Lizabeth Scott, 1947
September 29, 1922
Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Died||January 31, 2015
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Cause of death||Congestive heart failure|
|Other names||Elizabeth Scott|
|Alma mater||Alvienne School of the Theatre|
|Occupation||Actress, singer, model|
Lizabeth Virginia Scott (September 29, 1922 – January 31, 2015) was an American film actress, known for her "smoky voice" and "the most beautiful face of film noir during the 1940s and 1950s." After understudying the role of Sabina in the original Broadway and Boston stage productions of The Skin of Our Teeth, she emerged internationally in such films as The Strange Love of Martha Ivers (1946), Dead Reckoning (1947), Desert Fury (1947) and Too Late for Tears (1949). Of her 22 feature films, she was leading lady in all but one. In addition to stage and radio, she appeared on television from the late 1940s to early 1970s.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Debut
- 3 Rise to fame
- 4 Paramount years
- 5 Critical reception
- 6 Radio
- 7 Confidential
- 8 Music
- 9 Later years
- 10 Filmography
- 11 References
- 12 External links
She was born Emma Matzo in Scranton, Pennsylvania, oldest of six children born to John Matzo (1895–1968) and Mary Matzo (née Pennock; 1899–1981). On the 1930 U.S. Census, her parents are listed as born in Slovakia (Eastern part). Reference works and biographies have given conflicting accounts as to their ethnic origins. Her family lived in the Pine Brook section of Scranton, where John Matzo owned Matzo Market. Scott characterized her father as a "lifelong Republican," which influenced her own capitalistic views. The family was immersed in all things cultural, especially music. This love of music influenced Scott's voice.
Scott's accent, timbre and tempo were molded beginning in first grade. Her parents sent her to weekly lessons at a local elocution school. As a result, she lost the Northeast Pennsylvania English spoken in the Scranton area. Her trademark broad A is characteristic of Mid-Atlantic English. Scott herself attributed the tone of her voice to heredity, as a younger sister had a similarly deep voice. In addition, she received six years of piano lessons and two of voice.
As a young girl, working in her father's store, she dreamed of being a journalist, then an opera singer and finally an actress. At the age of 11, she was the Fairy Godmother in a pantomime play, Cinderella, at summer camp. During Christmas season, she took part in pageants at the local Catholic church her family attended. When asked what was the best advice she was given, Scott replied, "I don't know, but I sure didn't take it." Her mother told her to subdue her emotions and "be a lady," but despite a strict Catholic upbringing, Scott described herself as having been "rebellious and outspoken" as a young girl. However, Scott mentioned adolescent favorites such as Ralph Waldo Emerson's Essays as having the greatest influence on her.
Scott attended Marywood Seminary, a local Catholic girls' school. She transferred to Scranton's Central High School, where she performed in several plays. After graduating, she spent the summer working with the Mae Desmond Players at a stock theater in the nearby community of Newfoundland. She then worked at the Barter Theatre in Abingdon, Virginia. That autumn, she attended Marywood College, but quit after six months. Mary Matzo wanted her daughter to become a journalist, but when Scott said she would become either a stage actress or a nun, her mother relented.
In 1939, with her father's help, the 17-year-old Scott moved to New York City, where she stayed at the Ferguson Residence for Women. Scott attended the Alvienne School of the Theatre. There she studied for 18 months, resisting attempts by teachers to pitch her voice higher. During this time, Scott read Maxwell Anderson's Mary of Scotland, a play about Mary, Queen of Scots and Elizabeth I, from which she derived the stage name "Elizabeth Scott." She later dropped the "E".
In late 1940, an 18-year-old Scott auditioned for Hellzapoppin (1938). From several hundred women, she was chosen by vaudevillians John "Ole" Olsen and Harold "Chic" Johnson, stars of the original Broadway production. She was assigned to one of three road companies, Scott's being led by Billy House and Eddie Garr. Landing her first professional job, she was billed as "Elizabeth Scott." The tour opened November 3, 1940 at the Shubert Theatre in New Haven, Connecticut. She did blackouts and other types of sketch comedy during her 18-month tour of 63 cities across the US.
Scott returned to New York in the spring of 1942, where she joined a summer stock company at the 52nd Street Theatre on the subway circuit, the then equivalent of off-Broadway. Eventually, she starred as Sadie Thompson in John Colton's play Rain (1923). Though no drama critic reviewed the play, a press agent for new actresses, Joe Russell—known locally as "The Man who meets the Greyhound Bus"—persuaded a producer with a problem to see it.
Michael Myerberg had just moved an experimental production from New Haven, Connecticut, to the Plymouth Theatre. Impressed by Scott's Sadie Thompson, he hired her as the understudy for Tallulah Bankhead despite Bankhead's protests. Bankhead was the star of Thornton Wilder's then new play, The Skin of Our Teeth (1942). Bankhead had previously signed a contract forbidding an understudy for the Sabina role, which Myerberg breached by hiring Scott—rumors of an affair between the married Myerberg and the new understudy were rife. Scott has said that her fondest memory was of Myerberg telling her, "I love you," but the two eventually parted.
Previously, Bankhead controlled the production by not showing up for rehearsal. Now Myerberg could simply put Scott in Bankhead's place. Scott has acknowledged that Myerberg used her to keep Bankhead under control and that Bankhead was furious about the situation. Describing her own experience with Bankhead, Scott recalled, "She never spoke to me, except to bark out commands. Finally, one day, I'd had enough. I told her to say 'please,' and after that she did." The rivalry between the two actresses is cited as an alternative to the Martina Lawrence-Elizabeth Bergner origin of Mary Orr's short story, The Wisdom of Eve (1946), the basis of the 1950 film All About Eve. Broadway legend had it that Bankhead was being victimized by Scott, who was supposedly the real-life Eve Harrington. During the eight months as the understudy, Scott never had an opportunity to substitute for Bankhead, as Scott's presence guaranteed Bankhead's. Scott was cast as "Girl/Drum Majorette." Scott was 20 years old when the play opened—Bankhead was 40. Though the play ran from November 18, 1942 to September 25, 1943, Scott left the production during Miriam Hopkins' tenure.
Rise to fame
The continuing feud between Myerberg and Bankhead worsened her ulcer, leading her to not renew her contract. Anticipating Bankhead's move, Myerberg suddenly signed 39-year-old Miriam Hopkins in March. Caught off guard, Scott eventually quit in disappointment. Bankhead's final zinger to Scott was "You be as good as she (Hopkins) is." For a brief period, Scott understudied for Hopkins. While Scott liked Hopkins much more than Bankhead, she was still disappointed about being passed over for the Sabina role. Before quitting, Scott replaced Hopkins for one night only. When Scott finally went on stage as Sabina, she was surprised by both the approval and fascination of the audience. Her replacement as Sabina understudy was another future femme fatale, 19-year-old Gloria Hallward, soon to be known as Gloria Grahame. When Michael Myerberg pulled Grahame from the play for another experimental production in Philadelphia—Star Dust—there was no understudy when Gladys George took over for Hopkins. On August 30, 1943, Scott once again played Sabina when George was ill. Joe Russell was in the Plymouth Theatre audience that night. Afterward, when a Californian friend came to New York on one of his biannual visits to Broadway, Russell told him about Scott's performance. Russell's friend was an up-and-coming film producer for Warner Brothers, Hal Wallis.
Scott returned to her drama studies and some fashion modeling. Meanwhile, an associate of Joe Russell's, Irving Hoffman, a New York press agent and columnist for The Hollywood Reporter, had befriended Scott and tried to introduce her to people who could help her. Hoffman earlier had done the same for a 19-year-old model who was then being approached by several Hollywood studios—Lauren Bacall. On September 29, 1943, Hoffman held a birthday party at the Stork Club—Scott had turned 21. By happenstance or design, Wallis was also at the club that night. Hoffman introduced Scott to Wallis, who arranged for an interview the following day. When Scott returned home, she found a telegram offering her the lead for the Boston run of The Skin of Our Teeth. Miriam Hopkins was ill. Scott sent Wallis her apologies, canceling the interview. Scott recalled "On the train up to Boston, to replace Miss Hopkins, I decided I needed to make the name more of an attention-grabber. And that's when I decided to drop the 'E' from Elizabeth." In 1945, The New Republic claimed that Scott had dropped the "E" as a patriotic wartime gesture "to conserve newsprint."
Hopkins recovered in two weeks, and Scott was back in New York. Scott returned to modeling for the Walter Thornton Agency, which Lauren Bacall also worked for. Bacall was currently a cover girl for Harper's Bazaar. Later that year, Scott herself appeared in a Harper's photographic spread, which was allegedly admired by film agent Charles Feldman of Famous Artists Corporation (now ICM Partners). In a telegram to Scott, he asked her to take a screen test. He invited her to come to Los Angeles and stay at the Beverly Hills Hotel, all expenses paid. Coincidentally or not, he had just signed Bacall, who soon made her first film.
On March 2, 1944, when Casablanca (1942) won the Best Picture Award at Grauman's Chinese Theatre, the film's producer, Hal Wallis, rose to accept the Academy Award, but the Warner family prevented him leaving the aisle of seats, allowing studio head Jack L. Warner to get to the stage first and accept the award, while Wallis looked on helplessly. This incident changed the focus of Scott's career from stage to screen actress. During that same month, Scott made a five-day trip to Los Angeles and stayed at the hotel, where she was forgotten by Feldman for 10 days.
After reaching Feldman on the telephone, Scott was given a test script. Being a stage actress, Scott knew nothing about screen acting. Her first screen test was at Universal, then at William Goetz's International Pictures. She was rejected by both studios. Then she tested at Warner Brothers. But this time around, Wallis' sister, Minna Wallis, arranged for film director Fritz Lang to coach Scott. He taught Scott not to stop after flubbing a line while the camera was rolling, as the bad footage could be cut. She read a scene from The Male Animal (1942). When Jack Warner saw the screen test, he also rejected Scott. The reason for Warner's rejection varies among film historians, ranging from Warner telling Charles Feldman: "She'll never be a star, only a second leading lady" to derailing a potential rival to Bacall, who was signed to Warner Bros. In addition to Bacall, at the Warner Teddington Studios in London, there was already a blonde actress named Elizabeth Scott, who looked similar to the American. This Scott was the second leading lady in the Warner noir Fingers (1941). A graduate of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, Scott had a contract with Warner Bros. in Hollywood, but did not come to California due to the war.
Hal Wallis also saw the American Scott's test and recognized her potential. In a meeting, Wallis told Scott, "If I could, I would put you under contract." But she did not believe him. She thought he was powerful as Warner and was "prevaricating." Unknown to Scott, years of infighting between Jack Warner and Wallis were about to climax. Under acrimonious circumstances, Wallis left Warner Bros. for Paramount Pictures. On the day that Scott was scheduled to leave for New York, she read about it in Variety. But she spent several months in New York before Feldman telegraphed her in August 1944—Wallis wanted to sign her to a contract.
To Have and Have Not (1944), Bacall's first film, made its New York premiere October 11, 1944. This film became the basis for claims that Scott was a "Bacall manquée" for the rest of her career. Scott moved to Los Angeles in November 1944. Later that winter, Scott tested for Love Letters (1945) and for the role of Susan in The Affairs of Susan (1945), but was cast in neither.
At the age of 22, Scott's film debut was the comedy-drama You Came Along (1945), opposite Robert Cummings. Originally conceived as a Barbara Stanwyck vehicle, Ayn Rand's script concerns an Army Air Force officer, Bob Collins, who tries to hide his terminal leukemia from his handler, Ivy Hotchkiss (Scott), a US Treasury public relations agent, whom Bob meets during a war bond drive. During the shooting of You Came Along, Hal Wallis showed Scott's screen test to Hollywood columnist Bob Thomas. Wallis told Thomas: "Notice how her eyes are alive and sparkling ... Once in a while she reads a line too fast, but direction will cure that. That voice makes her intriguing." Almost four months before the release of Scott's first film, Thomas's March 16, 1945 column was the first to make an unfavorable comparison between Lauren Bacall and Scott, thus beginning a critical trend of marginalizing Scott in favor of Bacall.
Despite Scott's initial difficulties with Cummings, she soon gained his respect with her performance and force of personality. Scott never made any headway with the director, John Farrow, however. Farrow had lobbied for Teresa Wright and when he did not get her, he made his displeasure known to Scott throughout the shoot. However, You Came Along remained Scott's favorite of all the films she made. In October 1945, Tallulah Bankhead denied Paramount publicity stating that Scott was her understudy on Broadway. "'Nobody ever understudies me,' baritones the Alabam' belle. 'When I don't go on, the play doesn't go on!'"
In September 1945, Paramount public relations dubbed Scott "The Threat," which derived from a critic's description of Scott: "She's the Threat, to the Body, the Voice and the Look." "The Body" (Marie McDonald), "The Voice" (Frank Sinatra) and "The Look" (Lauren Bacall) were supposed to be threatened by Scott's arrival on the Hollywood scene. Though they were the same height (5'6" or 1.68 metres), McDonald's measurements were 36½-22½-35, to Scott's 34-24-34. Nor was Scott permitted to sing after her first film, invariably being dubbed by Trudy Stevens. Scott herself never cared for the moniker, though she found "meanie" roles easier to play. Early in February 1946, Scott was dating a then unknown actor named Burt Lancaster, with whom she did a screen test. Lancaster's first marriage was in trouble and despite rumors of marriage between him and Scott, the two broke up the following year.
Later in 1946, Scott's moniker proved prophetic, when a 37-year-old Barbara Stanwyck, in a letter, objected to Scott's top billing in The Strange Love of Martha Ivers (1946): "I will not be co-starred with any other person other than a recognized male or female star." Lawyers for Wallis and Stanwyck got to work, and eventually, the final billing ran Stanwyck, Van Heflin and Scott at the top, with newcomer Kirk Douglas in second place. But Wallis' interest in promoting Scott was obsessive. The AFI page on Martha Ivers notes: "Director Lewis Milestone is quoted in an article in the Los Angeles Sun Mirror on 8 December 1946 as having said that he would never make another picture with producer Hal Wallis because Wallis wanted to reshoot scenes in this film for more close-ups of Lizabeth Scott; Milestone reportedly told Wallis to shoot them himself—which he did." Wallis ended up adding extra footage of Scott at the expense of Stanwyck's screen time, which later led to a contretemps between Stanwyck and Wallis. Concerning her first film noir, Scott recalled how strange it was to be in a film with Stanwyck and only have one brief scene together. The screenplay by Robert Rossen depicts two separate story lines running in parallel—one dominated by Martha Ivers (Stanwyck) and the other by Antonia "Toni" Marachek (Scott). The Heflin character, Sam, is the connection between the story lines, which only overlap in the one scene where femme fatale Martha and Toni meet.
In June 1946, Scott gained the distinction of being the first Hollywood star to visit Britain since the end of World War II. She was there to attend the London premiere of Martha Ivers and do a promotional tour through the country. In Liverpool and Manchester, she was met by massive crowds. Her appeal was now truly international. During her stay in Britain, Scott was interviewed by Picture Page, a news magazine program, at the BBC's Alexandra Palace studios. While Scott was still in Britain, shooting began on a new noir that Scott joined after she returned: Dead Reckoning.
Columbia originally intended Rita Hayworth for the role, who was busy with The Lady from Shanghai (1947). Then attention turned to Bacall, who also refused. As a result, Scott was borrowed from Hal Wallis. Scott played Coral "Dusty" Chandler, a woman that US Army Captain Murdock (portrayed by Humphrey Bogart) is attracted to during his search for the murderer of his AWOL friend. She may not be the innocent bystander that she seems.
When the film was finally released and the reviews came in, they revealed that most critics never caught the differences in accent, diction and timbre between Scott and Bacall. Bacall's accent is pre-World War II, upper-middle-class New York metropolitan, often mistaken for Mid-Atlantic due to the broad "A" and non-rhotic pronunciation of words containing "R." Unlike Scott's inherited low tone, Bacall originally had a naturally high tone with a nasal timbre and fast tempo, but had trained herself to pitch her voice lower and slow down her delivery. Despite Bacall's "mannered toughness" and Scott's "breathy theatricality," when Bacall did the voice-over for a 1990s cat-food commercial, some people thought it was Scott. But more notable than any actual similarity between Bacall and Scott are the people, institutions and events they had in common: the Walter Thornton Agency, Harper's Bazaar, Irving Hoffman, Charles Feldman and the Famous Talent Corporation, Humphrey Bogart, and the "Second Red Scare" (1947–1954). Also, both actresses made Bogart's personal list of the nine "most potent" kissers "in movie love scenes" in which he participated.
At the age of 24, Scott's billing and portrait were equal to Bogart's on the film's lobby posters and in advertisements. Most often portrayed in publicity stills was the Jean Louis gown-and-glove outfit worn in the nightclub scene, the most iconic gown Scott wore in her entire film career (see publicity still above). In September 1946, a Motion Picture Herald poll of exhibitors voted her the seventh-most promising "star of tomorrow." Production ran 10 June–4 September 1946. It premiered in New York the week of 23 January 1947. Despite the initial positive publicity, the long-term effect of Dead Reckoning was to typecast the former comedian for her entire career. The following year, contrary to general expectations, Bacall herself approved of the casting of Scott in Dead Reckoning.
With the coming of World War II, a new type of Hollywood actress appeared on the big screen. California historian Kevin Starr described it thus: "The stars emerging in 1940, by contrast—Rita Hayworth, Ann Sheridan, Ida Lupino, Lupe Vélez, Marie Windsor, Lana Turner, Lizabeth Scott—each possessed a certain hardness, an invisible shield of attitude and defense, that suggested that times were getting serious and that comedy would not be able to handle all the issues... Just a few years earlier Hollywood had been presenting the wisecracking platinum blonde, frank, sexy, self-actualizing. Now with the war, that insouciance had become hard-boiled." This "hard-boiled" quality appeared in Scott's two previous films and was repeated in Desert Fury (1947), the second noir filmed in color and a Western as well. It starred John Hodiak, Burt Lancaster, Wendell Corey and Mary Astor. Astor played Fritzi Haller, a casino and bordello owner, who runs the desert town of Chuckawalla. Scott played Fritzi's 19-year-old daughter, Paula, who, on her expulsion from "her fifth finishing school," returns home. She falls for gangster Eddie Bendix (Hodiak), and faces a great deal of opposition from everyone else. Generally panned by critics when it first appeared, it has been gaining critical praise in the passing years. Even the once ridiculed, high-fashion clothes of Scott's character—by Edith Head, with the colors of the Southwest in mind—play a role in the continued fascination with the film. Robert Rossen's screenplay repeated the matriarch-run-town trope of The Strange Love of Martha Ivers. Originally, Hal Wallis had hired Ramona Stewart, a 23-year-old graduate from the University of Southern California, to write the screenplay, which was based on her then unpublished novel Desert Town (1947). Another 23-year-old, Betsy Drake, was originally cast as Paula, but failed the screen test and was replaced by Scott (who was 24 at the time). During the shooting of Desert Fury scenes that took place in Los Angeles, Scott briefly reappeared with Burt Lancaster in a spoof William Tell sketch in Variety Girl (1947).
In December 1946, Scott again starred with Lancaster, Corey and Douglas, in Wallis's I Walk Alone (1948), a noirish story of betrayal and vengeance. In her second torch singer role, Scott is Kay Lawrence, who befriends a convict, Frankie Madison (Lancaster), who returns to New York after 14 years in prison, seeking his share of criminal proceeds from his partner Noll "Dink" Turner (Douglas), who is also Kay's boyfriend. The film was a dramatic hit with the audience.
But there was more drama behind the scenes of the film, originally titled Deadlock. The Kay Lawrence role was originally intended to be Kristine Miller's breakout role. But Scott, ever competitive with all other actresses, grabbed the role for herself. Miller later recalled, "(Wallis) planned to star me in I Walk Alone. He tested me with Burt; it was a wonderful test. But then Lizabeth Scott decided she wanted the role, and Lizabeth got whatever she wanted—from Hal Wallis! (Laughs) So, I got the second part instead." Douglas, while working with Lancaster on the film, noted: "Lizabeth Scott played the girl we were involved with in the movie. In real life she was involved with Hal Wallis. This was a problem. Very often, she'd be in his office for a long time, emerge teary-eyed, and be difficult to work with for the rest of the day." Though relations between Lancaster and Scott had previously been romantic, there had been a falling out. Lancaster's behavior toward Scott was chilly, especially during one kissing scene, leaving Scott looking exasperated. By April 9, 1947, Lancaster tried to break his seven-year contract with Paramount. He claimed it violated a previous freelance deal—but added that he did not want to work with Scott anymore. Despite all the issues among the cast and past critics, I Walk Alone is usually now judged to be a film noir classic.
In January 1948, the 26-year-old Scott played her third and last ingénue in the second favorite among her own films—Pitfall (1948) with Dick Powell and Jane Wyatt as a middle-aged couple growing apart. Director André de Toth explained his reasons for casting Mona: "I wanted Lizabeth Scott. I didn't want some blonde with big tits. You had to believe that this girl was real. Even if I took one of these over-sexed types who could not act, it would change how the Powell character is drawn into the affair. Remember the point of the script was that he's just a middle-level insurance investigator. He's tired of his job, spending time in his little office with a drab secretary. So I could have made a different picture, with a prettier girl than Lizabeth Scott, and told the story of that girl, her problems; but that wasn't this movie. That would make it phony, if you cast it with Marilyn Monroe, a type like that. I needed somebody real." In post-war Los Angeles, Powell's character, John Forbes, is investigating Mona Stevens (Scott), a department store model whose jailed boyfriend had embezzled funds. Bored with his wife, John starts an affair with Mona, but is soon competing for her with a voyeuristic detective, played by a then unknown Canadian actor, Raymond Burr.
In May 1948, it was announced that Jane Greer and Robert Mitchum would star in a football-themed story by Irwin Shaw, originally titled Interference. Afterward, Lucille Ball replaced Greer and Victor Mature replaced Mitchum. Scott was slated to play the club secretary. Then she replaced Ball as leading lady. The reason for the role switch is unknown, though Ball never forgave Mature for his rudeness when they made Seven Days' Leave (1942). But the 37-year-old Ball was in career slump at the time and had to take the secondary role meant for Scott. Mature played football star Pete Wilson, who has a heart problem. Scott played Pete's wife, Liza "Lize" Wilson, a greedy, social climbing interior decorator. The original ending has Pete leaving Lize for the nobler secretary. But to the bewilderment of critics, it was changed to an ambiguous ending where Pete stays with Lize. The final film, titled Easy Living (1949), received a generally negative response when it was released. The New York Times review was uncommonly positive, though typically dismissive of Scott's performance. But current critiques tend to see Scott as an underrated dramatic actress in her Lize role.
In September 1948, Scott played the ultimate femme fatale in Too Late for Tears, with Don DeFore, Dan Duryea, Arthur Kennedy and Kristine Miller. The story again takes place in post-war Los Angeles, where the facade of a typical married couple is shattered when someone by mistake throws $60,000 into their car. In an effort to keep the money, the wife, Jane Palmer (Scott), leaves a trail of bodies to the very end. During the shooting of a scene where Scott screamed at Duryea, she accidentally broke a blood vessel in her throat. This Hitchcock-like, black-and-white noir is widely considered Scott's best film and performance, eliciting praise even from the normally hostile New York Times. But the film was a box-office failure when it was released and the producer, Hunt Stromberg, was forced into bankruptcy. Decades later, one film historian noted the film's staying power: "Too Late for Tears is a relatively 'unknown and unseen' noir and deserves this recognition, especially for its storyline, acting and the incredible performance of Lizabeth Scott in the femme fatale role."
At the end of 1948, Scott shifted dramatic gears in Paid in Full (1950). Mousy Jane Langley (Scott), a department store illustrator, allows younger sister Nancy (Diana Lynn), a beautiful store model, to marry Bill Prentice (Robert Cummings), despite Jane's love for him. A few years later, Jane accidentally kills her young niece, eventually marries Bill herself, gets pregnant, and dies after giving birth. In a film reminiscent of Stella Dallas (1937) and Mildred Pierce (1945), both Cummings and the original screenwriter, Robert Rossen, were out of their depth, according to one review—but the final film succeeded surprisingly well. There was reportedly a "scene stealing" competition between Scott and Lynn on the set.
On January 25, 1949, Scott collapsed and went into hysterics on the RKO set of The Big Steal (1949). She immediately quit after three days of production. According to Scott's replacement, Jane Greer, Scott quit because she was concerned about being associated with the leading man, Robert Mitchum, who at the time was jailed at the local honor farm for a marijuana conviction—Mitchum was convicted January 10, 1949. It was also later alleged that Hal Wallis was supposedly responsible for Scott's bowing out. Yet, Scott starred with Mitchum in a RKO film two years later. During this same period, the press reported rumors of Scott's stage fright, an ailment common to actors. Scott herself has admitted to stage fright, explaining her absence during premieres of her films.
During Scott's recovery period, Walter Winchell, in his "On Broadway" column for June 9, 1949, repeated a rumor of Scott's impending marriage to Mortimer Hall, CEO and president of radio station KLAC. Scott and Hall later broke up. (Hall eventually married actress Ruth Roman, pursued Rosemarie Bowe, who looked similar to Scott, divorced Roman, and then married Diana Lynn, Scott's co-star in Paid in Full.)
By June 22, 1949, Scott was reportedly recovered from her January episode and was to be loaned out by Hal Wallis to the Princeton Drama Festival. In July 1949, Scott returned to the stage in the title role of Philip Yordan's play Anna Lucasta at the McCarter Theatre, on the campus of Princeton University, New Jersey. The press reported: "Folks who expected fireworks when Liz Scott and Tallulah Bankhead crossed paths at the Princeton Drama Festival were vastly disappointed. It was all sweetness and light."
Finally, Scott decided to legalize her stage name. Having been known professionally as "Lizabeth Scott" for almost seven years, she legally changed her name from Emma Matzo on September 14, 1949.
1950 saw Scott act in four films. In a continuing effort to escape her femme fatale typecasting, Scott played another self-sacrificing June Allyson-like character before reverting to her usual torch singer/socialite roles. In The Company She Keeps (1951), she played Joan Willburn, a probation officer who sacrifices her fiancé to a scheming convict, Diane Stuart (Jane Greer), who echoes Scott's Toni Marachek from Martha Ivers. While Greer's beauty was toned down for the film, Scott's was not. As a result, critics were generally unconvinced that the leading man would choose the dowdy Diane over Joan. Most critics thought that Scott and Greer were miscast, and should have switched roles. Columnist Erskine Johnson summed it thus: "Lizabeth Scott is on her second reach-for-the-handkerchief-Mabel picture for RKO." A box-office failure due to the then perceived miscasting and mix of noir and "weepie" genres, The Company She Keeps has risen in critical esteem with a more sophisticated audience in later years.
Scott played her third torch singer role in Dark City (1950), a traditional film noir. Her boyfriend, Danny Haley—Charlton Heston in his film debut—is a bookie who is the apparent target of a vengeful brother of a dead man that Haley swindled. Originally Burt Lancaster was cast as the leading man, but he refused to work with Scott again.
In a May interview, Scott said she was reading the entire oeuvre of Aldous Huxley. In another interview, she admitted almost joining a "cult" endorsed by Huxley, but did not due to the vow of poverty required. Huxley explored reincarnation and destiny, of which Scott also professed to during interviews. During Scott's spiritual search, she eventually met the Dalai Lama at a private reception at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Yet, conversely, Scott was a friend and reader of Ayn Rand, an Aristotelian atheist. Later that year, Scott was cast to do the summer stock version of Tennessee Williams' Summer and Smoke (1948). Instead, she quit the production and audited two morning courses—philosophy and political science—for six weeks at the University of Southern California.
In Two of a Kind (1951), Scott portrayed Brandy Kirby, a socialite who seduces a gambler, Michael "Lefty" Farrell (Edmond O'Brien), into joining a caper. Red Mountain (1952) is set in the 1860s, starring Scott as Chris, the only member of her family to survive the American Civil War. Red Mountain was the second of Scott's three Westerns, though the only traditional non-noir one. The leading man was Alan Ladd in a typical knight errant role—Brett Sherwood, a Confederate Army captain seeking to make a last stand against the Union. When the director, William Dieterle, became sick on the Gallup, New Mexico shooting location, Hal Wallis sent Scott's old adversary from You Came Along, John Farrow, to direct. Scott injured her knee during a stunt in which she jumped off a 12-foot ledge, on her fourth try. She had to be flown out from location.
Scott played her fourth and last torch singer role in The Racket (1951), another conventional noir. Irene Hayes (Scott) is caught up in a struggle between a big city police captain (Robert Mitchum) and a local crime boss (Robert Ryan), who resembles the real-life Bugsy Siegel. The film was released two months after the Kefauver hearings, in which Virginia Hill, a real-life femme fatale and mistress of Siegel, denied having any knowledge of organized crime. While Irene Hayes was thought to be modeled on the smoky-voiced Hill, Scott denied the rumor.
Scott returned to Britain in October 1951 to film Stolen Face (1952), a noir that presages Alfred Hitchcock's Vertigo (1958) by several years. It combined elements from medical science-fiction (repeated in the later work of the director, Terence Fisher, in his cycle of Hammer horror films). Paul Henreid is Dr. Philip Ritter, a London plastic surgeon, who upon losing the love of an American concert pianist, Alice Brent (Scott), recreates her face on a disfigured female criminal. Hal Wallis and Scott, by allowing Henreid to be the leading man, were among the first to break the Hollywood blacklist. As a former member of the Committee for the First Amendment, Henreid was forced to seek work in Europe. Scott later starred in an anti-McCarthy noir, raising the ire of a pro-McCarthy journalist, who linked Scott's future visit to Cannes, France with an alleged visit to a Parisian nightclub.
Later that spring, Scott returned to her beginnings as a comedian when she began work on her first comedy noir, Scared Stiff, with Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis. Scott played an heiress who inherits a haunted castle on Lost Island off the coast of Cuba. Though Scott had fond memories of working on the set in the years ahead, at the time of filming she found it trying. Scott found Lewis' impersonations of her offensive, while a jealous Hal Wallis instructed the director, George Marshall, not to let the romantic scenes between Scott and Martin get too steamy. Despite Scott's best efforts, including making excuses for Lewis' behavior to the press, most of her scenes ended up on the cutting-room floor. Shooting took place late May–mid-July 1952. The film premiered the week of 28 May 1953 in Los Angeles. Despite the negative experience and reviews, Scared Stiff remains Scott's third favorite film.
Scott's stage fright was worsening. During the October 19, 1952 live broadcast of NBC's Colgate Comedy Hour, Scott reportedly hid in her dressing room until the casting director, Howard Ross, taunted her to face the audience. By the end of October 1952, of the original 48 big name actors under contract to Paramount in 1947, only four were left—Bing Crosby, Bob Hope, William Holden and Lizabeth Scott.
In April 1953, the 30-year-old Scott made her last film as a Paramount contractee. In Bad for Each Other (1953), Scott played a decadent heiress, Helen Curtis, who tries to dominate a poor but idealistic physician, Colonel Tom Owen (Charlton Heston). The source material for the screenplay, Horace McCoy's novel Scalpel, was more nuanced than the linear morality play of Bad For Each Other. This film was Hal Wallis' last attempt to pair Burt Lancaster and Scott. Patricia Neal was originally cast as Helen, but when Scott replaced Neal, Lancaster had to be replaced by Heston. Though Heston and Scott had previously worked together in Dark City, there was reported feuding between the two on the set. The film was a box office failure. Eight months later in February 1954, Hal Wallis and Scott parted ways. Scott was now a freelancer.
In Scott's most overtly politically-themed film, Silver Lode (1954), she returned to the Western noir of Desert Fury, only in a traditional 19th century setting. Scott is a would-be bride whose groom, Dan Ballard (John Payne), is the target of a lynch mob on their Fourth of July wedding day. As the loyal fiancée, Scott is unwavering in facing volatile public opinion, fueled by the fear that Ballard is someone other than he appears. The film repeats many of the themes found in previous Western noirs such as The Ox-Bow Incident (1943), as well as the then recent anti-blacklist Johnny Guitar that had premiered the previous month. Dan Duryea was cast as a villain named Ned McCarty, ostensibly named after William Henry McCarty (alias Billy the Kid), but usually assumed by film historians to be an allusion to Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy. Unlike previous Hollywood efforts against blacklisting, such as the Committee for the First Amendment, manned mostly by Democrats, Republicans dominated the Silver Lode production. Though the screenwriter, Karen DeWolf, was a left-wing activist, director Allan Dwan and John Payne were Republicans, as were Scott and RKO's owner, Howard Hughes. Critical response to the film itself was muted, as the film appeared immediately after the Army–McCarthy hearings and McCarthy's influence was already in decline.
In April 1954, Scott attended the Cannes Film Festival, where she posed wading barefoot in a fountain and surf for photographers. Though she left for London immediately after the festival, her visit to France had unforeseen consequences. Later that month, it was announced that she would be the host of High Adventure (1957–1958), a travelogue television series for CBS, but she never appeared in it. As Scott put it: "... out of the clear blue sky one morning, I woke and decided that I never wanted to make another film again. It was just a spark, I can't explain it."
Though the public response to Scott was generally favorable during the Paramount years, the film critics were less so, repeatedly making unfavorable comparisons to Lauren Bacall and Tallulah Bankhead, beginning with Bob Thomas' March 1945 comment about her screen test: "Her throaty voice may well make Lauren Bacall sound like a mezzo soprano." When the most prominent critic of the era, Bosley Crowther of The New York Times, gave a bad review of You Came Along (1945), Scott's film debut, she recalled, "Being very young and naïve at the time, I didn't know you weren't suppose to do such things, so I called him up and complained. I told him how hard everyone worked to make such a beautiful movie, and I couldn't understand how he could be so cruel. I must say he took it awfully well, and was very kind to me." Nonetheless, in his review of I Walk Alone (1948), he stated, "As the torch singer ... Lizabeth Scott has no more personality than a model in the window of a department store." He also wrote of "a frighteningly grotesque Lizabeth Scott, who is supposed to represent a cabaret singer" in Dark City (1950).
Scott's style of acting, characteristic of other film actors of the 1940s—a cool, naturalistic underplay derived from multiple sources—was often depreciated by critics who preferred the more emphatic stage styles of the pre-film era or the later method styles. Typical of the '40s was Dick McCrone: "Miss Scott, who is an excellent clothes horse, rounds out the principals as Lancaster's moll. Otherwise, she's still the same frozen-face actress she was in Desert Fury and a couple of pictures before that." Current film historians critical of Scott either repeat Bob Thomas' image of an ersatz Bacall, Bosley Crowther in describing Scott's acting as wooden, or a pastiche of actresses of the period, as did Pauline Kael.
But others see Scott's acting in a different light. With the revival of interest in film noir and its corresponding acting style, beginning in the 1980s, Scott's reputation has risen among critics and film historians. In Movieland, his personal history of Hollywood, Jerome Charyn described this style as "dreamwalking": "And then, among the Dolly Sisters and Errol Flynn, Bing Crosby and Dotty Lamour, the Brazilian Bombshell, Scheherazade, Ali Baba, and the elephant boy—all the fluff and exotic pastry that Hollywood could produce—appeared a very odd animal, the dreamwalker, like Turhan Bey, Sonny Tufts, Paul Henreid, Alan Ladd, Veronica Lake, Lizabeth Scott, and Dana Andrews, whose face had a frozen quality and always looked half-asleep ... The dreamwalker seemed to mirror all our own fears. His (and her) numbness was the crazed underside of that cinematic energy in the wake of the (Second World) war."
During the Golden Age of Radio, Scott reprised her film roles in abridged radio versions. Typical were her appearances on Lux Radio Theatre: You Came Along with Van Johnson in the Robert Cummings role and I Walk Alone. Scott was also a guest host/narrator on Family Theater.
After being fired from the New York Journal-American in 1954, Howard Rushmore became the chief editor of a New York scandal magazine, Confidential. For Rushmore, it was a return to his days as film critic of the communist Daily Worker, but on the opposing side. He had been fired from the Worker in 1939 for giving an ambivalent review of Gone with the Wind (1939). The firing made the front page of all the major New York City newspapers. Rushmore became a professional anti-communist. Among Rushmore's heroes was Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy. Rushmore was briefly director of research for the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations under McCarthy. In early 1955, several months after the Army–McCarthy hearings and the premiere of Silver Lode, Rushmore wrote an exposé on Lizabeth Scott, a second-generation Republican and Catholic host of Family Theater. The publisher, Robert Harrison, was initially intrigued, but skeptical. To verify some aspects of the story, he hired an out-of-work actress, Veronica "Ronnie" Quillan, to have luncheon with Scott, giving Quillan an opportunity to make a pass at Scott. Quillan was to be bugged with a wristwatch microphone supplied by the Hollywood Detective Agency, but the agency's owner, H. L. Von Wittenburg, backed out and the plan was never implemented. Despite the lack of evidence, Confidential sent a copy of the story to Scott herself.
What Scott read was that a police raid occurred on a Hollywood Hills bungalow at 8142 Laurel View Drive the previous autumn. Two female adults, one male adult and a 17-year-old female were arrested on prostitution charges. The police found an address book with the names and telephone numbers of various people in the film industry, including two numbers allegedly belonging to Scott. "HO 2-0064" had a Hollywood prefix and was the residential number of an elderly couple, Henry A. and Mamie R. Finke, of 4465 West 2nd Street, Los Angeles, while "BR 2-6111" belonged to the 20th Century Fox switchboard at 10201 West Pico Boulevard, Los Angeles. Scott did not work for 20th Century until 1956, when she took part in an episode of The 20th Century Fox Hour.
The Rushmore article further stated that Scott spent her off-work hours with "Hollywood's weird society of baritone babes" (a euphemism for lesbians). He also linked Scott's trip to Cannes to a Parisian woman named "Frede." "In one jaunt to Europe (Scott) headed straight for Paris and the left bank where she took up with Frede, the city's most notorious Lesbian queen and the operator of a night club devoted exclusively to entertaining deviates like herself." Frédérique "Frédé" Baulé managed "Carroll's," an upper-class, cabaret-type nightclub at 36 Rue de Ponthieu, Paris, France. It featured mainstream entertainers of the day such as Eartha Kitt and was devoted exclusively to entertaining café society. One of the owners was Marlene Dietrich, who happened to be the subject of "The Untold Story of Marlene Dietrich" in the then current issue of Confidential.
Hollywood Research Inc. was the new intelligence-gathering front of Confidential. It was run by Marjorie Meade, Robert Harrison's 26-year-old niece and one of the most feared people in Hollywood since her arrival in January 1955. Once a proposed story was assembled, usually either she or an agent visited the subject and presented a copy with a "buy-back" proposal. But instead of paying the magazine not to publish the article, Scott sued. On July 25, 1955, two months before the issue's printed publication date, and while the Marlene Dietrich issue was still on the newsstands, Jerry Giesler, Scott's lawyer, initiated a $2.5 million libel suit.
In retaliation, Confidential published the Scott story in the next issue. Under the byline of "Matt Williams", it was titled "Lizabeth Scott in the Call Girls' Call Book". In November 1955, at the age of 33, Scott again went to Britain to film The Weapon (1957).
The next spring, despite Giesler's reassurances to the press, the legal efforts against Confidential went nowhere. Since the magazine was domiciled in New York State, and Scott was a California resident who had initiated the suit in her own state, Los Angeles Supreme Court judge Leon T. David quashed Scott's suit on March 7, 1956, on the grounds that the magazine was not published in California. Despite this setback, Giesler said that he would refile in New York. Lawsuits from other actors against the magazine were piling up. Meanwhile, Rushmore tried to get Harrison to publish a story about former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt allegedly having an affair with her African-American chauffeur. When Harrison refused, Rushmore quit and flew to Los Angeles to meet with Scott's attorney, Jerry Giesler. Rushmore offered to testify against Confidential in exchange for a job in Hollywood. Giesler rejected the offer. Then Rushmore became a witness for California Attorney General Edmund "Pat" Brown. Since New York refused to let Brown extradite Harrison to California, Brown instead put Hollywood Research and Harrison's niece on trial. On August 7, 1957, the trial of The People of the State of California v. Robert Harrison et al. began. It eventually involved over 200 actors, most of whom fled California to avoid defense subpoenas. Rushmore, now the state's star witness, testified that the magazine knowingly published unverified allegations, despite its reputation for double-checking facts: "Some of the stories are true and some have nothing to back them up at all. Harrison many times overruled his libel attorneys and went ahead on something."
According to Rushmore, Harrison told the attorneys, "I'd go out of business if I printed the kind of stuff you guys want." Ronnie Quillan herself testified at the same trial that she had never verified the Scott story, thus not making the story "suit proof," but that Rushmore agreed to publish it anyway. However, a mistrial was declared on October 1, 1957, when the jury could not agree on a verdict.
In the wake of the sensational 1957 trial, Scott was forgotten by the media. Despite later claims that Scott's film career was ruined by the Confidential scandal, by the time the September 1955 issue of Confidential appeared, her career was already dormant. Scott had begun her career at a time when many established actors were away at war, giving then unknowns like Scott a chance at stardom. When the older stars returned, many of the newer stars faded away. In addition, the rise of television and the breakup of the studio system further curtailed film production. Film historians generally agree that Scott's career essentially peaked between 1947 and 1949. By February 1953, her stage fright was such that she even hid from friends. Scott did not renew her Paramount contract in February 1954, 18 months before "Lizabeth Scott in the Call Girls' Call Book" was published. Between the end of her contract and Rushmore's article, she had turned down numerous scripts, including a part in Wallis' The Rose Tattoo (1955). But instead of reinventing herself as Bacall did, returning to Broadway, Scott chose another path.
Erskine Johnson reported in January 1954 that Scott was being trained by Hollywood voice teacher Harriet Lee, and later by Lillian Rosedale Goodman—the final result was that Scott "has a vocal range of two octaves, A below C to High C," making Scott a mezzo-soprano. In July 1956, Johnson reported that Scott was under the management of Earl Mills, who also managed the singing career of Dorothy Dandridge. Scott was planning to debut as a torch singer on the nightclub circuit.
Scott reemerged from retirement in Loving You (1957), Elvis Presley's second musical. During the shooting of Loving You, Scott was reported to have been infatuated with Presley. During a kissing scene, she playfully bit him on the cheek, leaving a red mark, which she called "just a little love nibble." The scene had to be reshot with the other side of his face to the camera. But Scott's musical debut came to naught. Though Hal Wallis tried to get Scott's singing voice undubbed for the production, he was overruled by the studio heads, despite all of Scott's previous voice training. Production ran late January 1957–mid-March 1957.
Undaunted by Paramount's refusal to let her singing be heard, Scott signed a recording contract with Vik Records (a subsidiary of RCA Victor). Scott recorded her album with Henri René and his orchestra in Hollywood on October 28, 29 and 30, 1957. Simply titled Lizabeth, the 12 tracks are a mixture of torch songs and playful romantic ballads. Finally on April 23, 1958, Scott made her public singing debut on CBS' The Big Record.
The 1960s saw Scott continuing to guest-star on television, including a notable 1960 episode of Adventures in Paradise, "The Amazon," opposite Gardner McKay. Scott played the titular character, derived from a boyfriend's dialog: "She is a sleek, well-groomed tigress, a man-eating shark—an Amazon! She chews men up and spits them out." In Burke's Law "Who Killed Cable Roberts?" (1963), she camps it up as the ungrieving widow of a celebrity big game hunter. But much of her private time was dedicated to classes at the University of Southern California.
In May 1969, the future wedding of Scott to oil executive William Dugger of San Antonio, Texas was announced after a two-year engagement. In late 1969, musician Rexino Mondo was helping Scott decorate her fiance's mansion on Mulholland Drive before the wedding: "Liz ... introduced me to her fiance, Texas oil baron William Lafayette Dugger, Jr. He was in his late forties, of medium build, good-looking, with dark hair, a warm personality, and a strong handshake." Dugger himself described Scott as "A misunderstood soul searching for love. Her outward appearance is just a shell." Dugger planned to make a film in Rome starring Scott, but he suddenly died on August 8, 1969. A handwritten codicil to his will leaving half his estate to his fiancée was contested by Dugger's sister, Sarah Dugger Schwartz. The will was judged invalid in 1971.
Previous to Dugger, several books claimed Scott was a mistress of Hal Wallis, then married to actress Louise Fazenda. Wallis had a falling out with Scott around the time of Bad for Each Other, with recriminations on Wallis' part. After Scott freelanced for a few years, Wallis made an effort to revive the relationship by making Scott the leading lady opposite Presley, as it might be his last chance to star Scott in anything. After shooting was completed, Scott walked away from film acting to try her hand at singing. The 14-year-relationship that began at the Stork Club in 1943 came to an end. Scott herself knew the relationship was over—only Wallis remained in denial. After Louise's death in 1962, Wallis went into a depression and became a recluse before marrying Martha Hyer in 1966. In later life, he was reticent on the subject of Scott, despite an unjealous Hyer urging him to include Scott and his other mistresses in his autobiography. Though Casablanca was the film Wallis was most proud of, the ones he watched repeatedly were those starring Lizabeth Scott. Even during his second marriage, Wallis continued to screen Scott's films at home, night after night.
In 1948 Scott was reportedly divorced from Russian Prince Stass Reed, In 1953, Scott was briefly engaged to architect John C. Lindsey, who later became Diana Lynn's first husband before Mortimer Hall. Despite the Confidential article, Scott remained active on the Hollywood dating circuit. But the allegations continued to haunt her. A friend, David Patrick Columbia, noted: "One night driving her home from a party we’d been to, she remarked apropos of nothing we’d been talking about, 'and you know David, I am not a lesbian.'" Scott herself tended toward secrecy about her personal relationships and publicly disparaged former dates who told all to the press. Once their date appears in the press, "... the man goes off [my] date list ... 'I think,' said Miss Scott, 'that gentlemen don't tell.'" In 1948, Burt Lancaster said of Scott: "Becoming her close friend ... is 'a long stretch at hard labor.'" In the period between 1945 and the 1970s, the press reported Scott dating Van Johnson, James Mason, Helmut Dantine, plastic surgeon Gregory Pollock, Richard Quine, William Dozier, Philip Cochran, Herb Caen, Peter Lawford, Anson Bond of the clothing store chain family, Seymour Bayer of the pharmaceutical family, Marquess of Milford Haven, race-track owner Gerald "Jerry" Herzfeld, and Eddie Sutherland, among others. Burt Bacharach dated Scott during his breakup with Angie Dickinson. According to Bacharach: "She personified what I love about a woman, which is not too feminine but a little bit masculine. Just the strength and the coolness and the separation from the frilly woman who is always touching you and wanting something ... I think Diane Keaton had that kind of quality."
Scott made her final film appearance in her second comedy noir, Pulp (1972), a nostalgic pastiche of noir tropes starring Michael Caine and Mickey Rooney. The director and screenwriter, Mike Hodges, spent a long time coaxing Scott out of retirement to fly to Malta for the shooting. Scott said that while she enjoyed the monochromic beauty of Malta, she was not pleased that most of her footage was cut out—eight scenes in all. Hodges for his part reported that Scott was challenging to work with while shooting. Scott "hadn't make a picture in 15 years and I had to really coax her into coming back." But Scott overcame her stage fright and Hodges was pleased with Scott's performance. Despite disagreements among the cast, crew and past critics, Pulp, as with the 1949 Too Late for Tears, is increasingly considered an artistic success by film historians.
After that, Scott kept away from public view and declined most interview requests. From the 1970s on, she was engaged in real estate development and volunteer work for various charities, such as Project HOPE and the Ancient Arts Council of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, where she was a major donor.
Unlike her favorite actress, Greta Garbo, Scott's seclusion was not total. She continued to date within a close circle of old Hollywood insiders. "One of her best friends was the singer Michael Jackson, and on very rare occasions she could be spotted on his arm." Nor did she forget Hal Wallis. She appeared on stage at an American Film Institute tribute to Wallis in 1987 and fondly recalled her time with him. In 2003, film historian Bernard F. Dick interviewed Scott for his biography of Wallis. The results was an entire chapter titled "Morning Star." In the chapter, the author observed that during the interview, Scott (then 80 or 81 years old) was still able to recite her opening monologue from The Skin of Our Teeth, which she had learned six decades earlier.
Scott's favorite film was one she never appeared in—Doctor Zhivago (1965). Ever the non-conformist, she never stopped living Ralph Waldo Emerson's precept: "To be yourself in a world that is constantly trying to make you something else is the greatest accomplishment." Scott died of congestive heart failure at the age of 92 on January 31, 2015.
- Janice H. McElroy (Pennsylvania Division, American Association of University Women, June 1, 1983), Our Hidden Heritage: Pennsylvania Women in History, p. 379
-  Anonymous (February 8, 2015; accessed March 24, 2015), "Film noir femme fatale Lizabeth Scott dies at 92," Catholic Online (Los Angeles, California)
-  Anonymous (March 16, 2015; accessed March 23, 2015), "Lizabeth Scott, actress—obituary," The Telegraph (London, England)
-  FamilySearch (accessed May 23, 2014) "Emma Matzo in household of John Matzo, 'United States Census, 1930.'" FamilySearch. Emma Matzo is the name given in the 1930 US Census, April 8, 1930, which lists Emma Matzo, aged 8, daughter of John and Mary Matzo.
- Carole Langer (Soapbox & Praeses Productions, 1996; accessed May 23, 2014), Lizabeth Scott 1996 Interview Part 1 of 8
- AP (Friday, October 21, 1949), "Star Changes Name," The San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California), p. 25. AP article gives Scott's birthplace as Dunmore, Pennsylvania, while Scott gives her birthplace as Scranton in the Langer video interview.
-  FamilySearch (accessed May 23, 2014), "John Matzo in household of John Munchak, 'United States Census, 1920'," FamilySearch
- Janice H. McElroy (Pennsylvania Division, American Association of University Women, June 1, 1983), Our Hidden Heritage: Pennsylvania Women in History, p. 380
- Walter Dushnyck, Nicholas L. Chirovsky (Ukrainian Congress Committee of America, November 1, 1991), The Ukrainian Heritage in America, p. 331. Scott is described as Carpatho-Ukrainian.
- Andrew Spicer (Scarecrow Press, March 19, 2010), Historical Dictionary of Film Noir, p. 273. Spicer says "Born Emma Matzo to Slovakian parents ..."
- Paul R. Magocsi (The Multicultural Society of Ontario, 1984), Our people: Carpatho-Rusyns and their descendants in North America, p. 71. "Among other performers to achieve national success are two actresses from Hollywood. Lizabeth Scott (born Emma Matzo), the daughter of Carpatho-Rusyn immigrants from Subcarpathian Rus', played the role of a sultry leading lady in several films during the late 1940s and early 1950s."
- James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 519. The father is described as English-born and the mother as Russian.
- Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, p. 96. John Matzo is described as Italian and Mary Matzo as Slovakian.
-  Robert D. McFadden (February 6, 2015; accessed February 7, 2015), "Lizabeth Scott, Film Noir Siren, Dies at 92," New York Times (New York City, New York). Obituary describes her as "one of six children of Ukrainian immigrants").
- Carole Langer (Soapbox & Praeses Productions, 1996; accessed May 23, 2014), Lizabeth Scott 1996 Interview Part 5 of 8. Scott described herself in the interview as having "Russian blood."
- J. D. Spiro (September 11, 1949), "Lizabeth Is So Different," The Milwaukee Journal (Milwaukee, Wisconsin), p. 3. Interview repeats Paramount publicity about Scott's alleged "English father" and "White Russian" mother."
-  AP (February 7, 2015; accessed February 8, 2015), "Lizabeth Scot, Sultry '40s, '50s Film Noir Star, Dies at 92," New York Times (New York City, New York). Obituary repeats 1940s Paramount publicity: "She was born ... to English–Russian parents."
-  Anonymous (March 16, 2015; accessed March 23, 2015), "Lizabeth Scott, actress—obituary," The Telegraph (London, England). "Her father’s family originated from Sussex (county, England)..."
- Alfred N. Hare (Thursday, June 28, 1934), "Mercantile Appraisement," The Scranton Republican (Scranton, Pennsylvania), p. 18. Store address is 1001 Capouse (Avenue). The grocery store was on the ground floor of the Matzos' two-story house.
- Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 470
- Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, p. 96
- Gene Hansaker (Tuesday, February 26, 1946), In Hollywood, Ironwood Daily Globe (Ironwood, Michigan), p. 7
- Barbara Acker (Applause Books, February 1, 2000), The Vocal Vision: Views on Voice, pp. 161–162. Mid-Atlantic is referred as "World English" using a broad A as opposed to the US flat A.
- Sandra Rennie (Mineco Designs, 1998), "Editor's Letter," Plays and Players Applause, Issue 521, p. 16. The mid-Atlantic accent is described as evoking old Hollywood black-and-white films and actresses like Lizabeth Scott.
-  David Patrick Columbia (February 10. 2015; accessed February 11, 2015), "Remembering Lizabeth," New York Social Diary. Columbia notes Scott's "extreme mid-Atlantic accent that movie stars in her youth were schooled in."
- Howard C. Heyn (Sunday, November 28, 1948), "Lush, Sultry and Single," "The Salt Lake Tribune" (Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 75
- James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 519
- Karen Burroughs Hannsberry (McFarland & Company, 1998), Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film, p. 445
- Anonymous (Tuesday, July 31, 1934), "Little Flower Notes," The Scranton Republican (Scranton, Pennsylvania), p. 8
- Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 465
- Anonymous (Saturday, June 3, 1933), "Marywood Seminary Pupils Give Recital," The Scranton Republican (Scranton, Pennsylvania), p. 6
-  Joseph Myers (January 26, 2012; accessed May 23, 2014), University of the Arts lauds Mae Desmond: A new musical will address the life of a Queen Village theatrical legend
- Anonymous (Thursday, May 18, 1939), "News and Comment Of Stage and Screen," Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts), p. 11
- David Ragan (Prentice Hall, July 1, 1985), Movie Stars of the '40s, p. 191"
- Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 466
- Carole Langer (Soapbox & Praeses Productions, 1996; accessed May 23, 2014), Lizabeth Scott 1996 Interview Part 2 of 8
- Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 96–97. This school was housed in the Grand Opera House on 8th Avenue and 23rd Street, New York City.
- David Ragan (Prentice Hall, July 1, 1985), "Lizabeth Scott," Movie Stars of the 40s, p. 192
- Ray Peacock (Friday, May 22, 1942), "Vaudeville's Back But Sh-h-h! It's Only Been Hiding," The Evening Review (East Liverpool, Ohio), p. 19
- Anonymous (Friday, May 16, 1941), "'Hellzapoppin' In Chicago," The News-Palladium (Benton Harbor, Michigan), p. 7
- Erskine Johnson (Wednesday, January 10, 1945), In Hollywood, The Salt Lake Tribune (Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 12
- Anonymous (Sunday, August 26, 1945), "Nickname Sticks: Lizabeth Succumbs To Hollywood Fad," The Salt Lake Tribune (Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 41
- James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 520
- Erskine Johnson (Friday, January 12, 1945), "That's California 'Dew,'" In Hollywood, Ironwood Daily Globe (Ironwood, Michigan), p. 10
- Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, p. 97
- Louis Sobol (Sunday, January 22, 1950), "Ballyhoo That Backfired!" Idaho State Journal (Pocatello, Idaho), p. 30
- Victor Gunson (Sunday, December 1, 1946), "Treason? Film Actress Lizabeth Scott Thinks N.Y. Glamorous, Not Hollywood," The Raleigh Register (Beckley, West Virginia), p. 13
- Joel Lobenthal (It Books, October 26, 2004), Tallulah!: The Life and times of a Leading Lady, p. 347
- Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 471
- Sam Stagg (St. Martin's Press, 1st edition, March 18, 2000), All About "All About Eve," pp. 319–335
- Mary Orr, "The Wisdom of Eve," Cosmopolitan, May 1946, pp. 72–75, 191–95
- Bruce Kirle (Southern Illinois University Press; 1st edition, October 24, 2005), Unfinished Show Business: Broadway Musicals as Works-in-process, p. 191
- Dorothy Kilgallen (Thursday, June 24, 1943), "The $64 Questions," The Voice Of Broadway, Times Herald (Olean, New York), p. 13
- Thornton Wilder (Samuel French, first acting edition, January 1, 1944), The Skin of Our Teeth, p. 5
- George Jean Nathan (Ulan Press, reprint of 1943 edition, October 28, 2012), The Theatre Book of the Year, 1942–1943, p. 132
-  IBDb (accessed May 23, 2014), "Elizabeth Scott," IBDb
- Tallulah Bankhead (University Press of Mississippi, July 7, 2004), Tallulah: My Autobiography, pp. 258–259
- David Bret (Robson Books, September 1998), Tallulah Bankhead: A Scandalous Life, p. 174
- Eric Braun (Reynolds & Hearn, 2nd edition, May 1, 2007), Frightening the Horses: Gay Icons of the Cinema, p. 1927
- Karen Burroughs Hannsberry (McFarland & Company, 1998), Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film, p. 446
- Laura Wagner (McFarland & Company, September 2004), Killer Tomatoes: Fifteen Tough Film Dames, p. 66
- Anonymous (September 18, 1943), "Out-of-Town Opening," The Billboard (New York City, New York), p. 25
- Anonymous (Sunday, August 15, 1943), "Myerberg 'Snatches' Gladys George Under Hollywood's Nose," The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York), p. 31. George took over as Sabina on Monday, August 16, 1943.
- Anonymous (Tuesday, August 31, 1943), "The 'Skin of Our Teeth' Stars Out of Cast," New York Post (New York City, New York), p. 20
- Eileen Creelman (Tuesday, June 26, 1945), "Lizabeth Scott, of the Tawny Hair and Deep Voice, Talks of 'You Came Along,'" Picture Plays and Players, The New York Sun (New York City, New York), p. 13
- Earl Wilson (Saturday, June 10, 1972), "A Couple Of Strangers Helped Cloris' Career," That's Earl For Today," Cafe Circuit: It Happened Last Night, The Terre Haute Star (Terre Haute, Indiana), p. 4
- Arthur Gelb (Putnam Adult, 1st edition, October 13, 2003), City Room, p. 90
- Ken Bloom (Routledge, 2nd edition, November 11, 2003), Broadway: Its History, People, and Places: an Encyclopedia, pp. 249–250
- Lauren Bacall (Knopf, December 12, 1978), By Myself, pp. 70–72
- Earl Wilson (Tuesday, December 17, 1968), "That's Earl For Today," The Evening Standard (Uniontown, Pennsylvania), p. 2
- Louis Sobol (Crown Publishers, January 1, 1968), The Longest Street: A Memoir, p. 392. According to Sobol, Hoffman arranged for Hal Wallis to be at the Stork Club.
- Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 97–98
- The New Republic, November 5, 1945, cited in Gunther, John (1947). Inside U.S.A. New York, London: Harper & Brothers. p. 48.
- Maud M. Miller (Winchester Publications, 1948), Winchester's Screen Encyclopedia, p. 170
- 1944 Walter Thornton Model Agency calendar, Lizabeth Scott Model of the month
-  Anonymous (May 16, 1990; accessed May 23, 2014), "Walter Thornton, Agent for Models, Dies of Stroke at 88," The New York Times (New York City, New York)
- Lauren Bacall (It Books, October 31, 2006), By Myself and Then Some, pp. 78–81
- Harlan Lebo (Touchstone, 1st edition, October 1, 1992), Casablanca: Behind the Scenes, p. 194
- J. D. Spiro (Sunday, September 11, 1949), "Lizabeth Is So Different," The Milwaukee Journal (Milwaukee, Wisconsin), p. 3
- Hedda Hopper (Sunday, October 7, 1951), "She Lives For Her Job," The Salt Lake Tribune (Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 124
- Eric Braun (Reynolds & Hearn, 2nd edition, May 1, 2007), Frightening the Horses: Gay Icons of the Cinema, p. 1928
-  BFI (accessed May 23, 2014), Scott, Elizabeth. BFI Film & TV Database
- David Ehrenstein (University of California Press, May 18, 1999), "Desert Fury, Mon Amour," Film Quarterly: Forty Years, a Selection, p. 481. Elizabeth Louise Scott (1915–2001) is sometimes confused with Lizabeth Virginia Scott due to the similar name and appearance.
-  Anonymous (Oct 19, 2001; accessed May 23, 2014), "Museum founder dies, 85," Daily Post (Liverpool, England)
- Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 467
- Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 99–100
- Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 64–84
- Burt Prelutsky (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, November 3, 2012), Sixty Seven Conservatives You Should Meet Before You Die, p. 468. Waiting period given is six months.
- James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 521
-  AFI (accessed May 23, 2014), To Have and Have Not, Catalog of Feature Films
- Barry Monush (Applause, April 1, 2003), Encyclopedia of Hollywood Film Actors, Vol. 1: From the Silent Era to 1965, p. 74
- American Film Institute (University of California Press, 3 Volume Set edition, August 12, 1999), "Love Letters", The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1941-1950, Volume 1, p. 1425
- American Film Institute (University of California Press, 3 Volume Set edition, August 12, 1999), "The Affairs of Susan," The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1941-1950, Volume 1, p. 36
- Bob Thomas (Friday, March 16, 1945), "Hollywood—It Takes A Spark To Make A Star," Big Spring Weekly Herald (Big Spring, Texas), p. 14
- Gita Bumpass (Sunday, November 25, 1945), "Three First-Run Pictures Offered on Abilene Screen," Abilene Reporter-News (Abilene, Texas), p. 12
- Rebel Hope (Sunday, May 11, 1947), On Film Fare, Abilene Reporter-News (Abilene, Texas), p. 88
- Carole Langer (Soapbox & Praeses Productions, 1996; accessed May 23, 2014), Lizabeth Scott 1996 Interview Part 4 of 8
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- Louella O. Parsons (Tuesday, June 5, 1945), "Marie McDonald Will Star In Getting Gertie's Garter," The Modesto Bee And News-Herald (Modesto, California), p. 3
- Ben Lepkin (Saturday, March 25, 1944), I Like The Movies, The Winnipeg Tribune (Winnipeg Canada), p. 13
- Francis Sill Wickware (May 7, 1945), "Lauren Bacall", Life, (New York City, New York), p. 101
- Aline Mosby (Tuesday, February 12, 1957), "Lizabeth Scott Back In Hollywood Blossoming As Singer, Couturiere," The Daily Republican (Monongahela, Pennsylvania), p. 4. Scott sang for the first and only time in her film career in You Came Along (1945), with Helen Forrest and a chorus.
- Robert Miklitsch (Rutgers University Press, February 1, 2011), Siren City: Sound and Source Music in Classic American Noir, p. 219. Trudy Stevens dubbed Scott's singing in Dead Reckoning (1946), I Walk Alone (1947) and Dark City (1950).
- Alice Pardoe West (Sunday, July 2, 1950), Behind the Scenes, Ogden Standard-Examiner (Ogden, Utah), p. 7B
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-  AFI (accessed May 23, 2014), The Strange Love of Martha Ivers, Catalog of Feature Films
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- Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, p. 105
-  AFI (accessed May 23, 2014), Dead Reckoning, Catalog of Feature Films
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- Betty Gose (Wednesday, February 12, 1947), "Blonde Makes Trouble For Bogart in 'Dead Reckoning'," Scenes From The Cinema, The Amarillo Globe-Times (Amarillo, Texas), p. 19
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- Gene Handsaker (Thursday, January 17, 1952), Hollywood, The Pocono Record (Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania), p. 4
- Erskine Johnson (Saturday, July 27, 1946), "In Hollywood," The Evening News (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania), p. 4. Designed with little front and no back, Jean Louis called it his 1948 "umbilicalar model."
- UP (September 6, 1946), Dunkirk Evening Observer, p. 1
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- Jay Jorgensen (2010), Edith Head: The Fifty-year Career of Hollywood's Greatest Costume Designer, pp. 125–126
- David Ehrenstein (University of California Press, May 18, 1999), "Desert Fury, Mon Amour," Film Quarterly: Forty Years, a Selection, p. 479
- Ramona Stewart (The World Publishing Company, 1947), Desert Town
- Louella O. Parsons (July 10, 1945), "Joan Crawford And Louis B. Mayer Talk Over Film Star's Return To M-G-M," The Fresno Bee The Republican (Fresno, California), p. 13
- Nancy Nelson (Applause, August 1, 2012), Evenings With Cary Grant: Recollections in His Own Words and by Those Who Knew Him Best, p. 166
-  AFI (accessed May 26, 2014), Variety Girl, Catalog of Feature Films
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- Boyd Magers, Michael G. Fitzgerald (McFarland & Company, June 2004), "Kristine Miller," Westerns Women: Interviews With 50 Leading Ladies Of Movie And Television Westerns From The 1930s To The 1960s, p. 161
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- Robert Porfirio, Alain Silver, James Ursini (Limelight Editions, August 1, 2004), Film Noir Reader 3: Interviews with Filmmakers of the Classic Noir Period, p. 19
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- Stefan Kanfe (2007), Ball of Fire: The Tumultuous Life and Comic Art of Lucille Ball, p. 85
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- James McKay (McFarland & Company, January 15, 2013), "Easy Living RKO 1949," The Films of Victor Mature, p. 71
-  AFI (accessed May 23, 2014), Too Late for Tears, Catalog of Feature Films
- Louella O. Parsons (October 22, 1948), "Gene Bearden Stops Show In Hollywood; Indian Star To Appear In Stratton Movie," Lubbock Morning Avalanche (Lubbock, Texas), p. 18
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- Ronald Schwartz (McFarland & Company, November 6, 2013), Houses of Noir: Dark Visions from Thirteen Film Studios, p. 130
-  AFI (accessed February 28, 2015), Paid in Full, Catalog of Feature Films
- Anonymous (November 13, 1950), "'Paid In Full' Comes To Ritz Screen Tuesday", The Courier-Gazette (McKinney, Texas), p. 6
- Bernard F. Dick (The University Press of Kentucky, May 21, 2004), Hal Wallis: Producer to the Stars, pp. 123–124
- Dorothy Kilgallen (March 29, 1950), The Voice of Broadway, Pottstown Mercury (Pottstown, Pennsylvania), p. 4
- Louella O. Parsons (January 28, 1949), "Robert Donat Agrees To Come To U.S., Gets Top Role In Broadway Show", The Fresno Bee The Republican (Fresno, California), p. 9
- Allan R. Ellenberger (McFarland & Company, October 2000), Ramon Novarro: A Biography of the Silent Film Idol, 1899–1968; With a Filmography, p. 157
- William Hare (McFarland & Company, August 2003), Early Film Noir: Greed, Lust and Murder Hollywood Style, pp. 101–102
- AP (January 10, 1949), "Mitchum, Movie Star, Convicted on Narcotic Count," The Rhinelander Daily News (Rhinelander, Wisconsin), p. 1
- Lee Server (St. Martin's Press, 1st edition, March 20, 2001), Robert Mitchum: "Baby I Don't Care," pp. 183–184
- Dorothy Kilgallen (February 24, 1949), Voice Of Broadway: Broadway Bulletin Board, The Record-Argus (Greenville, Pennsylvania), p. 9
- Carole Langer (Soapbox & Praeses Productions, 1996; accessed May 23, 2014), Lizabeth Scott 1996 Interview Part 7 of 8
-  Anonymous (accessed May 23, 2014), "Mortimer W. Hall Obituary," Legacy.com
- Walter Winchell (June 9, 1949), "On Broadway," The Daily Times-News (Burlington, North Carolina), p. 4
- Louella Parsons (December 28, 1955), Hollywood, Corsicana Daily Sun (Corsicana, Texas), p. 10
- Louella O. Parsons (June 22, 1949), "Sweet Judy Garland May Be Ready Soon For Work," The Bakersfield Californian (Bakersfield, California), p. 18
- James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount pretties, p. 525
- Erskine Johnson (July 9, 1949), Johnson's Hollywood, The News-Herald (Franklin, Pennsylvania), p. 18
- INS (October 21, 1949), "Lizabeth Scott Her Legal Name," New Castle News (New Castle, Pennsylvania), p. 19. Date of name change is given here as October 20, 1949.
- AP (September 15, 1949), "Emma Matzo—She's Really Lizabeth Scott," Tucson Daily Citizen (Tucson, Arizona), p. 13
- Paul Donnelley (Omnibus Press, 3rd edition, November 1, 2005), "Jane Greer," Fade to Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries, p. 296
-  Bosley Crowther (January 29, 1951; accessed May 23, 2014), "The Dancing Years (1949) THE SCREEN IN REVIEW; 'The Company She Keeps,' With Lizabeth Scott Playing a Parole Officer, Arrives at Loew's Criterion At the Little Carnegie At the Stanley," The New York Times (New York City, New York)
- John Howard Reid (Lulu.com, March 23, 2005), Your Colossal Main Feature Plus Full Support Program, p. 52
- James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), "Lizabeth Scott," The Paramount Pretties, p. 527
- Kate Buford (Da Capo Press, May 22, 2001), Burt Lancaster: An American Life, p. 108
- Frank Neill (Tuesday, May 16, 1950), "No. 1 Bachelor Girl Talks on Smooching," The Bakersfield Californian (Bakersfield, California), p. 16
- David Ragan (Prentice Hall, July 1, 1985), "Lizabeth Scott," Movie Stars of the 40s, p. 192. Ragan describes the cult as "Danteism."
- Carole Langer (Soapbox & Praeses Productions, 1996; accessed May 23, 2014), Lizabeth Scott 1996 Interview Part 8 of 8
- George H. Smith (Prometheus Books, June 1, 1990), Atheism, Ayn Rand, and Other Heresies, p. 30
- Anonymous (Sunday, May 14, 1950), "Liz Scott To Play On Summer Circuit," Cumberland Sunday Times (Cumberland, Maryland), p. 24
- Erskine Johnson (Monday, November 27, 1950), "Liz Gets Lots Of Color Doing Her First Horse Opera," In Hollywood, The Daily Register (Harrisburg, Illinois), p. 4
- AP (Thursday, June 29, 1950) "Actress Lizabeth Scott Takes University Study," Tucson Daily Citizen (Tucson, Arizona), p. 9
- AP (Saturday, November 11, 1950), "Lizabeth Scott Injures Knee," The Winona Republican-Herald (Winona, Minnesota), p. 2
- Nate Hendley (ABC-CLIO, December 23, 2009), American Gangsters, Then and Now: An Encyclopedia, p. 233
- Erskine Johnson (Monday, May 7, 1951), In Hollywood, The Portsmouth Herald (Portsmouth, New Hampshire), p. 7
- Paul Leggett (McFarland & Company, January 15, 2002), Terence Fisher: Horror, Myth and Religion, p. 4
- Matt Williams (September 1955), "Lizabeth Scott in the Call Girls' Call Book," Confidential (New York City, New York), pp. 50
-  AFI (accessed May 23, 2014), Scared Stiff, Catalog of Feature Films
- William Schoell (Taylor Trade Publishing, October 1, 1999), Martini Man: The Life of Dean Martin, pp. 80–81
- Aline Mosby (Wednesday, February 25, 1953), "Movie Stars Still Scared On Opening Night," The Daily Herald (Provo, Utah), p. 8
- Erskine Johnson (Monday, October 27, 1952), In Hollywood, The Portsmouth Herald (Portsmouth, New Hampshire), p. 7
- David E. Wilt (Popular Press 1, January 1, 1991), Hardboiled in Hollywood: Five Black Mask Writers and the Movies, pp. 40–41. Film historians familiar with the novel usually conjecture that the screenwriter, Irving Wallace, deliberately tailored the script to take advantage of Scott's noir typecasting. Scott's original character in the novel was a maternal type.
- Anonymous (Saturday, December 30, 1950), Screen, The Evening Sun (Hanover, Pennsylvania), p. 4
-  AFI (accessed May 23, 2014), Bad for Each Other
- Erskine Johnson, (Saturday, June 6, 1953), In Hollywood, Statesville Record & Landmark (Statesville, North Carolina), p. 16
- Erskine Johnson (Thursday, February 18, 1954), "Robert Donat Refuses To Retire," The Rhinelander Daily News (Rhinelander, Wisconsin), p. 6
- Jeff Smith (University of California Press, March 26, 2014), Film Criticism, the Cold War, and the Blacklist: Reading the Hollywood Reds, p. 222
-  AFI (accessed May 23, 2014), Silver Lode, Catalog of Feature Films
-  AFI (accessed May 23, 2014), Johnny Guitar, Catalog of Feature Films. New York premiere May 26, 1954.
- Alan J. Levine (Transaction Publishers, May 13, 2008), Bad Old Days: The Myth of the 1950s, p. 95
- Howard Hughes (I. B. Tauris, January 8, 2008), Stagecoach to Tombstone: The Filmgoers' Guide to the Great Westerns, p. 41
- Brian Neve, Stephen Neale, ed. (Routledge, June 8, 2012), "Hollywood and Politics in the 1940s and 1950s," The Classical Hollywood Reader, p. 395
- Bob Herzberg (McFarland & Company, August 16, 2013), Hang 'Em High: Law and Disorder in Western Films and Literature, p. 105
- Frank Krutnik (Rutgers University Press, December 15, 2007), "Un-American" Hollywood: Politics and Film in the Blacklist Era, p. 287
- Frederic Lombardi (McFarland & Company, March 15, 2013), Allan Dwan and the Rise and Decline of the Hollywood Studios, pp. 290–291
-  O. A. G. (July 24, 1954; accessed May 23, 2014), Silver Lode (1954), Silver Lode, "Horse Opera, Bows at Palace," New York Times (New York City, New York)
- Anonymous (Friday, April 23, 1954), News of the World in Pictures, The Bradford Era (Bradford, Pennsylvania), p. 17
- Anonymous (Sunday, April 11, 1954), "Wading Star," News-Journal (Mansfield, Ohio), p. 11
- Louella O. Parsons (Thursday, April 15, 1954), "Richard Burton Due To Sign New Contract With 20th Century After Play In England," Lubbock Morning Avalanche (Lubbock, Texas), p. 11
- Erskine Johnson (Thursday, April 29, 1954), Man-About Hollywood, The Daily Journal-Gazette and Commercial-Star (Mattoon, Illinois), p. 3
- Robert Porfirio (2002), "Lizabeth Scott," Film Noir Reader 3: Interviews with Filmmakers of the Classic Noir Period, p. 197
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-  Bosley Crowther (January 22, 1948; accessed May 23, 2014), "ON THE SCREEN; ' I Walk Alone,' a Gangster Film, Starring Burt Lancaster, Opens at Paramount," The New York Times (New York City, New York)
-  Bosley Crowther (October 19, 1950; accessed May 23, 2014), "Dark City (1950) THE SCREEN IN REVIEW; Charlton Heston Makes His Film Debut in 'Dark City,' Feature at the Paramount Theatre," The New York Times (New York City, New York)
- Karen Hollinge (Routledge, April 21, 2006), The Actress: Hollywood Acting and the Female Star, pp. 9–10. "(Cynthia) Baron characterizes studio acting as an eclectic mix of pragmatic acting strategies and guidelines that centered around three major concerns: the actor's adjustment from stage to screen, the development of "silent thinking" as a way to help formulate appropriate reactions during shooting, and the building of a character through careful script analysis, extensive preparation, and dispassionate execution. She proposes that (s)tudio actors developed their craft, not by using a single method, but rather by drawing on a complex integration of techniques taken from silent films, theater, dance, modeling, vaudeville, and the theories of Constantin Stanislavski." Baron's list reads like a resume of Scott's.
- Dick McCrone (Friday, January 23, 1948), HomeTown Fan Fare, The Evening News (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania), p. 11
- Terence Pettigrew (Proteus, 1981), Bogart: A Definitive Study of His Film Career, p. 86
- Brian W. Fairbanks (Lulu.com, October 28, 2005), The Late Show—Writings on Film, p. 136
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- David J. Hogan (Applause Theatre & Cinema Books, April 15, 2013), Film Noir FAQ: All That's Left to Know About Hollywood's Golden Age of Dames, Detectives, and Danger
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- Jerome Charyn (NYU Press, August 1, 1996), Movieland: Hollywood and the Great American Dream Culture, p. 135
-  Anonymous (accessed May 26, 2014), "Radio Broadcast Log Of: Lux Radio Theatre," Audio Classics Archive
-  OTR (accessed May, 2014), Family Theater, "Old Time Radio"
- UP (Saturday, January 4, 1958), "Former Confidential Editor Kills Wife, Self," Tucson Daily Citizen (Tucson, Arizona) p. 1
- Anonymous, (September 1955), table of contents, Confidential, (New York City, New York), p. 4
- Henry E. Scott (Pantheon, 1st reprint edition, January 19, 2010), Shocking True Story: The Rise and Fall of Confidential, "America's Most Scandalous Scandal Magazine, p. 49
- Carlton Jackson (Madison Books, April 14, 1993), Hattie: The Life of Hattie McDaniel, p. 49
- Henry E. Scott (Pantheon, 1st reprint edition, January 19, 2010), Shocking True Story: The Rise and Fall of Confidential, "America's Most Scandalous Scandal Magazine, p. 36
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- Henry E. Scott (Pantheon, 1st reprint edition, January 19, 2010), Shocking True Story: The Rise and Fall of Confidential, "America's Most Scandalous Scandal Magazine, p. 98
-  Trulia (accessed May 23, 2014), "8142 Laurel View Dr Los Angeles, CA 90069 (Hollywood Hills)." Rushmore described the four-bedroom, two-story stucco residence, built in 1926, as a "swanky, four-story house."
- AP (Saturday, October 2, 1954), "Juvenile, 3 Others Nabbed in Vice Raid," The San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California), p. 2
-  Anonymous (accessed May 23, 2014), "Old Telephone Exchange Names Los Angeles County," Los Angeles Almanac
-  FamilySearch (accessed May 23, 2014), "Henry A. Finke, 'United States Census, 1940'"
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- Matt Williams (September 1955), "Lizabeth Scott in the Call Girls' Call Book," Confidential (New York City, New York), pp. 33
- Shirelle Phelps (Gale, Nov 21, 1997), Contemporary Black Biography: Profiles from the International Black Community, Volume 16, p. 118
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- Anonymous (Gray's Inn Press, 1963), Transport Salaried Staff Journal, Volumes 60-61, p. 18
- Kenneth G. McLain (July 1955), "The Untold Story of Marlene Dietrich", Confidential (New York City, New York), pp. 22–25, 56, 58
- Neal Gabler (April 2003), "The Scandalmonger: Confidential's Reign of Terror," Vanity Fair (New York City, New York), p. 200
- Darden Asbury Pyron (University Of Chicago Press, June 1, 2001), Liberace: An American Boy, p. 216
- James Robert Parish (Arlington House, 1972), The Paramount Pretties, p. 530
- Anonymous, (September 1955), Confidential, (New York City, New York), p. 4. In the table of contents, the article had the longer title of "Why Was Lizabeth Scott's Name In The Call Girls' Call Book?"
- UP (Thursday, March 8, 1956), "Court Quashes Actress' Suit," Idaho State Journal (Pocatello, Idaho), p. 9
- Neal Gabler (April 2003), "The Scandalmonger: Confidential's Reign of Terror," Vanity Fair (New York City, New York), p. 202
- Sam Kashner, Jennifer MacNair (W. W. Norton & Company, May 17, 2003), The Bad & the Beautiful: Hollywood in the Fifties, pp. 40–41
- INS (Wednesday, August 7, 1957), "Lawyer Opens Trial Of Two Magazines," Anderson Daily Bulletin (Anderson, Indiana), p. 3
-  Larry Harnisch (May 15, 2007; accessed March 1, 2015), "Hollywood madam," The Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, California)
- Bob Houser, (Saturday, August 10, 1957), "Actress 'Offered to Have Affair' to Get Hot Story: Tells Role of Cabot's Ex-Wife," Independent (Long Beach, California), pp. 1–2
- Darden Asbury Pyron (University Of Chicago Press, June 1, 2001), Liberace: An American Boy, p. 223. Maureen O'Hara settled out-of-court on July 2, 1958. Errol Flynn settled July 8, 1958. Liberace settled on July 16, 1958. O'Hara, Flynn and Liberace were only witnesses for the prosecution and not plaintiffs in the California trial. None of the other lawsuits—from Lizabeth Scott's to Maureen O'Hara's—ever went to trial.
- Dorothy Kilgallen (Thursday, August 22, 1957), On Broadway, The Daily Reporter (Dover, Ohio), p. 6
- Bonnie Zimmerman, ed. (Routledge, December 1, 1999), Encyclopedia of Lesbian Histories and Cultures, p. 374
- Lillian Faderman, Stuart Timmons (2006), Gay L.A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, and Lipstick Lesbians, p. 69
- Erskine Johnson (Thursday, January 10, 1946), "Ingrid Bergman And Milland In Top Film Spots," Freeport Journal-Standard (Freeport, Illinois), p. 7
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- Erskine Johnson (Tuesday, February 24, 1953), Hollywood, Panama City News-Herald (Panama City, Florida), p. 2
- Erskine Johnson (Thursday, November 17, 1955), "Lanza Sings Two Hours In Next Film, "Serenade," Erskine In Hollywood, The Gastonia Gazette (Gastonia, North Carolina), p. 25
- Erskine Johnson (Monday, January 11, 1954), "Lizabeth Scott Develops La Dietrich Singing Style," The Fresno Bee The Republican (Fresno, California), p. 20
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