|Part of The Troubles and Operation Banner|
Mural commemorating the IRA members killed in the ambush
|Commanders and leaders|
|Patrick Joseph Kelly †||Soldier A|
|8 in attacking unit
4 in support
|24 SAS soldiers
2 HMSU officers
|Casualties and losses|
|8 killed||3 wounded|
|1 civilian killed and 1 wounded by SAS|
The Loughgall ambush took place on 8 May 1987 in the village of Loughgall, County Armagh, Northern Ireland. An eight-man unit of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) launched an attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) barracks in the village. An IRA member drove a digger with a bomb in its bucket through the perimeter fence, while the rest of the unit arrived in a van and fired on the building. The bomb exploded and destroyed almost half of the base. Soldiers of the British Army's Special Air Service (SAS) then returned fire from the base and opened fire from hidden ambush positions around it, killing all IRA members. The security forces were aware of the IRA plan and the 24-man SAS unit had been lying in wait. Two of the IRA members were unarmed. A civilian was also killed by the SAS after unwittingly driving into the ambush zone.
The joint Army/RUC operation was codenamed Operation Judy. It was the IRA's greatest loss of life in a single incident during the Troubles. In 2015, it was announced that a fresh inquest was to be held.
Background and preparations
The IRA's East Tyrone Brigade was active mainly in eastern County Tyrone and neighbouring parts of County Armagh. By the mid-1980s it had become one of the IRA's most professional and effective units. Members of the unit, such as Jim Lynagh and Pádraig McKearney, advocated a strategy of destroying bases and preventing them being rebuilt or repaired, thus "denying ground" to British forces. In 1985, Patrick Joseph Kelly became its commander and began implementing the strategy. In 1985 and 1986, it carried out two major attacks on RUC bases described by author Mark Urban as "spectaculars". The first was an attack on the RUC barracks in Ballygawley on 7 December 1985, in which two police officers were shot dead. The second was an attack on an RUC base at The Birches on 11 August 1986. In both attacks, the bases were raked with gunfire and then destroyed with a bomb. In the attack at The Birches, they had breached the base's perimeter fence with a digger that had a bomb in its bucket. It planned to use the same tactic in an attack on the lightly-manned Loughgall base.
The British security forces, however, had received detailed and accurate intelligence about the IRA's plans. It is believed that this was obtained by RUC Special Branch and the British Army's Special Reconnaissance Unit (SRU). It has been alleged that the security forces had a double agent inside the IRA unit, and that he was killed by the SAS in the ambush. Other sources claim that the security forces had instead learned of the ambush through other surveillance methods. In his book, Terrorism: Inside A World Phenomenon, Barry Davies states that the date and time of the attack was eventually confirmed by a telephone tap.
Hours before the ambush, two RUC Headquarters Mobile Support Unit (HMSU) officers were placed in the station to accompany the local RUC officer who was to carry on the normal running of the station. The HMSU was the RUC's equivalent of the SAS. Six SAS soldiers in plain clothes, including the commander, were positioned inside the station. Another eighteen SAS soldiers in uniform were hidden in wooded areas in five locations around the station.
The IRA's attack involved two teams. One team would drive a digger with a bomb in its bucket through the base's perimeter fence and light the fuse. At the same time, the other team would arrive in a van and open fire on the base, with the goal of killing three RUC officers as they came off duty. Both teams would then leave the area in the van. To avoid security checkpoints, the bomb was ferried by boat across Lough Neagh, from Ardboe to Maghery. The van and digger that would be used were hijacked in the hours leading up to the attack. The van, a blue Toyota HiAce, was stolen by masked men from a business in Dungannon. At about the same time, the unit's commander Jim Lynagh was spotted in the town, suggesting the van may be used in the attack. The digger (a backhoe loader) was taken from a farm at Lislasly Road, about two miles west of Loughgall. Two IRA members stayed at the farm to stop the owners raising the alarm. IRA member Declan Arthurs drove the digger, while two others drove ahead of him in a scout car. The rest of the unit travelled in the van from another location, presumably also with a scout car. When a covert observation post monitoring the digger reported that it was being moved, the SAS took up its positions.
The IRA unit arrived in Loughgall from the northeast shortly after 7PM. All were armed and wearing bulletproof vests, boilersuits, gloves and balaclavas. The digger drove past the police station, turned and drove back again with the Toyota van doing the same, ostensibly to check if the coast was clear. Members of the unit felt that something was amiss, and debated whether to continue, but decided to go ahead with the attack. Tony Gormley and Gerard O'Callaghan got out of the van and joined Declan Arthurs on the digger, according to journalist Peter Taylor, "literally riding shotgun", with weapons in one hand and a lighter in the other. At about 7:15, Declan Arthurs drove the digger towards the base. In the front bucket was 200–400 lb of semtex inside an oil drum, partially hidden by rubble and wired to two 40-second fuses. The other five members of the unit followed in the van with Eugene Kelly driving, unit commander Patrick Kelly in the passenger seat whilst in the rear were Jim Lynagh, Pádraig McKearney, and Seamus Donnelly. The digger crashed through the fence and the fuses were lit. The van stopped a short distance ahead and—according to the British security forces—three of the team jumped out and fired on the building. Author Raymond Murray, however, disputes this. According to Taylor, Patrick Kelly jumped from the passenger seat and, followed by others, immediately opened fire on the base either to encourage the rest of the unit, to resolve the dispute about going ahead with the operation, or possibly because this was the way previous attacks had begun. At the same time, the bomb detonated, destroying the digger along with much of the building, and injuring three members of the security forces.
Within seconds, the SAS returned fire from the station and from hidden positions with M16 and H&K G3 rifles and two L7A2 general-purpose machine guns. 600 spent cartridge cases from the SAS were recovered with approximately 125 bullet holes in the bodywork of the van. 78 spent cartridges cases were recovered that were fired by IRA weapons. The eight IRA members were killed in the hail of gunfire; all had multiple wounds and were shot in the head. Declan Arthurs was shot in a laneway opposite Loughgall Football Club premises unarmed without a firearm in his vicinity except for a cigarette lighter close to his right hand. It has been alleged that three of the wounded IRA members were shot dead as they lay on the ground after surrendering. The IRA members in the scout cars escaped.
Two civilians travelling in a car were also shot by the SAS. The two brothers, Anthony and Oliver Hughes, were driving home in a white Citroen GS Special car after repairing a lorry with Oliver wearing overalls like the IRA unit. About 130 yards from the base, SAS members opened fire on them from behind, killing Anthony (the driver) and badly wounding Oliver. The Citroen had approximately 34 bullet holes. The villagers had not been told of the operation and no attempt had been made to evacuate anyone, or to seal off the ambush zone, as this might have alerted the IRA. Anthony's widow was later compensated by the British Government for the death of her husband.
The security forces recovered eight firearms from the scene: three H&K G3 rifles, one FN FAL rifle, two FN FNC rifles, a Franchi SPAS-12T shotgun and a Ruger Security-Six revolver. The RUC linked the guns to seven killings and twelve attempted killings in the Mid-Ulster area. The Ruger had been stolen from Reserve RUC officer William Clement, killed two years earlier in the attack on Ballygawley RUC base by the same IRA unit. It was found that another of the guns had been used in the killing of Harold Henry, a key contractor to the British Army and RUC in Northern Ireland.
The East Tyrone Brigade continued to be active until the last Provisional IRA ceasefire ten years later. SAS operations against the IRA also continued. The IRA set out to find the informer it believed to be among them, although it has been suggested that the informer, if there ever was one, had been killed in the ambush. The Loughgall RUC station was attacked again on 5 September 1990, when a van bomb caused widespread damage and wounded seven constables.
The IRA members became known as the "Loughgall Martyrs" among republicans. The men's relatives considered their killings to be part of a deliberate shoot-to-kill policy by the security forces. Thousands of people attended their funerals, the biggest republican funerals in Northern Ireland since those of the IRA hunger strikers of 1981. Gerry Adams, in his graveside oration, gave a speech stating the British Government understood that it could buy off the government of the Republic of Ireland, which he described as the "shoneen clan" (pro-British), but added "it does not understand the Jim Lynaghs, the Pádraig McKearneys or the Séamus McElwaines. It thinks it can defeat them. It never will."
Shortly after the ambush the Provisional IRA released a statement saying: "volunteers who shot their way out of the ambush and escaped saw other volunteers being shot on the ground after being captured".
In 2001 the European Court of Human Rights ruled that ten IRA members, including the eight killed at Loughgall, had their human rights violated by the failure of the British Government to conduct a proper investigation into their deaths. The court did not make any finding that these deaths amounted to unlawful killing. In December 2011, Northern Ireland's Historical Enquiries Team found that not only did the IRA team fire first but that they could not have been safely arrested. They concluded that the SAS were justified in opening fire.
The ambush is alluded to in The Pogues' 1988 song Streets of Sorrow/Birmingham Six. Loughgall Ambush is also the name of a republican ballad specifically about the attack, recorded by Charlie and the Bhoys amongst others.
- Timeline of Provisional Irish Republican Army actions
- Attack on Ballygawley barracks
- Ballygawley bus bombing
- Attack on Derryard checkpoint
- Clonoe ambush
- 1997 Coalisland attack
- Case of Kelly and Others v. The United Kingdom  ECHR 328,  ECHR 328,  Inquest LR 125 (4 May 2001), European Court of Human Rights
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- Brown, Andrew. The Difficult War: Perspectives on Insurgency and Special Operations Forces. Dundurn, 2009. pp.132–133
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- Taylor, Peter (1998). Provos : the IRA and Sinn Fein (Rev. and updated. ed.). London: Bloomsbury. p. 273. ISBN 9780747538189.
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- Urban, Mark (1992). Big Boys' Rules. Faber and Faber. p. 229. ISBN 0-571-16809-4.
- Toolis, Kevin (1995). Rebel Hearts: Journeys within the IRA's soul. Picador, p. 65. ISBN 0-330-34243-6.
- Reuters, 5 September 1990
- CAIN – Listing of Programmes for the Year: 1990-BBC news, 5 September 1990
- Bean, Kevin (2008). The New Politics of Sinn Féin. Liverpool University Press, p. 1. ISBN 1-84631-144-6.
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May the whores of the empire lie awake in their beds, And sweat as they count out the sins on their heads. While over in Ireland eight more men lie dead, Kicked down and shot in the back of the head
- Song details[permanent dead link]