||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (October 2015)|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2007)|
|• Total||4,012 km2 (1,549 sq mi)|
|• Density||384/km2 (990/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-KA-KL|
|Vehicle registration||KA-07, KA-08|
|Sex ratio||0.976 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Kolar Lok Sabha constituency|
|Precipitation||724 millimetres (28.5 in)|
|† Kolar district at a glance|
Kolar district (Kannada: ಕೋಲಾರ ಜಿಲ್ಲೆ pronunciation (help·info)) is a district in Karnataka state of India. The town of Kolar is the district headquarters. Kolar district is located in the southern region of the State and is the easternmost district of the Karnataka State. The district is bounded by the Bangalore Rural district in the west Chikballapur district in the north, Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh in the east and on the south by Krishnagiri and Vellore district of Tamil Nadu.
On 10 September 2007, Kolar district was bifurcated to form the new district of Chikballapur. Due to the modern discovery of the Kolar Gold Fields, Kolar has become popularly known as the "Golden Land" of India.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Taluks
- 4 District administration
- 5 Economy
- 6 Industrial areas
- 7 Transport
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Culture
- 10 Visitor attractions in and around Kolar district
- 11 Notable people
- 12 Member of Legislative Assembly
- 13 Education
- 14 Media
- 15 Upcoming institutions
- 16 References
- 17 External links
Formerly, Kolar was known variously as Kolahala, Kuvalala and Kolala. Kolar was called Kolahalapura during the Middle Ages, but later came to be known as Kolar. Kolahahapura in Kannada meant "violent city", as it was the battlefield for the warring kingdoms of Chalukyas in the north and Cholas to the south. It was the capital of the Gangas until the 4th century AD when they shifted the capital to Talakad in Mysore. In 1004 AD, the Cholas annexed Kolar until 1116 AD,. Vishnuvardhana (1108-1142 AD) freed Gangavadi from the Cholas, and in commemoration of his victory, built the celebrated Vijayanarayana Temple (Chennakesava Temple) at Belur.
The major and important temples in the town are Kolaramma Temple and Someshwara Temple. The Kolaramma temple is of Dravida Vimana style built in Ganga tradition in the 2nd century CE and dedicated to goddess Shakti. The temple was later renovated during the period of the teja arun Chola monarch Rajendra Chola I in the 10th century and Vijayanagara kings in the 15th century. Someswara Temple is a fine example of 14th century Vijayanagara art.
Early history of Kolar was compiled by Rev. Fred Goodwill, Superintendent of the Wesleyan Tamil Mission, Bangalore and Kolar Gold Fields. His studies and observations have been published in the quarterly journals of the Mythic Society and other academic journals.
Kolar is much older than Bangalore, its origin going back to the 2nd century AD. Gangas who were kannadigas, made Kolar their capital and ruled over Mysore, Coimbatore, Salem and Travancore. In the 13th Century AD, Sage Bhavanandi composed his treatise on Tamil grammar Nannool at the Ulagamadhi cave at KGF, under the patronage of Seeya Gangan one of the Ganga rulers who was born in Kolar and was a patron of arts and literature. Further Seeya Gangan's inscriptions indicate that Kolar regained control of Kolar for the second time from Chola hands.
During the reign of the Cholas, King Uththama Chola (970 AD) is said to have built the temple for Goddess Renuka, in the avatar of Kolaahalamma and found the city of Kolaahalapuram. Local tradition indicates that the city was named after this deity of Kolaahalama. The Chola rulers Veera Chola, Vikrama Chola and Raja Nagendra Chola erected stone structures with inscriptions ar Avani, Mulbagal, Sitti Bettta and other places. Chola inscriptions also indicate the rule of Adithya Chola I (871-907 AD), Raja Raja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I over Kolar. These inscriptions refer to Kolar as 'Nikarili Cholamandalam' and also as 'Jayam Konda Chola Manadalam'. Inscriptions of Rajendra Chola I also appear on the Kolaramma Temple. Many Siva temples were built in Kolar during the reign of the Cholas, such as the Someshwarar Temple at Maarikuppam Village, Sri Uddhandeshwari Temple at Maarikuppam Village, the Eswaran Temple at Oorugaumpet, the Sivan Temple at Madivala Village. The reign of the Cholas over Kolar lasted till 1116 AD. Sadly the Chola inscriptions scattered all over Kolar lie neglected, and some subject to wilful cultural vandalism.
In 1117 AD, Kolar came under the reign of the Hoysalas, and in 1254 AD the dominions were portioned among the two sons of King Someshwara, with Kolar included in the Tamil provinces that went to Ramanatha.
In the 17th Century, Kolar came under Maratha rule as part of the Jahagir of Shahaji for fifty years. Then under Muslim rule for seventy years. In 1720 AD, Kolar came under the Suba of Sira, with Fateh Mohammed, the father of Hyder Ali becoming the Faujdar of the province. After this Kolar passed thorugh different reigns such as Marathas, the Nawab of Cuddapah, Nizam of Hyderabad and finally Hyder Ali. In 1768, Kolar came under British rule briefly till 1770, then passed briefly again to Maratha rule and again Hyder Ali. In 1791 Lord Cornwallis conquered Kolar, before passing it back to Mysore under the peace treaty of 1792. Kolar has been part of the Mysore State since that time.
Around the Kolar region, there are numerous inscriptions which indicate reign of the Mahavalis (Baanaas), Pallavas and Vaidumbaas, at different points of time. Benjamin Lewis Rice recorded 1347 inscriptions in the Kolar District, in the 10th volume of Epigraphia Carnatica. Out of these inscriptions 422 are in Tamil, 211 in Telugu and the rest are in Kannada
Kolar District is in the state of Karnataka, India and belongs to its semi-arid drought-prone region. It lies between 77° 21' to 78° 35' east longitude and 20° 46' to 130° 58' north latitude, extending over an area of 8,225 km². Kolar District is located in the southern region of the state and happens to be the easternmost district of the Karnataka State. The district is bounded by the Bangalore Rural district in the west Chikballapur district in the north, Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh in the east and on the south by Krishnagiri of Tamil Nadu.
The district, at its greatest length, reaches about 135 km from north to south with almost the same distance from east to west. It occupies the table land of Mysore, bordering the eastern ghats. The general plateau surface is interrupted by a hills and peaks of varying heights, particularly in the north. The principal chain of mountains is the Nandidurga range which runs north from Nandi towards Penukonda and Dharmavaram of Andhra Pradesh. The rivers of the district are small and seasonal: Palar, Uttara Pinakini and Dakshina Pinakini are the important rivers which originate in the elevated regions.
The Kolar has its own transportation named "Antaragange Kolara Nagara Sarige" which was introduced by the deputy CM and home minister Ashok in July 2012.
The Narasapura Industrial Area is best for its infrastructure for deployment of motor vehicle factories such as Honda, Mahindra Aerospace, Volvo and More. Narasapura Industrial Area is approximately 20 km from Kolar and is connected to Bangalore Road via National Highway 4.
Most of the telecom operators have excellent network coverage in Kolar District. Most of the operators have limited coverage in interior rural and forest areas.
Institutes of Technical education
Engineering and medical institutions
- DR.T.T.I.T., formerly known as GVIT, is about 28 km from Kolar.
- C.B.I.T., founded By C. Byregowda Education and Cultural Trust, is in Thoradevandahalli Village about 7 km from Kolar, connected towards Srinivasapura Main Road.
- S.D.U.M.C., near R.L. Jalappa Hospital, it is about 5 km from Kolar.
- The College of Horticulture.Kolar,established in 2009 at Tamaka, adjoining to R.L. Jalappa Medical college& Hospital, it is about 5 km from Kolar town.
Bangarpet is a taluk of Kolar District that is famous for chat items like pani puri.
Bangarapet has a railway junction which is the second one after Bangalore City Junction.
Earlier the town of Bangarpet was called Bowringpet. It is a business town. Budikote village (Hyder Ali's birthplace) is in this taluk.
- Educational hub
- Rapid industrialisation
- Near by cities bengaluru and hosuru.
- Railway station, with connectivity towards Chennai and Bengaluru.
- There are huge rocks available and suitable for the granite industry.
- Famous for vegetables market like tomatoes trading market at Vaddahalli, Mulbagal Taluk.
- Major activities are dairy farming, silk production, sericulture, horticulture and mangos, tamarind growing.
- Sand mining in Nangali.
- There is a four lane national highway, NH 4 connects Bangalore to Mulbagal.
- Famous temples are in mulbagal taluk like Kurdumale, Mulbagal Anjaneya, Avani, Padaraja mutt, Durga, Someshwara temple, Lepakshi temple,Byrakur someshwara swamy temple, etc.
- It is good for trekking in the Avani and Byrakur (chikur hills)
- uneven and scanty rainfall
- There is no natural as well as artificial river flowing.
- Manson rainfall doesn't connect properly for the geographical region of Kolar district.
- No soil fertility.
- Lack of skilled labour.
Srinivaspura is one of the taluks in Kolar district. Most of the population practice agriculture. The taluk doesnot have permanent water sources.
- Famous for world's best mango fruits and mango is generally called as King of fruits.
- Major activities are dairy farming, silk production, sericulture, horticulture and mangos, tamarind growing
- Government Boys P.U college in Srinivaspur is one of the best P.U colleges
- Ashraya Neelbagh School is one of the best schools in Srinivaspur.The school got best Eco-school award in 2013.
Kolar District contains one revenue sub-divisions: Kolar
The major sources of employment are agriculture, dairy and sericulture, floriculture hence it is popularly known as the land of "Silk, Milk and Gold". Farmers in Kolar are totally dependent upon borewell water for irrigation and drinking.
The gold mines in Kolar Gold Fields were closed in the 2003 due to reducing gold deposits and increasing costs of production.
Kolar District Has Been subdued into 2 major, 1 medium and 1 minor Industrial Areas:
- Narasapura Industrial Area - Located Near Narasapura Village, Narasapura Industrial Area Comprises Major Industries Such as HMSI, Volvo, Volkswagen India, Scania AB, Mahindra Aerospace Etc. And Lies Across Bangalore Road (connected Towards National Highway 4)in Kolar District and 17 Kilometers Away From Kolar
2. Vemagal Industrial Area - Lies in Chikkaballapura Road, Vemagal also Comprises Hero Motocorp and Railway Wagon Factory, Which is 17 km From Kolar
3. Tamaka Industrial Area - Lies in Chennai Road (NH4) Comprises Small Scale Industries, Lies 5 Kilometers From Kolar
4. Malur Industrial Area - Lies in Hosur Road, Lies 35 Kilometers Away From Kolar, and Has Medium Scale Industries
5. Major Residential layout developers such as Paratus BuildCon Pvt ltd and RJK Developer have already started to develop residential units in the surrounding localities-source www.paratusbuildcon.com|www.rjkdeveloper.com
Major industries in Kolar District's industrial areas
- Honda motorcycle manufacture [around 1300 crores] unit started. The Karnataka government approved a slew of incentives for Honda Motorcycle and Scooter India (HMSI), which is invested Rs 1,350 crore to set up a two-wheeler manufacturing plant in Narsapura in Kolar district.
- Bharth Earth Movers Limited BEML: The government of India started this PSU unit in K.G.F outskirts for defence earth mover, vehicle and Metro coaches manufacturing.
- Indian Railway: Coach manufacture unit granted for Kolar district in railway budget 2012. The government of Karnataka provided two places: in Kurudumale Mulbagal Taluk and Srinivaspur Taluk for setting up the manufacture unit.
- Bharath Gold Mines Limited BGML was present till 2003; the government of India started BGML public sector unit (PSU) for gold mining.
- Karnataka Milk Federation (KMF) having milk dairy, i.e., Kolar District Co-operative Milk Producers' Societies' Union Limited (KOMUL). After Chickaballapur (new district) is formed, KOMUL is now called as KoChiMUL.
- Power Grid Corporation of India has substation at Arahalli Village, Kolar-Chintamani-State Highway-5, Kolar.
- All India Mission Tablet Industry at Bangarpet.
- Volvo manufactures Trucks, Buses and earth moving equipments like Dozers, Excavators, Backhoe loaders, Motor Graders, etc. The manufacturing unit is at Yelachahalli near Tavarekere.
- Volkswagen subsidiary scania AB is going to deploy complete Knock Down Assembly Unit in Narasapura Industrial Area, Kolar
- Mahindra Aerospace is Going to Deploy at Narasapura Industrial Area, Kolar ingrated on 21 October 2013 by annand mahindra
- Volkswagen India is Going to Deploy 4 Wheelers Manufacturing Unit at Narasapura Industrial Area, Kolar
- Hero Motocorp is Going to Deploy 2 Wheeler Manufacturing Unit in Vemagal Industrial Area, Kolar is cancle
Famous trading markets
- Tomato trading market at Vadahalli, Mulbagal Taluk
- Kolar Sericulture and Agriculture (Tomato and other vegetables) market at Kondarajanahalli (Malur - Bangalore road), Kolar Taluk
- Mango trading market at Srinivaspura
- Jewellery shops at Kolar Gold Fields
National Highway NH-4pass through via Narasapura, Kolar, Mulbagal in Kolar district, State Highway connects other taluks. Small Village and others roads are also present connects District headquarters and taluks. National Highway NH-4 starts from Bangalore East, Narasapura, Kolar, Mulbagal, Chittor from here one way goes to Thirupathi(this way is not NH-4) and another to Chennai
Kolar District Road Summary table from PWD department Govt of Karnataka as on March 2010 
|Sl No||Kolar district||National Highway||State highway||Major Dist Road||Total length|
|01||Kolar dist||137 NH-4||308||1083||1528|
Bangalore to Mulbagal having four-lane Road (NH-4) travel time is around 90 minutes. motorists can look forward to a six-lane highway from K R Puram to Hoskote and from there onwards a four-lane one up to Mulbagal. An additional benefit is that Bangalore east residents can use it as an alternative route to reach the airport by taking the left at Boodigere Cross that leads to Devanahalli.
Kolar belongs to "South Western Railways" of "Indian Railways". Kolar has many railway stations which are listed below:
Kolar Railway Station is Located in Karnataka, Kolar and one more big railway junction is at Bangarapet. It belongs to South Western Railway, Bangalore Cy Jn. All these stations are on the Chennai-Bangalore main line or its branch line. Neighbourhood Stations are Takal,Bangarapet, Near By major Railway Station is Bangalore Cy Jn and Airport is Bengaluru International Airport.
Kolar and Bangarpet junction railway stations 
- KOLAR - KQZ
- BEML NAGAR TRAIN HALT - BEML
- BANGARAPET - BWT
- OORGAM - OGM
- MALUR - MLO
- BISANATTAM - BSM
- BYATRAYANA HALLI - BFW
- CHAMPION - CHU
- COOROMANDAL - COL
- KAMASAMUDRAM - KSM
- MAKALI DURG - MKL
- MARIKUPPAM - MKM
- TYAKAL - TKL
According to the 2011 census Kolar district has a population of 1,540,231, roughly equal to the nation of Gabon or the US state of Hawaii. This gives it a ranking of 324th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 384 inhabitants per square kilometre (990/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 11.04%. Kolar has a sex ratio of 976 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 74.33%.
|Source: Official Website of Kolar District|
It has 15 towns and 3,321 villages (2889 inhabited villages and 432 uninhabited villages). Total population of the district according to 2001 census was 2,536,069 of which 24.67% were urban.
- Area (km²) - 3969
- Population - 13,87,062
- Sex ratio (females/1,000 males) - 977
- Literacy rate (%) - 74.01
As a district on the cross-roads of the three states, Kolar is home to many communities and represents a mini-India. The primary language spoken here is Kannada. Other widely spoken language is Urdu. There are also good number of Tamil and Telugu speakers.
Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) is a town in Kolar district which was once the primary gold mines in the country. Set up by the British, this town which is close to the border of Andhra Pradesh and has Tamil,Telugu and Anglo-Indian Population.
The crowning glory is the Karaga festival, which is celebrated in the town of Malur, about 30 miles away on the Bengaluru-Chennai highway. It throws a flood of light on the Thigala clan's Draupadi worship ritual called the Karaga festival.
The Malur-based Karaga festival is celebrated over 13 days in the summer months, usually starting on the first Friday after the Ugadi New Year day.
Visitor attractions in and around Kolar district
- Antara Gange
- Kolaramma Temple and Someshwara Temple
- Markandeya Hill
- Guttahalli temple
- Chowdeshwari temple, Beglihosahalli
- Dargha Usama shah Wali On Hill Top
- Dargah of Khutub Gowri Clock Tower
- Darga Of Tippu Grand Parents in Clock Tower
- Darga of Shabaz Shah Khalandar
- Bytarayappana Bett
- Dargah Hazrath Shashuddin Auliya. ( Bangarapet )
- Dargha Hazrath Ghouse Shah Vali, (K.G.F)
- Chikka Tirupati
- Marikamba Temple[disambiguation needed]
- Dharmaraya Swamy Temple
- Guttamma Temple, Doddakadathuru
- Thirtha Bande, Masti
- The famous 101 Temple in Tekal
- anjaneya swami temple
- sai mandir
- ((Garuda Temple))- epic related temple,koladevi,mulbagal(T)
- Sri VaradarajaSwamy Temple Uttanur
- Dargha Hazrat Hyder-E- Sabdar
Chintamani (Chikballapur Dist)
Madanapalli (Andhra Pradhesh - Chittoor Dist)
- Hyder Ali - father of Tipu Sultan
- D. V. Gundappa - well known Kannada poet
- K. C. Reddy - first Chief Minister of Karnataka
- Sir Mohammed Mustafa Saheb alis Kolar Mustafa - the richest person of Kolar in early 1887, and the Founder of Clock Tower Circle] in Kolar.
- Maasti Venkatesh Ayengar - Kannada writer, Jnanpith award winner
- KH Muniyappa Union Minister of state for Indian Railways, represents Kolar in the Parliament of India for a record sixth term.
- N. R. Narayana Murthy - Chairman and Chief Mentor of Infosys Technologies Limited.
- Soundarya - south Indian Film actress, mulbagal
- A. N. Prahlada Rao highest Crossword writer in India
Member of Legislative Assembly
- Varthur Prakash - MLA of Kolar
- K.S MANJUNATH GOWDA, Malur
- Y.RAMAKKA(Y.Sampangi's mother),K.G.F
- K.M Narayanaswamy, Bangarpet
- G.Manjunath, Mulbagal
- R.Ramesh kumar,Srinivaspur
- Ashraya Neelbagh School,Rayalpad (NGO)
- Government College for Boys, KOLAR
- Government PU College for Boys; Srnivaspur
- Methodist School and college, Kolar
- Government College for women, KOLAR
- Government Law college, KOLAR
- Gupta international school
- Vidya Jyothi School, Basavanatha, KOLAR
- Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar
- Sri Devaraj Urs School of Nursing, Kolar
- Seventh Day Adventist High School, Kolar
- Sri Manjunatha School Byrakur, Mulbagal Taluk
- Mahila Samaja PU and degree college, KOLAR
- Mahila Samaja school, KOLAR
- St Anne's convent High school, KOLAR
- Dr.T. Thimmaiah college of engineering, KGF
- C.ByreGowda Institute of Technology,Kolar
- First Grade College, KGF
- St. Joseph's Convent, Champion Reefs, KGF
- St. Mary's High School, Champion Reefs, KGF
- Beml High School, Beml Nagar
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, BEML Nagar
- Parkinson Memorial School, KGF
- Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Jain College, KGF
- Sri Byraveshwara Vidya Samaste, Srinivasapur
- National High School, Yeldur
- national high school, Mudianur
- Vivekananda Best Convent, Malur
- Chinmaya Vidyalaya, Kolar
- Suvarna Central School, Kolar
- Sai Vidyanikethan, Mulbagal
- Cea School, Mulbagal
- Neel Bagh, Srinivaspur
- Kolara Patrike - The first Kannada periodical.
- Kolaravani - Kannada Daily news paper, 32 years Old Kolaravani publishes mainly news related to four districts news.
- Kannada Thilaka, Kannada daily newspaper.
- Christ University - Opp. District Central Library and Next to Methodist School, DVG Road, Kolar
- Baldwins Methodist College - Next To Christ University DVG Road, Kolar
- "A Handbook of Karnataka - Administration" (pdf). Government of Karnataka. pp. 354, 355. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- "A green view". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 11 March 2006. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- "Temples of Karnataka - Kolar". templenet.com. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- Mythic Society (Bangalore, India) (1918). The Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society 9–10: iv, 5, 8, 300. Missing or empty
- Goodwill, Fred (1918). "Nandidroog". The Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society 9–10: 300. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- Goodwill, Fred (1921). "The Religious and Military Story of Nudydurga". KGF Mining and Metallurgical Society (5).
- Srikumar, S (2014). Kolar Gold Field: (Unfolding the Untold) (International ed.). Partridge India. pp. 40–46. ISBN 9781482815078. Retrieved 27 August 2014.[self-published source]
- Rice, Benjamin Lewis (1994). Epigraphia Carnatica: Volume X: Inscriptions in the Kolar Disctrict. Mangalore, British India: Department of Archeology, Mysore State. p. i. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- Honda Unit at Narasapura, Kolar
- "Karnataka showers Honda with concessions - The Times of India". The Times Of India.
- Power Grid , Kolar
- Kolar Roads
- Bangalore-Mulbagal Road (NH-4)Mulbagal
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
Gabon 1,576,665line feed character in
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- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
Hawaii 1,360,301line feed character in
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- "Kolar district at a glance" (pdf). Retrieved 22 December 2010.
- Kolar Total population
- , Kolaravani
- Kannada Thilaka
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kolar district.|
|Bangalore Rural district||Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh|
|Krishnagiri district, Tamil Nadu|