Drama (mature modern) Shurasena Charite (Othello)[53][57] Basavappa Shastry 1882 Princely Mysore
Epic (early, prose) Adbhuta Ramayana[58][59] Muddanna 1885 Princely Mysore
Mature Novel (Social) Suryakantha[54][60] Lakshmana Gadagkar 1892 Bombay Presidency
Poem (modern) English Geethagalu[58][61] B. M. Srikantaiah 1910 Princely Mysore
Short Stories Kelavu Sanna Kathegalu[62] Masti 1920 Princely Mysore
Lyrical poems Gari[63][64] D. R. Bendre 1936 Bombay Presidency
Epic (modern) Sri Ramayana Darshanam[65][66] Kuvempu 1949 Mysore state

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p17
  2. ^ Sastri (1955), p355
  3. ^ Rao in Datta (1988), p1474, p1699
  4. ^ Sridhar in Brown & Oglivie, (2009), p577
  5. ^ a b c d Sastri (1955), p356
  6. ^ P.S. Srinivasan in Lal (1992), p4459
  7. ^ a b c Narasimhacharya (1988), p18
  8. ^ Rao in Datta (1988), p1180
  9. ^ M.V.Seetharamiah in Datta (1988), p1150
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Sastri (1955), p357
  11. ^ Mukherjee (1999), p324
  12. ^ a b c Narasimhacharya (1988), p19
  13. ^ Murthy in Gopal & Srivastava (2008), pp506-509
  14. ^ Murthy in Gopal & Srivastava (2008), pp508
  15. ^ Murthy in Gopal & Srivastava (2008), pp506-508
  16. ^ Rao in Datta (1988), p1324
  17. ^ Sadarangani (2004), p20
  18. ^ Shiva Prakash (1997), pp171–173
  19. ^ Shiva Prakash in Ayyappapanicker (1997), p171
  20. ^ Rawat (2011), p11, chapter 1
  21. ^ a b Hart, George L (1976), p.337
  22. ^ Kamath (1980), pp114-115
  23. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), 19
  24. ^ a b c Sastri (1955), p358
  25. ^ a b c d e f Narasimhacharya (1988), p20
  26. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p361
  27. ^ Shiva Prakash in Ayyappapanicker (1997), pp166-192
  28. ^ a b Rao in Datta (1988), p1181
  29. ^ Sastri(1955), p364
  30. ^ a b c d Sastri (1955), p359
  31. ^ Shiva Prakash in Ayyappapanicker (1997), p194
  32. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p364
  33. ^ Rice E.P. (1921), p77
  34. ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p21
  35. ^ a b c Narasimhacharya (1988), p22
  36. ^ Sastri (1955), pp364-365
  37. ^ Rao in Datta (1988), p1182, chapter-Epic(Kannada)
  38. ^ Thielemann (2002), p22
  39. ^ R Zydenbos in Cushman S, Cavanagh C, Ramazani J, Rouzer P (2012), p767
  40. ^ Ashton & Christie (1977), p21
  41. ^ Karanth (1997), p160
  42. ^ K. Marulasiddappa in Datta (1988), p1077
  43. ^ Mukherjee (1998), p235
  44. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p64
  45. ^ a b Rice E.P. (1982), p89
  46. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p23, p64
  47. ^ a b c Kamath (1980), p279
  48. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp167-168
  49. ^ Kamath (1980) p280
  50. ^ Verlag in Wendt (2006), p159
  51. ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p26
  52. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp167
  53. ^ a b Kamath (1980), p282
  54. ^ a b Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp169
  55. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp168
  56. ^ Prashad (2001), page xiii, chapter-Kannada folk epics, a profile
  57. ^ Guttal in Trivedi & Bartholomeusz (2006), p105
  58. ^ a b Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp170
  59. ^ Krishnamoorthy & Mukhopadhyay (1991), p94
  60. ^ Kamath (1980), p281
  61. ^ Rao in Datta (1988), p1716
  62. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp172
  63. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp173
  64. ^ Das (1995), p203
  65. ^ Rao in Datta (1988), p1182
  66. ^ Murthy in K.M. George (1992), pp174

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